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Topic: Role of banks in Consumer Financing in Pakistan and a deep insight to Issues and Challenges faced under consumer financing

Background
Personal Loans have become a significant portion of life for millions of Pakistanis. It plays a vital role in the day-to-day life of the families. Normally they track loans for personal necessities such as overhaul and/or purchase of house, education of their kids, marriage of their daughters and meeting urgent medical expenditures etc. In the initial period when the perception of banking was not well recognized, Pakistani people, particularly in rural areas used to borrow money from the unlicensed creditors on fractional terms and at a compound interest of very high rate.
From the banking sector viewpoint, consumer loan past is comparatively now—about 10 to 15 years and comprises schemes such as Auto loan, credit cards, house loans, and personal finance Over the last ten years, Pakistan’s banking sector has considerably encouraged the consumer financing by releasing a wide choice of products like credit cards, auto loans, personal loans etc.
It allows people to increase their living standard by permitting them to meet the expense of various consumption goods, which formerly might have been out of their reach.. Henceforth, this also directed the manufacturing sector to increase the capacity, attaining scale economy and devour its benefits. Correspondingly, a lot of other socio economic development and values can be noted due to promoted consumer financing; surely banks have played their due role in inspiring economic expansion in Pakistan.
Though, there also exists the other side of coin— the path of such financing is likely to have tests too, as familiarizing consumer financing service might suffer short and long term impacts. From economic viewpoint, there is a tension lies between the creditability and capability.
Rationale of Study
Our topic is based on the problems which are faced by consumers while buying consumer banking products in Pakistan. This study is derivative with respect to consumer prospective. For this tenacity we pick some variables that are Interest factor, lack of awareness, Customer services, Security against loan and Procedural complications.

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Scope of the Study
The study aims to achieve a sound financial system in our country. It also focuses to improve socio economic conditions of the citizens by removing barriers of consumer financing.
Problem Identification
Consumer financing is decreasing day by day due to various factors i.e. high interest rates, high spread, lack of awareness, hidden bank charges, processing delays and ineffective service etc. Our study will try to reach the insights of these problems in order to remove them.
Problem Statement
The problem statement of our research is “Reason and Causes that avoid customers from purchasing consumer banking products in Pakistan”.
• Research Questions
“What are the foremost problems of consumer financing in Pakistan observed by the consumers?”
Objectives
Our study aims to fulfil following objectives:
• To overview problems faced by customers while purchasing banking products
• To see the relationship and effect of following variables on consumer financing i.e Interest factor, lack of awareness, Customer services, Security against loan and Procedural complications etc.
• To find potential solutions to these problems
Questions of the Study/ Hypothesis
• H1: Interest factor has impact on customer decision for purchasing consumer banking products.
• H2: Interest factor has no impact on customer decision for purchasing consumer banking products.
• H3: Lack of awareness has impact on customer decision for purchasing consumer banking products.
• H4: Lack of awareness has no impact on customer decision for purchasing consumer banking products.
• H5: Security against loan has impact on customer decision for purchasing consumer banking products.
• H6: Security against loan has no impact on customer decision for purchasing consumer banking products.
• H7: Procedural difficulties have impact on customer decision for purchasing consumer banking products.
• H8: Procedural difficulties have no impact on customer decision for purchasing consumer banking products.
• H9: Customer contentment has impact on customer decision for purchasing consumer banking products.
• H10: Customer contentment has no impact on customer decision for purchasing consumer banking products.
Consumer financing is very supportive for providing high standards of living to the people by elevating their purchasing power to the innumerable consumption goods which were formerly out of their range. The demand of product increases which arouses the manufacturers to increase their capability. Consumer banks play their character in emerging the Pakistani economy.
The study of Household Finance/Consumer Finance is very perplexing because the behavior of consumer is problematic to measure accurately. The restrictions faced by consumers are not captured through text book model (Campbell, 2006).
In broad outlook consumer finance has created complications for less financially educated people. Consumer banking products are deliberate mainly to rise purchasing power of middle class customers, so that they may become able to raise their standards of living by buying a variety of consumable goods which were properly treated as luxuries (Baber, Iqbal and Afzal, 2008).
In Pakistan most of the clienteles of consumer banking are illiterate. They don?t even know about the certification, policies, rules, regulations, terms and conditions of services which provided to them. The credentials in banks is usually methodological and the information which can distress the financial right of consumer is never written openly in these documents.
Consumer financing is decreasing due to high interest rate spread (in recent years, the spread has surpass 7% on average and has now reached 13-14%) and variable interest rate on loan. High interest rate is detrimental competitiveness in financial segment. The number of consumer grumbles is steadily increasing due to processing delays, service ineffectiveness, hidden charges and poor disclosure practices. Useless and untrained staff is also worsening consumer financing in Pakistan (Kamal and Hussain, July, 2011).
Consumer financing has decayed to over Rs.30 billion because many banks has either abridged or completely stopped financing. The other cause of drop in growth is high interest rate ranging from 17-19%. On credit cards and personal loans, the overall rate is about 30-35% (Sabir, April, 2011).
As this study depends on customers prospective thereby data should be collected from customers. The collected data can be used for evaluating null hypothesis and variables. Afterwards data can be analysed and interpreted for final Conclusion and Recommendations.
Gender discrimination must be avoided in collection of data. People of different age groups, educational level and occupational status must be included in our population. Both, who had already taken consumer loan and who haven’t taken any consumer banking facility must be included in population. Data must be collected in natural environment and no artificial environment should be produced for this tenacity.
Researcher should use questionnaire method for assembling data preferably close ended questions. Online polls on social media sites or e questionnaires can also be used to provide effectiveness in research.As this topic is based on consumer’s viewpoint so the data must be composed from customers, whichever availing or not availing consumer banking services. For this determination researcher must visit banks and general public.Study needs to be conducted in an estimated span of 3 to 4 months. It is because collection, organisation, implementation and analysis of data need time.

