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Unit : BSBMGT502 – Manage People Performance
Name : Weeraya SuriyanID Number : WAI00002B5
Trainer : Rajnish Kewul
Why is it necessary to consult relevant groups and individuals on work to be allocated and about the resources they will need? Give a list of at least 10 resources that might be requires in a business organisation.

To manage people and ensure that work gets done as required, it is necessary to consult with a range of people.

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Consult with individual and groups about work allocations to determine what tasks.

The people who need to use the resources should be consulted to find out what they need and when it will be need.

In this budgets and resource plans can be made to accommodate these needs.

Resource plans require the use of all or some of the following resources:
Human resources
Recruitment, selection and induction procedure
Knowledge
Competence
Data and information from internal and external sources
Intellectual property
Time
Training and training materials
Technology
Health and safety resources
Why work plans and operational plans are necessary? How work plans support operational plans to achieve objectives? Give 2 benefits for each.

– Operational Plan is to provide organisation personnel with a clear picture of their tasks and responsibilities in line with the goals and objectives contained within the Strategic Plan. Reduce duplicate for work and timelines in which task be complete and the budget of the resources provide to completed task.

– Planning is the process of identifying work goals, what steps you will take, when you will take them and how you will take them, in order to achieve the goals.

* Manage people and workplace relationships in ways which encourage participation and increased discretionary effort.

* Work plans solves the challenges for the team members to know how to proceed.

What procedures might be followed to allocate work? Explain the criteria that should be considered when allocating work to individual employees.

* Allocate work according to availability of resource and skill of employees and make sure employees understand their own responsibilities and limits of authority in order to avoid possible conflict, omission of important.

*Provide the right level of supervision and delegate authority appropriately, if the way the work is allocated proves to be unrealistic or organisational demands change, reallocate work whilst minimising any detrimental impact on time.

A. Explain what a code of conduct is and how it might affect work outputs.

* Code of conduct is a set of rules outlining the responsibilities of or proper practices for an individual or an organisation. A code of conduct provides a guide to employees, for appropriate behaviour. It will not cover all issue that arise. A code of conduct will be completed on the following organisational values: honesty, integrity, compassion, fairness, and respect. The successful development of an ethical environment relies on individuals being responsibilities for their own professional behaviour within the provisions of the code and for compliance with the legislation. The code of conduct can, therefore, impact on all aspects of work, work culture and work behaviours.

B. In what ways might it be possible to confirm work outputs with relevant teams and individuals and what things might be considered in terms of work outputs?
* The ways to confirm work outputs with relevant teams and individuals :- Performance standards KPIS, KRAS confirmation might take form written plans and verbal collaboration ( fact to fact in meeting consultation.

– Controlling work that not mean controlling workers but control is a tool of works and be smoothly and efficiently to working.

– Financial monitoring : The business can be profit or loss be up to operational plan and financial plans. The organisations a business manager or accountant will be responsible for the organisation’s financial management. Financial information relating to costs, operations, credit analysis, inventory management etc , plan for continuous improvement, implement quality control procedures and plan future strategies.

* The required reporting period
* The uses to which the report will be put
* Organisational communication needs
* Planning requirements
* Cost of raw material
* Cost of good returned by customers
– Supply performance measures

Assuming a new marketing manager is joining your organisation. Create and provide five Key Performance Indicators (KPls) related to his/her job description? Also describe two methods of consultation to agreeing on performance indicator with relevant staff prior to commencement of work.

Understanding of customer needs, wants and expectations
Return on marketing investment
Sales revenue is crucial for any business.

It should be continuously growing to be seen as healthy
Number of leads
Marketing qualified lead is an individual who has raised his hands and identified herself as deeply engaged in your content and product
Sales qualified lead is located right under marketing qualified lead deeper in your sales funnel
Cost of customer acquisition
Average cost of client acquisition is an important metric to track
To define this number, you need to collect all the company expenses and investments over a year or any other consistent time frame. Expenses, in this case, should include all marketing, sales, and business development costs you cover. Once you have that number before your eyes, divide it by the number of new coming customers during that period.

Customer lifetime value
The value of a given customer reflecting his contribution to your business. Roughly it is the projected revenue that a customer generates in a lifetime
Lead to customer ratio
This illustrate the relation between your leads and customers in a given time frames.

Two methods
Brainstorming.

workshop6. Choose an organisation and conduct a risk analysis related to its people performance at the workplace. Answer the following and full the following template,
A. Provide your organisation description. Write about ¼ of page.

Community association, it’s a formal and informal groups of people organised in some way, usually having some structure, rules or legal entry but sometimes being just an informal association.

