Title : Monoclonal antibody manufacturing via hybridoma processing
Preface : Hybridoma processing plays imperative role for the genesis of monoclonal and polyclonal antibody.Hither, monoclonal antibody production are mentioned solely.Amid this scheme, a standard B-cell and a neoplastic cell are utilized.Antibody production is B-cell’s capability and eternality and high expansion rate are myeloma cell’s ability.Yielded antibodies are particular in activity.So, uniform antibodies generation strategy is understood as hybridoma processing.
The method incorporates six stages.
1. Vaccination : To begin with, mice is immunized.Thereafter antibody is originated against the immunization inside the mice’s body.Whereas the content of the antibody is optimum inside the mice. It’s immolated and spleenocytes are brought out from it.Spleenocyte retains antibody manufacturing B-cell.
2. Co-ordination : Hither, the spleenocyte is assembled with cancer cell. Fifty percent of polyethylene glycol (PEG) is applied to the cells to combine them.Combined cell is directed as hybridoma cell.
3. Choice: Selection is completed in the hypoxanthine aminopterine thymidine (HAT) medium. Here, the main 3 sorts of cells are found.
*unmixed B-cell : which can die beneath the medium in brief time because of it’s short life.
*unmixed myeloma cell : which can die within the medium as a result of synthesis stoppage because it is HGPRT- and Ig-.
*hybridoma cell: it’ll live in the medium because of B-cell activity.
So,hybridoma cell is chosen by this fashion.
4. Screening : It is done by ELISA system. The chosen cells are shifted to ninety six plastic well plates.One cell is stays at one well.At underside of the plates specific antigens are adsorbed. Antibody will bind to the antigens if the cells generate desired antibody.Antibody is then identified by immunoconjugate what contains 2 ingredients. One ingredient is particular for epitope and antibody is immobilized by this component. Another one is enzyme that brings color to the well. Once incubation is finished catalyst activity is stopped and optical density is surveyed by ELISA reader.
5. Cloning : Once is done screening, cloning of the antibody will be tried in interleukin-6 media for additional progress and production of the antibodies.
6. Characterization and storage : The antibodies will be placed in liquid N2 media after characterization .

Title:
EXPLORING FACTORS AFFECTING PRODUCT INNOVATION: OSCAPOWER SDN BHD IN MENGGATAL, SABAH.

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of Study
The role of product innovation management has been placed as a potential source of competitive advantage which ranges from the example of successful practices; new approaches to product innovation emerged calling for an enlargement of the standard boundaries of product innovation (Corso & Pavesi, 2000). However, it is a challenging task because it requires new skills and competencies at all levels within the organization. The fast changes in the international market and technological trend causes pressure to scholars and practitioners to become aware of the price, quality, and speed in the product development.

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Khin et al. CITATION Khi10
l 17417 (2010) found that it is important to have innovative products within the industry, and customers gain advantages either from the edges of the new style, function or feature. This will become the company’s differentiation in order to create innovation and gaining a competitive advantage over competitors. Innovation strategy can also be inspired by customers, method or pioneer CITATION Lyn98 l 17417 (Lynn ; Akgun, 1998).

Besides, globalization conjointly permits companies to allocate their internal resources as the source of competitive advantage CITATION Bar99 l 17417 (Barney, 1999) that will produce uniqueness for the companies to compete with competitors and may directly assure the superior corporate performance. Further, low-cost advantage and differentiation advantage is the two main dimensions of a competitive advantage CITATION Por80 l 17417 (Porter, 1980). In order to realize a competitive advantage, an organization needs to have their own capability which will become their core competency. Companies need to fight for competitiveness by benchmarking their assets, method, and performance associated with the superiority of the best product in their industry CITATION Nur18 l 17417 (Nuryakin, 2018).

A company first must learn what factors are needed to produce a new product. Companies need to understand that the range of acceptance or applying new ideas to their businesses will determine the level of innovation. Thus, it will contribute to the success of the organizations.