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Topic :Enhancement of Football player’s performance capabilities through weight training in youth players.Submitted By:
Noor Ul Ain Butt
Submitted to:
Mam Dr. Abida Naseer
Department:
Sports Sciences
Institute:
Riphah International University Faisalabad Campus.

Introduction:
Football (or soccer as the game is called in some parts of the world) has a long history. Football in its current form arose in England in the middle of the 19th Century. But alternative versions of the game existed much earlier and are a part of the football history.

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In most parts of the world, football is used as the name for the “chess of the green pitch”, the biggest sport in the world. In the United States and Canada, however, soccer is used instead as a distinction from American football. A more formal name sometimes used is association football, but in popular speech, it is either football or soccer.

As a footballer, you need to be able to explode quickly and with plenty of power, at every short sprint. For that, you need to train your leg muscles and your core. Those muscles also contribute to your balance, ensuring that it’s increasingly difficult to steal the ball from you. Well-trained leg muscles also help you increase your capacity to jump, something that could come in very handy in aerial duels.

You may think that footballers only use their legs; as a matter a fact, the upper torso also plays an important role. The core needs to be well-developed, allowing the player to change directions continuously. Your upper body also takes a lot of hits during a game, so increased upper body strength is recommendable.

Power training for football players is aimed at improving performances, not muscle mass. Your muscles grow, but that is not the main goal. If you emphasis muscle growth, this could hinder your speed and agility, so you need to find the right balance.

If you think footballers only train for technique and endurance, you’re mistaken. For serious footballers, power training is an essential part of their workout, and the best way to gain strength and explosiveness. This article will show you how to add power training to your football workout to become a better player. 
Of course, technical skills and endurance are the main elements of a footballer’s performance, apart from his talent. You cannot train talent, and technical skills and endurance are covered by the regular football practice. Some footballers practice in their spare time, doing cardio training, but the best thing to do is power training. When you perform the right exercises, you not only increase your muscle strength, but you also improve the flexibility of the tendons, you develop more (jumping) power, and you increase your speed. It also strengthens the core and creates better resilience, allowing you to win more often in a duel.

History & Background:
Early history and the precursors of football
The first known examples of a team game involving a ball, which was made out of a rock, occurred in old Mesoamerican cultures for over 3000 years ago. According to the sources, the ball would symbolize the sun and the captain of the losing team would be sacrificed to the gods. The first known ball game which also involved kicking took place In China in the 3rd and 2nd century BC under the name Cuju. Cuju was played with a round ball on an area of a square. It later spread to Japan and was practiced under ceremonial forms.Other earlier variety of ball games had been known from Ancient Greece. The ball was made by shreds of leather filled with hair. The first documents of balls filled with air are from the 7th century. In the Ancient Rome, games with balls were not included in the entertainment on the big arenas, but could occur in exercises in the military. It was the Roman culture that would bring football to the British island (Britannica). It is, however, uncertain in which degree the British people were influenced by this variability and in which degree they had developed their own variants.