Non profit organisation
B. Identify four issues and the risk associated with those performance management issues and full the Template A.

C. Identify the control measure for those issue, how management should overcome the issues? Template B
D. For two of risk, create a contingency plan for each risk: considering legal requirements. Template C.

Issue Risk Consequences Likelihood Priority Monitoring time Accountability
Working with potentially dangerous clients Loss, theft or damage to property Make sure that there are clear procedures in place for areas with identified high risks Required to perform physical activities such as lifting of clients Injury or damage to health Provide training Professional negligence Workplace health and safety, liability to client Loss of the organisation’s good name Template B
Risk Control Measures
Template C
Contingency Plans
7. Design a performance management and review processes consistent with organisational objectives and policies? Also, write a paragraph explaining why you think performance evaluations are necessary and the method/s that you consider might best be used. Explain and justify your answer.

In today’s workplace, performance improvement and the role of performance management is an increasingly popular topic. Why the intense focus on performance management now? Business pressures are ever-increasing and organizations are now required to become even more effective and efficient, execute better on business strategy, and do more with less in order to remain competitive.

While human resources professionals clearly understand the importance of optimal performance management, they often face significant internal obstacles. When someone mentions performance management or reviews at your organization, what is the typical response? Do employees and managers alike cringe? Do they avoid performance management related tasks? Do visions of tracking down incomplete appraisal forms come to mind? This can be changed.

Forward thinking companies are taking steps to successfully address this negative view of performance management. They are implementing innovative solutions that ensure processes deliver real results and improve performance. The purpose of this guide is to provide concrete guidelines and practical steps that can be used to improve the performance management processes at your organization. In addition, a new class of automated performance management solutions has emerged to specifically address small- and medium-sized businesses. We conclude this guide with a few tips for selecting an automated performance management system to implement best practices across your company.

Frequently when performance management is mentioned, people think of the employee performance appraisal or review. Performance management, however, involves so much more. Properly constructed appraisals should represent a summary of an ongoing, year-round dialogue. Focusing only on an annual appraisal form leads to misunderstanding and under appreciation of the benefits of performance management.

An effective performance management process enables managers to evaluate and measure individual performance and optimize productivity by:
Aligning individual employee’s day-to-day actions with strategic business objectives
Providing visibility and clarifying accountability related to performance expectations
Documenting individual performance to support compensation and career planning decisions
Establishing focus for skill development and learning activity choices
Creating documentation for legal purposes, to support decisions and reduce disputes
8. a. Why should both managers and employees receive suitable training in how to handle performance reviews? How and how often do you think performance appraisals should be held and why do you think this?
Different people within the team will have different strengths. Use the appraisal to assess your employees’ weaknesses, identifying areas which may require additional training and support.

Letting the team know that you’re thinking about their development will help instill in them an ethos of ambition, in turn driving the business on to be more productive and aspirational.

HYPERLINK “http://www.hays.com.au/employer-services/management-issues/HAYS_028836” “_blank”Conducted correctly and frequently appraisals can have a really positive effect on the success of your team. Once a year is not often enough to really grasp how well the employees and managers are performing, and how satisfied they are
b. Why is it necessary that performance monitoring and evaluation be a continuous process ?To ensure continuous progress and that the employee is staying on track. It will assist in identifying issues as, or before, they arise. The demands of the business may also change and it’s important to monitor employees to ensure that they are coping correctly with the change
10. Sue works for you in a busy, customer focused technology support centre. Her position requires her to answer the telephone, handle face- to – face enquiries regarding technical difficulties, use her knowledge and experience to solve problems and finally to communicate solutions to customers. Until recently you considered Sue to be very capable. You received good feedback from other staff and customers about her technical ability and customer service skills generally. Recently, however, you have received a number of complaints about her from one of your colleagues and from several customers. The complaints relate to her terse and harsh interpersonal skills and her lack of responsiveness when dealing with problems.

In a short paragraph for each answer the questions.

A) You will need to address these complaints. What performance areas will you investigate?
It is important to deal with all complaints in a friendly, efficient and thorough manner characterised by the use of:
Sensitivity
Courtesy
Discretion.
you would need to find the underlying issue that is affecting sue. maybe there is something going on in her personal life, maybe she feels undervalued, maybe she is on the receiving end of pressure or abuse from another employee. As she is known for being an exceptional worker, there must be something that is preventing her from continuing her work ethic
B) How would you approach Sue regarding these complaints?
one-on-one conversation in private would be the best option. 6ou would start with positive comments about her continuous great work and then mention that there have been some reports suggesting otherwise of late.  (n honest, open and ‘casual’ approach should work well in this situation. It should be able todetect the underlying issue and give the opportunity to work on a solution
C) If you need to gather information from other sources, how would you address the issue of confidentiality?
You need to collect reliable, valid, relevant, productivity related information. sue’s identity should not be revealed to other employees unless they are a direct involvement in the problem. Other sources could also be customer surveys, figures, percentage of completed customer issues
D) How do you think the difficulties could be resolved?
refering support and trying to encourage motivation would be the first step. also, goal setting may be another encouraging method depending on how the original discussion and results went.

