World War 1 is described to be one of the most devastating wars recorded in history for a number of reasons. One of the reasons was the tactical use of chemical warfare, which was predominantly used as a weapon. Most of the course of this war was fought in trenches, strategically built for optimal leverage from either side of the line. Trenches offered substantial protection from artillery and small arm fire. However, this often resulted in a stalemate. This eventually led to a new era of weaponry involving the use of chemicals. These chemicals were specifically designed to hinder the physical capabilities of soldiers. They were capable of severely weakening and even killing soldiers. The sudden introduction of chemical warfare caught the military off guard as little was known about protection. The trauma caused by chemical weapons often remained as awful memories. The existing knowledge of chemical weapons resulted in a new class of warfare which was used primarily as a weapon.
Firstly, chemical weapons were effective during trench warfare and were capable of inflicting major injuries to soldiers from both sides. Prior to World War One, Germany and France were among the many countries that signed the Hague convention 1899. It stated that the use of chemicals or other projectiles were prohibited if they caused asphyxiation. It is often rumoured that the Germans were responsible for developing such weapons even after signing; however, it was actually the French who defied the convention first. The Germans were deemed culpable and got publicised by the press for breaching the convention. Both countries were aware of the potency of chemical weapons. Poison gassing was a major cause of the casualties that occurred. A German soldier who participated in an attack wrote “What we saw was total death. Nothing was alive.” (Willi Siebert, 1915) This demonstrates the sheer destruction that was caused due to chemical weapons. The second battle of Ypres April 22, 1915 is a pivotal example of the detrimental effects caused by chlorine gas. Once inhaled, the respiratory organs would be destroyed which eventually lead to suffocating, ultimately resulting in death. Many of the nations involved in the use of chemical weapons sustained collateral amounts of fatalities. This all justifies that chemical weapons were strategically used as a weapons during World War One.
Another aspect to point out is that during this time, chemical weapons were relatively new. Most scientists spent extensive periods of time designing chemicals. But what they did not focus on was developing protective measures against such chemicals. An article on poison gassing states “Scientists during the First World War were more efficient at developing poison gases than in devising means to protect the soldiers from them.”(Neil Schlager, Science and its times Vol.6, 2000, p.452) This supports the view that soldiers were not prepared to face chemical warfare. Poison gases such as Chlorine were irritants which had a devastating impact on the respiratory system. A common method of protection was wearing urine soaked handkerchiefs. It was later found out that the ammonia contained in urine neutralised chlorine. Scientists quickly designed specialised gas masks that deterred the effect of asphyxiation. It was not long until stronger, more potent chemicals were developed such as phosgene and diphosgene. Diphosgene, was first administered by the Germans in Verdun 22 Jun 1916, was extremely lethal. Standard gas masks could not effectively filter it. Mustard gas, a blistering agent, took a different approach. Instead of attacking the respiratory system, it targeted exposed skin and caused agonising blisters and temporary blindness. The same German soldier wrote “We sent the German infantry back and opened the gas valves with the strings. About supper time, the gas started toward the French; everything was stone quiet. We all wondered what was going to happen.” (Willi Siebert, 1915) This indicates that even the Germans were unsure about unleashing a weapon of this class. This supports that chemical weapons were strategically used as weapons during the First World War.
It can be argued that chemical weapons had a devastating physical impact, but it also affected the mental wellbeing of soldiers. For example, if a soldier is fortunate enough to survive a chlorine gas attack, the trauma and suffering will remain throughout their life. An extract from Wilfred Owen’s poem Dulce et Decorum est states “All went lame; all blind; Drunk with fatigue; deaf even to the hoots”. (Wilfred Owen, 1920, l.6) This demonstrates how chemical weapons crippled the lives of many. The author of this poem describes his personal experience to be dreadful and frightening. An extract from a nurse’s diary entry during World War One transcribed “But gas cases invariably are beyond endurance and they cannot help crying out. One boy today, screaming to die. The entire top layer of his skin burnt from his face and body. I gave him an injection of morphine. He was wheeled out just before I came off duty. When will it end?” (Nurse Harrap, November 8, 1918) It is evident that this boy she was treating sustained tremendous amounts of pain and suffering. It also supports the viewpoint that chemical weapons had a physical and mental impact. Along with the evidences and reasoning provided, it is can be argued that chemical weapons were strategically used as weapons during the First World War.
In conclusion, chemical weapons were used as a weapon during World War One as they caused an enormous amount of casualties.