The game of football takes its form
The most admitted story tells that the game was developed in England in the 12th century. In this century games that resembled football were played on meadows and roads in England. Besides from kicks, the game involved also punches of the ball with the fist. This early form of football was also much more rough and more violent than the modern way of playing. An important feature of the forerunners to football was that the games involved plenty of people and took place over large areas in towns (an equivalent was played in Florence from the 16th Century where it was called Calcio). The rampage of these games would cause damage on the town and sometimes death. These would be among the reasons for the proclamations against the game that finally was forbidden for several centuries. But the football-like games would appear again in the streets of London in the 17th Century. It would be forbidden gain in 1835, but at this stage the game had been established in the public schools.

It took, however, long time until the features of today’s football had been taken into practice. For a long time there was no clear distinction between football and rugby. There were also many variations concerning the size of the ball, the number of players and the length of a match.

The game was often played in schools and two of the predominant schools were Rugby and Eton. At Rugby the rules included the possibility to take up the ball with the hands and the game we today know as rugby has its origin from here. At Eton on the other hand the ball was played exclusively with the feet and this game can be seen as a close predecessor to the modern football. The game in Rugby was called “the running game” while the game in Eton was called “the dribbling game”.

An attempt to create proper rules for the game was done at a meeting in Cambridge in 1848, but a final solution to some questions of rules was not achieved. Another important event in the history of football come about in 1863 in London when the first Football association was formed in England. It was decided that carrying the ball with the hands wasn’t allowed. The meeting also resulted in a standardization of the size and weight of the ball. A consequence of the London meeting was that the game was divided into two codes: association football and rugby.The game would, however continue to develop for a long time and there was still much flexibility concerning the rules. For one thing, the number of players on the pitch could vary. Neither were uniforms used to distinguish the appearance of the teams. It was also common with players wearing caps – the header was yet to be a part of the game yet. Further reading: The development of football rules.Another important difference at this stage could be noticed between English and Scottish teams. Whereas the English teams preferred to run forward with the ball in a more rugby fashion, the Scottish chose to pass the ball between their players. It would be the Scottish approach that soon became predominant. The sport was at first an entertainment for the British working class. Unprecedented amounts of spectators, up to 30 000, would see big matches in the late 19th century. The game would soon expand by British peoples that traveled to other parts of the world. Especially in South America and India the interest in football would become big.

The first football clubs
Football clubs have existed since the 15th century, but unorganized and without official status. It is therefore hard to decide which the first football club was. Some historians suggest that it was the Foot-Ball Club formed 1824 in Edinburgh. Earlier clubs were often formed by former school students and the first of this kind was formed in Sheffield in 1855. The oldest among professional football clubs is the English club Notts County that was formed in 1862 and still exists today. An important step for the emergence of teams was the industrialization that led to larger groups of people meeting at places such as factories, pubs and churches. Football teams were established in the larger cities and the new railroads could bring them to other cities. In the beginning, football was dominated by public school teams, but later, teams consisting by workers would make up the majority of those. Another change was successively taking place when some clubs became willing to pay the best players to join their team. This would be the start of a long period of transition, not without friction, in which the game would develop to a professional level. The motivation behind paying players was not only to win more matches, but in the 1880s the interest in the game has moved ahead to a level that tickets were sold to the matches. And finally, in 1985 professional football was legalized and three years later the Football League was established. During the first season, 12 clubs joined the league, but soon more clubs became interested and the competition would consequently expand into more divisions.For a long time, the British teams would be dominant. After some decades, clubs from Prague, Budapest and Sienna would be the primarily contenders to the British dominance.

As with many things in history, women were for a long time excluded from participating in games. It was not before the late 19th Century that women started to play football.

The first competitions
Other milestones were now to follow. Football Association Challenge Cup (FA Cup) became the first important competition when it was run in 1871. The following year a match between two national teams was played for the first time. The match that involved England and Scotland ended 0-0 and was followed by 4000 people at Hamilton Crescent (the picture shows illustrations from this occasion).

Twelve years later, in 1883, the first international tournament took place and included four national teams: England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales.

Football was for a long time a British phenomenon, but gradually spread to other European countries. The first game that took place outside Europe occurred in Argentina in 1867, but it was foreign British workers who were involved and not Argentinean citizens.