11. Explain what is coaching and mentoring are done on the job, making certain that the differences between the two processes are clearly explained?
It’s understandable that you might think mentoring and coaching are similar or even the same thing. But they’re not. Both warrant consideration in the workplace.
Five differentiators
#1
Coaching is task oriented. The focus is on concrete issues, such as managing more effectively, speaking more articulately, and learning how to think strategically. This requires a content expert (coach) who is capable of teaching the coachee how to develop these skills.

Mentoring is relationship oriented. It seeks to provide a safe environment where the mentoree shares whatever issues affect his or her professional and personal success. Although specific learning goals or competencies may be used as a basis for creating the relationship, its focus goes beyond these areas to include things, such as work/life balance, self-confidence, self-perception, and how the personal influences the professional.

#2:
Coaching is short term. A coach can successfully be involved with a coachee for a short period of time, maybe even just a few sessions. The coaching lasts for as long as is needed, depending on the purpose of the coaching relationship.

Mentoring is always long term. Mentoring, to be successful, requires time in which both partners can learn about one another and build a climate of trust that creates an environment in which the mentoree can feel secure in sharing the real issues that impact his or her success. Successful mentoring relationships last nine months to a year.

#3:
Coaching is performance driven. The purpose of coaching is to improve the individual’s performance on the job. This involves either enhancing current skills or acquiring new skills. Once the coachee successfully acquires the skills, the coach is no longer needed.

Mentoring is development driven. Its purpose is to develop the individual not only for the current job, but also for the future. This distinction differentiates the role of the immediate manager and that of the mentor. It also reduces the possibility of creating conflict between the employee’s manager and the mentor.

#4:
Coaching does not require design. Coaching can be conducted almost immediately on any given topic. If a company seeks to provide coaching to a large group of individuals, then certainly an amount of design is involved in order to determine the competency area, expertise needed, and assessment tools used, but this does not necessarily require a long lead-time to actually implement the coaching program.

Mentoring requires a design phase in order to determine the strategic purpose for mentoring, the focus areas of the relationship, the specific mentoring models, and the specific components that will guide the relationship, especially the matching process.

# 5: 
The coacher’s immediate manager is a critical partner in coaching. She or he often provides the coach with feedback on areas in which his or her employee is in need of coaching. This coach uses this information to guide the coaching process
In mentoring, the immediate manager is indirectly involved. Although she or he may offer suggestions to the employee on how to best use the mentoring experience or may provide a recommendation to the matching committee on what would constitute a good match, the manager has no link to the mentor and they do not communicate at all during the mentoring relationship. This helps maintain the mentoring relationship’s integrity.

When to consider coaching:
When a company is seeking to develop its employees in specific competencies using performance management tools and involving the immediate manager
When a company has a number of talented employees who are not meeting expectations
When a company is introducing a new system or program
When a company has a small group of individuals (5-8) in need of increased competency in specific areas
When a leader or executive needs assistance in acquiring a new skill as an additional responsibility
When to consider mentoring:
When a company is seeking to develop its leaders or talent pool as part of succession planning
When a company seeks to develop its diverse employees to remove barriers that hinder their success
When a company seeks to more completely develop its employees in ways that are additional to the acquisition of specific skills/competencies
When a company seeks to retain its internal expertise and experience residing in its baby boomer employees for future generations
When a company wants to create a workforce that balances the professional and the personal
12. Why is it necessary to document and record performance?
Documentation provides management with a guide to improvement. They are able to see areas of weakness, as well as strengths. If performance reviews are consistently showing improvements, perhaps it is time for a raise, promotion or added responsibilities. If the same negative issues arise with an employee, maybe it is time for a written and verbal warning, or suspension. Documentation should be used as an unbiased tool for improvement.

