Why do we remember certain information only for a short time on the other can recall other hand can keep other information vividly for a long period of time? According to Meyer 2000 there are 3 types of memorisation. “Memorizing before understanding”, Memorising after understanding and “memorising as rehearsal”. Most psychologist often emphasise on the type ‘memorising as rehearsal” since it is believed that rehearsal is needed in order for us to remember that certain information for a very long time. So, why is rehearsal plays an important role in memorisation?
Rehearsal is defined as techniques of repeating information over and over again, to ease the process of memorisation. Psychologist define memory as the ability to store information, for a certain period of time and memorisation as the ability of retrieving information. Human memory itself is grouped into several storages depending on the duration for the information to be kept. The multi-store memory model which is developed by Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968) stated that there are 3 components in human memory storage which is sensory, short term memory store, and long-term memory store. This theory explained that there are various storage in human memory. Each storage have different duration and capacity. Sensory memory will only recognised information through our five senses and will only temporarily store it for 1 up to 5 seconds. If information is not given attention, it will decay and will be lost. When attention is given it will move to short term memory ( STM) . Memory stored in the short term memory ( STM ), are kept no longer than 30 seconds. As the duration of STM increase, information will somewhat enter the long-term memory store. However, in order for information to enter the LTM, rehearsal is needed. LTM stores information for a long period of time ( Galotti 2008).
Rehearsal have to be done in the process of studying. Rehearsals influence the memory of normal and retarded adolescents (Brown et al, 1973). It can be done verbally, visually or by writing the words, depending on each person’s preference. Rehearsing to writing is a common strategy that is believed can help the process of learning. However, writing has to be done over and over again in order for us to memorise.
Through my personal experience I found writing for rehearsing is the best strategy in studying. As we write we tend to process and summarise information, which will lead to more understanding and better memorisation.
The original research by Alesha B Murphy is to determine which rehearsal method is better for rehearsing. The research compares the rehearsal method of highlighting, writing and no rehearsal as control. In this research 107 undergraduate, from Missouri Western State University are used as participants. Participant are divided into 3 groups and each group are given different tasks. The first group serves as the control which means it uses the non-rehearsal method. After studying the words given on the projector for 60 seconds, they will hear a chime. Then, they are required to turn to the next page. Group 2 uses the rehearsal method of highlighting, they are required to highlight the words on the word list given while studying the words projected. Group 3 uses the method of writing as rehearsal. They will study the words projected and write it down on the paper given, at the same time. Each group are given 3 pages and page 2 will be a distracter task whereas page 3 will require all groups to recall the words projected. Result shows that writing is the best way in studying, as the number of words recalled is the greatest in the writing as rehearsal group.
In replication of this study, our investigation aims to observe how the rehearsal method of highlighting will effect the number of word recalled. We used participants from the 10 graders and students from ITGS and Economics. We decided to only use highlighting as the rehearsal method because
Null hypothesis: There will be no significant difference in the number of words recall by both method either highlighting or rehearsal.
Research hypothesis (effect): There is significant difference in the number of words recalled in both highlighting and rehearsal.