The Federation International de Football Association (FIFA) was founded in 1904 and a foundation act was signed by representatives from France, Belgium, Denmark, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland. England and the other British countries did not join FIFA from the start, they had invented the game and saw no reason to subordinate to an association. Still, they joined in the following year, but would not partake in the World cup until 1950.Domestic leagues occurred in many countries, the first was the English Football League which was established in 1888. The leagues would by time expand by more divisions, which were based on team performance.In 1908 would football for the first time be included as an official sport in the Olympic Games. Until the first FIFA World Cup was played in 1930, the Olympic Games football tournament would rank as the most prestigious. Women’s football was not added until 1996.

Black players
As in many other sports the white male was predominant for a long time. In football black players started being present relatively early and in comparison with, for example, tennis, football has traditionally been known as a sport with a mix of black and white players.

In Britain Andrew Watson is known to be the first black player, and he played in the Scottish club Queen’s Park in the 1880s.

A game of passion
Few other sports show examples of passion to that extent as football. The arenas are flocked by shearing people; and in front of television even more are watching carefully and sometimes with great enthusiasm.

Already in the late 19th century Goodson Park was built in England in purpose of hosting football games. In 1894, the FA Cup final between Nott’s County and Bolton Wanderers was attended by 37,000 people. A milestone in football stadiums is the construction of Maracanã Stadium. In the year of 1950 the imposing stadium in Rio de Janeiro was ready for almost 200,000 people. No other sport has seen stadiums of that capacity built to host its games.There have been two different traditions of fan culture on the arenas: the British and the South American. The British fans adopted the tradition of singing, the repertoire were inspirited from pub and working songs among other areas. The South Americans on the other hand would adopt the carnival style which includes firecrackers and fireworks, and also the modern phenomena of Bengali fires. Fans in other countries have later adopted a mixture of these traditions.

The great modern competitions
No other sport event besides the Olympic Games can today measure itself with the FIFA World Cup. The first edition of the FIFA World Cup was played in 1930 in Uruguay and has since then returned every fourth year (with two exceptions due to the Second World War). In 1991 the first World Cup for women was held in China and has since then also returned every fourth year.Today the biggest global tournament for clubs is the Champions League (played since 1992), the former European Cup (1955–1991).

Globalization of the biggest sport in the world
In the late 19th Century only a few national football teams existed, England and Scotland had the first active teams that played games against each other in the 1870s. Today there are 211 national associations included in the Federation International de Football Association (FIFA), the world governing body of the sport. Another proof of the globalization could be seen in the increase of nations participating in World Cup qualifiers: from 32 in 1934 to over 200 in 2014.The world regions have been divided into six confederations: Confederation African de Football (CAF), Asian Football Confederation (AFC), Union des Associations Europeans de Football (UEFA), The Confederation of North, Central America and Caribbean Association Football (CONCACAF), Oceania Football Confederation (OFC) and Confederation Sudamericana de Football (CONMEBOL).( Andrea Scoto, William Ralston (1848–1911).

Weight Training
Weight training is part of a comprehensive training program for football. Use this generic program for body contact football sports, including American football, Rugby, and Australian football. It does not necessarily include football (soccer), although elements of the program could apply to soccer weight training. (By Paul Rogers Updated May 08, 2018).

Statement Of the Problem
Research Objective
The aim of the study was to compare the effects of plyometric (PLYO), agility (AG), or repeated sprint (RS) training on physical performance in young male soccer players (U-13). Before and during the 6-week training period (2 sessions per week), power (bilateral standing horizontal jumps, and unilateral horizontal jumps with each of the two legs), running speed (30 m sprint with 10 m lap time), agility (20 m zigzag), and RSA (6×30 m shuttle sprints (15 m+15 m with 180° turns) were assessed. The assessments took place during the hours usually considered for soccer training in these players (i.e. 3-5 p.m.). After the initial measurements, subjects were randomly assigned to a CON group (n = 10) or to 3 other groups that completed PLYO training (n=10), AG training (n=10), or RS training (n=12). The 3 experimental groups performed a specific training protocol (PLYO, AG, or RSA) as a substitute for some soccer drills within the usual 90minute practice twice per week, 2–3 days apart (i.e. ~20 min per session). The CON group participated in regular soccer training with 4 training sessions per week
Research Question
What the effects of weight training exercise will be on dribbling skill of football players at university level?
How performance of young players can be enhanced through weight training?
Research Hypothesis
Research Methodology
Population
Sample
Data Analysis
References

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