– To identify how the business is performing
– To determine productivity levels – Identify improvement and training needs
– To provide evidence for future evaluations
– Determines whether actual performance matches forecasted performance
– Assist in income and promotion negotiations
13. A) Under what circumstances and for what reasons might HR expertise be of benefit to managers and employees who are negotiating performance improvement?
When developing plans and procedures for improvement, HR are good to seek advice, support and expertise to resolve issues and problems. HR can also mediate between the manager and employee and then draw up a satisfactory outcome that can be helpful to both parties. HR can also keep discussions on track, clarify issues, and intervene when discussions become heated. It can also be more comfortable discussion for both parties knowing that there is a representative that will ensure that their rights are upheld. If counseling and constant performance management fails to resolve the issue, HR can be consulted for advice on further action
B) What procedure might be followed to draw up and implement a performance improvement plan?
Define the problem – Determine what the problem is and whether it’s a performance or behavior problem.

Clearly define and document the areas for improvement.

 Identify how the standards will be measured. 
Agree on timeframes for achievement of the goals and standards.

 Identify needs such as coaching, training, and support. 
Establish a review date.

 Measure the performance against expected standards
Step 1: Document Performance Issues
The first step in the PIP process is for the supervisor to document the areas of the employee’s performance that need improvement. In documenting the main performance issues, the supervisor should be objective, factual and specific and provide facts and examples to further clarify the severity or pattern of performance concerns. Examples of detailed documentation are included in the two scenarios at the end of this guide. When developing a performance improvement plan, it is generally a best practice to use an established format to ensure consistency in the information given to all employees and to help protect the employer should legal claims arise at some point in the future. The format of the performance improvement plan will vary by employer and should include the following components:
Employee information.

Relevant dates.

Description of performance discrepancy or gap.

Description of expected performance.

Description of actual performance.

Description of consequences.

Plan of action.

Signatures of the manager and the employee.

Evaluation of the plan of action and overall performance improvement plan.

 
At the end of this guide are sample performance improvement plan templates that may assist supervisors in their documentation and communication.

Step 2: Develop an Action Plan
Next, the supervisor should establish a provisional action plan for improvement, which may be adjusted based on employee feedback in the meeting. Making the process collaborative can help in identifying areas of confusion or misunderstanding on the employee’s part and can encourage ownership of the issue by the employee. This action plan should include specific and measurable objectives that are accurate, relevant and time-bound (otherwise known as SMART goals). When developing a performance improvement plan, it would be useful to draw on the job description and HR policies to clearly identify the performance or behavioral issues and expectations.

SMART goal examples:
In May, June and July, Jane Doe must have less than 3 percent quality errors per month and produce at least 150 units per month.
During this 90-day performance evaluation, John Doe must have perfect attendance, with the exception of approved medical or family absences. This means that he must clock in and be ready for work by the start of each scheduled shift, return from all scheduled breaks on time and remain at work for his entire shift.
The supervisor should determine if the employee may need any additional resources, time, training or coaching to meet these objectives. The plan should identify exactly what management will do or provide to assist the employee in achieving these goals.

This action plan should help set performance expectations and should include a statement about the consequences for not meeting those objectives. If termination is a possibility, it should be clearly communicated in the plan document.

Step 3: Review the Performance Plan
Prior to meeting with the employee, the supervisor should seek assistance from his or her manager or an HR professional to review the PIP. This third party should ensure the documentation is stated clearly and without emotion. The third party can also review the suggested action plan to make certain it is specific, measurable, relevant and attainable within the PIP timeline (PIP timelines are commonly 60 or 90 days in length).

Step 4: Meet with the Employee
During this meeting, the supervisor must clearly lay out the areas for improvement and plan of action. The supervisor may need to modify the action plan slightly after receiving the employee’s input and feedback. After changes to the plan are made, the supervisor and the employee should sign the PIP form.

Step 5: Follow Up
The employee and supervisor should establish regular follow-up meetings (weekly, biweekly or monthly), which can be outlined in the PIP. These meetings should discuss and document progress toward objectives. But ultimately, it is best when an employee is provided the opportunity in follow-up meetings to ask questions and seek guidance or clarification on performance expectations. The supervisor should ensure that any potential roadblocks are discussed and that the employee has been provided the necessary tools and training.
Successful progress made toward the goal should be recognized as a means of motivating the employee to continued improvement.

Step 6: PIP Conclusion
If an employee is unable to improve or refuses to commit to the PIP, or if his or her performance actually worsens, then the employer should close the PIP and consider a possible reassignment, transfer or demotion or terminate employment based on the specific circumstances.

When the employee does show some improvement but is unable to achieve some or all of the established action plan objectives within the PIP timeline, there are a few options:
If the employee is doing his or her best but just cannot meet one or more objectives, the employer may agree to extend a PIP for a few more weeks or months.
If the employer determines in retrospect that the objectives were not realistic or not completely within the employee’s control, the employer may decide to either extend the PIP or end the PIP due to the progress that was observed.

If the employer determines the employee is not a good fit or is not really trying to improve even after all this effort, then the employer should consider job reassignment, transfer or demotion or terminate employment based on the specific circumstances.

When the employee has responded positively by meeting the objectives, the employer should formally close the PIP and allow the employee to continue employment. This may occur prior to the deadline outlined in the PIP document. This should be a positive occasion for the employee, but the supervisor must be sure the employee understands that continued good performance is expected.

14. A) In what ways do you think excellent performance should be recognised and rewarded? Explain the procedures that should be followed and followed and explain why you think these ideas will motivate employees.

!?cellent performance could be recognised and rewarded by continuous acknowledgement and praise. )ther ways can be to o?er bonuses and”or promotions or even e?tra training, especially training that gains certi?cation, and also e?tra responsibilities. Invitations to industry related events are also a great reward.  !mployees will feel motivated as they will see that other employees and management notice their contribution and that it is appreciated of the hard work that is put in. &hen employees feel values it inspires them to continue their hard work, learn new skills, and move forward with the company
B) Explain what you consider the value of mentoring and coaching to be explain how it can be used to support performance improvement.

Mentoring and coaching shows the employee that you are willing to invest some time into their development. It provides guidance and support to enable the employee to do their Job as expected. This can be used to support performance improvement as it directs the employee in the right direction and provides the right information for the employee to succeed. It can also push the employee to excel in their field
15. Answer all three,
A) Why should counselling be instigated in the case where performance does not improve?
It’s in the company’s best interest to improve their current employees rather than to hire new ones. There are far more costs and possible complications to replace employees. Counseling enables the company to put together a very structured plan for the employee. It also shows that the business is giving the employee every chance that they can to improve
B) Explain the disciplinary actions that might be taken by an organisation if an employee’s performance does not improve.

 If an employee4s performance does not improve then warnings can be issued. Verbal, written, and final warnings may be issued depending on the severity and the progress of the performance. All disciplinary action must be documented and can also include notes from witnesses.

C) What are some of the options that might aid an employee in resolving performance issues? Give at least five examples.

– Continued support
– Counseling
– extra training
– Delegation of some tasks
– Retraining
– Time off
16. Answer all three scenario,
What should you do in the following situations? Answer all three scenerio, for each scenerio write at least 100 to 140 words.

Scenerio1
Considering there will be care options in 4 months time it may be appropriate to shift the employees hours around temporarily to accommodate the sudden change. Its important to support them through this as they are valued employee. There may be the option of some time off but money seems to be an issue. Delegation of some of their tasks may be helpful.

Scenerio 2
Dismissal needs to be looked at as the next step. It would be advised to converse with HR for the correct procedure per company’s policy and to ensure that all implications will be avoided. All documentation must be presented as evidence for the decision.

Scenerio 3
The employee would need to be monitored more closely. It would be best to approach the employee and have a one-on –one meeting to try and understand their situation. There could be many reasons for the unsatisfactory performance
Project 2 project1.What things need to be taken into consideration when allocating work and drawing up work plans?
Consider:
Goals and objectives
Competence
Operational need
Efficiency
Cost-effectiveness
Consultation
2.Explain why it is necessary to;develop KRAs and KPIs that meet the organisation’s needs
develop and implement effective performance management systems
have a code of conduct ‘or a code of ethics or behaviour( for the organisation
regularly monitor and evaluate the work of employees
give effective feedback and reinforcement to employees and acknowledge good work 
have systems in place to manage poor performance
understand the organisation’s termination policy and the legislation to which it relates
your upline manager has called you into the once to discuss a situation they have only just become aware of. One of your major customers organisation x has expressed dissatisfaction with the service provided by your organisation. you have an ongoing contract to supply this customer with goods until the end of the year. /t this time the contract will be renegotiated.  Apparently* organisation x has expressed their dissatisfaction on a number of previous occasions,but there has been no real improvement. As a result of the poor service and the problems with supply of goods* the manager of organisation x has strongly suggested that the contract will not be extended and might* in fact, be offered to another organisation.1he problems have been traced to yours

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Unit: 2 Equality, Diversity and Rights
P2/P3/M1
P2-Describe discriminatory practice in health and social care
Discriminatory practice means discriminating someone against someone’s culture, disabilities, age, social class, gender, sexuality, cognitive ability, health status, and family status.

The different types of discriminatory practice are:
Infringement of rights
“Infringement is a violation of a law, right, or obligation”
https://www.myattorneyhome.com/Trademark/infringementInfringement of rights means breaking a law or not allowing someone to exercise rights they are entitled of, which is like ignoring or abusing a service user’s rights. According to the Human Rights 1998, “everyone in the UK have same rights and freedom” and if anyone deprive someone from the rights and freedom they are entitled of (it’s clearly discrimination), which can cause serious problems because it’s against the law. Usually, infringement of rights is done by ignoring someone’s right, therefore disadvantaging and treating them badly. An example of infringement of rights, is when a service user doesn’t have freedom of thought or choice because the career unprivileged them from their rights, so the service user doesn’t have any choice or opinion and has to listen or do whatever the career says because they are forced to.

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https://www.equalityhumanrights.com/en/secondary-education-resources/useful-information/human-rights-case-studiesCovert or overt
“Covert discrimination involves subtle or passive acts of prejudice.” “Overt discrimination includes any direct or ‘overt’ act that aims to give unequal treatment to an individual”
https://opinionfront.com/covert-overt-discriminationCover discrimination is hidden discrimination often hard to show instead overt discrimination is the opposite, so it’s clear to distinguish as it’s usually made in public. Covert discrimination is quite common and most of the time we don’t recognise it. Covert discrimination is similar to indirect discrimination. Overt discrimination is openly, in front of people and most of the time is done to make someone feel bad and humiliated. Overt discrimination is like direct discrimination. Overt discrimination can be also determined as harassment as it creates a threating and humiliating environment around the individual, which can lead to low self-esteem or anger. For example: not employing someone because of their gender is covert discrimination, which most of the time people might not realise. Not letting somebody vote because of their race in front of everybody is overt discrimination.

https://www.reference.com/world-view/overt-discrimination-mean-75fe5216daacda68Abuse of power
“The act of using one’s position of power in an abusive way”
http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/abuse-of-power.htmlAbuse of power means misusing the power a person owns. Higher position in jobs leads to higher power that some people use it in an abuse way. Using power in a wrong way is like taking advantage of people or manipulative them. Most of the time, people take advantage of vulnerable people, by forcing them do something against their willing, sexually, physically or emotionally abusing them. Often, they manipulate people and infringe their rights. At that point, vulnerable people don’t have any freedom of thought or choice. Powerful people use their power unfairly by making decisions without thinking about the disadvantages for some people. Abuse of power makes others feel powerless, vulnerable and worthless. It might also make you feel afraid and threating.
https://edukalife.blogspot.com/2014/10/what-is-meaning-of-abuse-of-power.htmlPrejudice
“Prejudice is an unjustified or incorrect attitude (usually negative) towards an individual”
https://www.simplypsychology.org/prejudice.htmlPrejudice means making an assumption about someone before really getting to know them. It’s an opinion without a reason, thought or knowledge, it’s just a first impression. Prejudice is like discrimination by perception. Making an idea of a person only by the way they talk, act or dress. Pre-judging someone is a negative behaviour towards someone, for no valid reason and due to ignorance, which can lead to a possible marginalisation for the victim. Prejudice often lead to stereotypes and it can be conscious or unconscious, as someone might not realise to prejudge someone or being prejudged. Prejudgment cause incomplete conclusion, which can change the way someone behave with the person prejudged. Mainly, lack of knowledge causes prejudgment that lowers a person’s low-esteem.
https://www.goodtherapy.org/learn-about-therapy/issues/prejudice-discriminationStereotyping
A stereotype is “…a fixed, over generalized belief about a particular group or class of people.” (Cardwell, 1996).
https://www.simplypsychology.org/katz-braly.htmlStereotyping is when a person or society make judgment on a specific category. They put someone in a specific category. They overgeneralise causing a loss of individuality. Overall, stereotypes are imposed upon a group of people because of gender, race or other characteristics, over categorising and losing individuality. Sometimes stereotypes are caused by prejudices and made by the society. Even though, not everyone is the same and stereotypes are not true, most of the people tend to believe them, which makes people behave differently towards those people. An example for stereotype is “blonde haired women are dumb”, which is just an opinion, not based on true facts or figures.

https://www.thoughtco.com/what-is-the-meaning-of-stereotype-2834956Labelling
“Labelling is describing someone or something in a word or short phrase.”
https://www.definitions.net/definition/labellingLabelling means giving a negative name to someone. Giving a label is like stereotyping but instead of categorising a group of people, we categorise a person. Labelling is also an assumption caused by lack of knowledge. So, people label someone with limited information about the individual. It’s like putting a sticker with a name on a person without knowing them, but only based on their appearance or race, etc… People sometimes might not realise that they are labelling someone. Labelling can be also nicknaming our friends, for fun, without realising that it might be offensive for them. Examples of labelling is calling someone “loser” or “stupid” for a person’s disability.
https://www.iidc.indiana.edu/pages/Whats-in-a-Name-Our-Only-Label-Should-Be-Our-Name-Avoiding-the-StereotypesBullying
“Bullying is unwanted, aggressive behaviour”
https://www.stopbullying.gov/what-is-bullying/index.htmlBullying means physically and mentally harming someone. Usually, bullying is done by powerful people, who abuse their power and abuse others. There are lots of types of bullying like:
Verbal bullying which is like teasing, labelling, name calling, mimic or taunting repeatedly to make the victim feel frustrated.

Psychological bullying it’s when bullies intimidate or threatened the victim.
Social bullying that is like spreading false rumours about a person, so everyone will stop socialising with him /her or embarrassing someone in front of everyone.

The most common type is physical abuse that includes hitting, kicking, punching, pinching or making someone trip or slip purposely.
All these types of bullying might cause mental problems and depression. Often a group of people target a single person, usually the one they think is the weakest, and bully them altogether. Rarely someone helps or stops someone from bullying a person, because everyone is scared of the “bully”, which is usually considered as the powerful and aggressive person. There are lots of bullying happening everywhere: from workplaces to care homes.

https://www.stopbullying.gov/what-is-bullying/index.htmlAbuse
“Abuse is to treat someone cruelly or violently”
https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/abuseAbuse is mistreatment of a person or group of people. Mistreatment means disrespecting someone and offending them. Abuse can be in various forms and the most common types that a service user might experience are:
Physical abuse means harming someone physically for no reason like hitting, shaking, throwing, poisoning, burning, suffocating etc… Causing physical injuries such us broken leg, bruises or cuts. Sexual abuse can also be determined as physical violence.
Sexual abuse is when a person is forced or pressured to take part in sexual activities. Rape is also considered to be part of this category as someone is forced to have sex. Sexual abuse can be also when someone is pressured to send sexual messages or images against their willing or when someone is being touched or bullied in a sexual way. Sexual abuse and physical abuse have a common connection because both of them cause physical harm and injuries in the body.

Emotional abuse or also known is psychological abuse is when someone is emotionally maltreated like humiliating, insulting, isolating, threating, intimidating someone. Sometimes we don’t realise, but we can emotionally abuse someone by insulting them unintentionally or by joking.

http://safeguarding.dudley.gov.uk/adult/for-adults/what-is-abuse/Racism
“Discrimination or prejudice based on race.”
https://www.thoughtco.com/what-is-racism-2834955Racism is a belief that a specific race is inferior to another. It is hate against a person because of their race, which includes: skin colour, language or culture. It’s a hate crime, which can include: physical attacks, verbal abuse or bullying. Racist people find it hard to socialise with people with a different race because they can’t accept the differences every person has, and they think their race is superior that dominate other races. Example of racism is, for example: not allowing African people to vote because of their skin colour.

https://www.adl.org/racismSexism
“Prejudice or discrimination based on sex”
https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/sexismSexism is like racism, but its discrimination based on a person’s gender, which means treating unequally because of the gender. Usually, this prejudice is against women because men think they are superior then women. So, they think men are dominant and oppressing only because of their gender. Sexism sometimes is unconscious, and people might set up rules or policies, which are sexists but don’t realise it. Even sexism it’s a consequence of ignorance. Example of sexism that we don’t realise it is, for example: women pay scale is lower than men or less than a half of the politicians are female.
https://www.thoughtco.com/what-is-sexism-3529186Homophobia
“Prejudice against homosexual people”
https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/homophobiaHomophobia means intolerance towards bisexual people. Bisexual people are lesbian or gay. Like racism and sexism, homophobia is because of immaturity and lack of knowledge. Homophobic people tend to bully bisexual people, in fact lots of bisexual and transgender people have claimed to have experienced physical and verbal abuse from homophobic people only because of their gender. Homophobia is based in irrational fear and misunderstanding. Some people are homophobic because of their religion beliefs or because of the values their parents taught. Example of homophobia is when you judge someone only by their appearance, in fact often men who wear pink are pre-judge by sentences like: “that’s so gay” or they keep teasing them.

https://www.plannedparenthood.org/learn/sexual-orientation-gender/sexual-orientation/what-homophobiaP3- describe potential effects of discriminatory practice
The effects of these discriminatory practice are:
Marginalisation
Marginalising means isolating, which means people put them apart from others. Marginalisation is caused by abuse and bullying, because it makes a person feel worthless and powerless, so they tend to isolate themselves from the outside world.
An example of marginalisation in Tormented Lives, is the quote “He doesn’t want to walk anymore” said by the brother of the disabled boy, (Garen), who couldn’t go out because he was scared, so he lost his rights and he didn’t feel safe anymore. In Winterbourne, an example of marginalisation is when Simon isolate himself from others when he understands that he was a target of bullying, in fact he sat on the sofa alone with a blanket on him.

Disempowerment
Disempowerment means making someone feel powerless and insignificant, which is done my infringing service user’s rights. Taking away a service user’s rights and taking decisions for them without consent, makes them feel valueless because the power of the career might put them down.
There is an example of disempowerment in Winterbourne, where the 40 years old lady, who lived in a fantasy world, was put on the floor, which prevented her to move and the career said, “I put them all down”. Putting her on the floor made her feel powerless and she couldn’t fight back. Even Simon, couldn’t stand up for himself and fight back, instead he had to follow whatever the career said.
Low self-esteem and self-identity
Low self-esteem and self- identity mean not having enough confidence and enough self-worth. Low self-esteem can lead to depression and marginalisation. Low self-esteem it’s caused by anxiety and self-doubt.

In the video Tormented Lives, the brother of the disable boy said, “I am not strong”, which showed that he had a low self-esteem and he didn’t believe in himself anymore. In Winterbourne, the career verbally abused a service user, saying that she was fat, which is going to decrease her self-esteem.
Restricted opportunities
Restricted opportunities mean not having equal opportunities and equal access to everything. Restricted opportunities can cause loss of rights and can make someone feel powerless as they don’t have a way out.
In Tormented Lives, Garen admits that his disable brother “doesn’t want to walk anymore”, which shows that his opportunities are restricted as he doesn’t have right to walk freely.
Negative behaviours
Negative behaviours are aggression or criminality. Negative behaviours are a reaction to abuse and because service users can’t fight against the career, they express their anger by being aggressive and disobedient.
In the video Tormented Lives, Garen says, “I am off”, which is a sign of anger caused by stress, it’s his reaction to abuse. In the video Winterbourne, when the career physically abuses a service user, her immediate reaction is shouting and screaming loudly.
I want to analyse the materials “Panorama- stolen childhood: The grooming scandal” and “Rotherham grooming scandal”. The video showed how guys were dressing smartly and driving expensive cars to groom girls and what the effects of grooming were.

At the beginning they say, “Asian thought that white girls were trash” which tells us an example of labelling. The police were also labelling the girls as “naughty” or “liars”. Emma’s reaction to this labelling was aggression. Girls were raped, abducted (marginalisation) and looked up by men breaking the girls’ right of freedom. For marginalisation Emma, the 12 years old girl who was sexually assaulted, said: after she was sexually exploited, she started to “keep secrets from her parents” which means she was isolating herself from her family, she wasn’t telling them the truth.
Examples of disempowerments are when Lindsay said: “I had to sleep to whoever” and “adults were controlling me” indicating that she was powerless, she couldn’t say no, she didn’t have the right of liberty or freedom of thought. If girls said no, they were physically abused like: punching, kicking or murder, as the one of the girls said the abuser threated them, they said: “if you resist, I am going punch you harder”.
One of the common effects of sexual abuse is unwanted pregnancy that was against the law because an adult couldn’t have sex with a girl/boy under the age of 18.
Self- esteem was a big effect that eventually can lead to depression and Emma told us how the abusers threated her telling her that she was a trash: “I was seen as a trash”.

In the 1990, people labelled grooming as child prostitution, pointing out that it’s the child’s fault and they enjoyed sex, which is an example of a prejudice by men about women.
In the first video, the police were sexist, and they didn’t do anything besides making assumption about girls. The police couldn’t help the girls when the abusers punished them for saying the truth. The girls went to the police with the hope to get help but instead they made her feel guilty, in fact Emma agrees with this, saying: “they try to make me ashamed and like it’s my fault” which decreased Emma’s self-esteem and damaged her psychologically. The police’s attitude is men prejudice, which is discrimination.

One of the reasons police couldn’t investigate it’s the ethnicity problems because the society might get aggressive for the fact that only Asian men where suspected. The council didn’t want to make it a big deal, so they never tried to fix this problem until 2015.

Sarah’s mother said that her daughter (11 years old) was sexually exploited and when she desperately tried to call the police, her abuser (17 years old guy) murdered her.
Thanks to the Safeguarding Act 2015 grooming has been an offense before 2015, the police didn’t say anything.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O6Ys4Avngt0&t=19shttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IOlojIcEE4s&t=53shttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DAvRj6BQ0AM&t=80https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t6X1JT0LfDQTask 3
M1- assess the effects on those using the service of three different discriminatory practices:
https://www.nspcc.org.uk/globalassets/documents/information-service/seminars-premature-sexualisation-understanding-risks.pdf

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