This study will look at what factors that motivate product innovation in OSCAPOWER SDN BHD. The companies headquarter is located at Menggatal, Sabah. It provides telecommunications network engineering services to network operators and telecommunication vendors in nationwide Malaysia. Furthermore, OSCAPOWER provides technological upgrades such as diesel generator sets rentals (also known as Genset) to cellular network providers like Digi, Celcom, Maxis, E.CO, and Webe.

Therefore, this study will explore the factors that affect product innovation of OSCAPOWER SDN BHD in Menggatal, Sabah.

1.2 Company Background
2085340571500
Oscapower Sdn Bhd was incorporated in 1999 with the aim to contribute to the construction industry in Malaysia by providing professional services and quality work. The company provides expertise in the field of construction in civil and structural engineering, mechanical and electrical engineering that meets the needs of telecommunication companies and service providers.

Since their establishment, they have been involved in telecommunications, industrial and commercial projects throughout Sabah, Sarawak and Peninsular Malaysia. They are also the turnkey contractors for leading telecommunication operators and telecommunication equipment vendors throughout Sabah, Sarawak and Peninsular Malaysia.

Mission:
Their mission is to contribute to the construction industry and in the field of telecommunications services in Malaysia by providing professional services in Civil, Mechanical and Electrical engineering (CME), to ensure their work meets the clients’ specifications and industrial standards.

Their Core Business:
Telecommunication Network Engineering Services
BSS and Microwave link implementation for telecommunication providers such as DIGI, Celcom, Maxis, Packet One, U Mobile and YTL nationwide in Sabah, Sarawak and Peninsular Malaysia.

BTS: Installation, Commission and Integration (ICI) for vendors – Motorola, Alcatel-Lucent, Nokia-Siemens, HuaWei and Ericsson.

Microwave: Installation, Commission and Alignment for vendors – Alcatel-Lucent, Nokia-Siemens, HuaWei, Ericsson, NEC and SiaeMicroelettronica.

Antenna and Feeder installation (AFS)
Indoor building coverage
Telecommunication site maintenance
Mobile telecommunication full turnkey solutions
They provide extensive support and expertise in cellular site construction and tower works.

Tower Erection
Road access construction
Civil infrastructure
Cabin installation
The groundwork for projects Civil, Mechanical and Electrical Engineering (CME)
Power supply and electrical cabling
Lightning protection
Fire protection
Air conditioning
Telephone systems
Diesel generator sets rental for telecommunication companies
Diesel generator sets rental for cellular sites throughout Malaysia
Service and maintenance of diesel gen-sets
Standby operation services
Oscapower Sdn Bhd consists of a dedicated team of engineers, project managers, and professionals within its field. With the ability to carry out projects on a fast-track basis, they provide professional services at the highest level.

1.3The Problem Statement
The rapid changes of the market environment motivate a company to fit itself in these changes in order to face the aggressive competition and maintain its marketplace. This is because of they perceive the requirement of the importance of learning because it is discovered as an input that can gain the capability of firm’s innovation CITATION Cal02 l 17417 (Calantone, Cavusgil, ; Zhao, 2002), CITATION Hul04 l 17417 (Hult, Hurley, ; Knight, 2004). In addition, creativity is also needed to solve problems and to discover new innovative ideas which will distinguish the company from others as well as to achieve efficient competitiveness.

In the personal interview with the founder of this company Mr. Huang Hwa Yong CITATION Yon18
l 17417 (2018), he said that in the beginning, they bought second-hand Japanese genset. He obtained the supplier information from the internet and through yellow pages. The factors to consider when choosing a supplier are price, brand followed by payment scheme. He added that price negotiation, stock availability and payment terms are the processes involved when purchasing the genset. Furthermore, Oscapower Sdn Bhd also had the difficulties in the supplier selection process and purchasing of genset which are optimum price vs payment terms, and credit facility.

As time goes by, the founder of this company Mr. Huang Hwa Yong, realized that they need to increase the company’s performance by making an improvement and thus develop a new genset model. Mr. Huang went to China to make their customized genset model which called YD385. However, the YD385 does not have copyright because it’s still in the testing phase, to observe its performance.
This proofs that the success of innovation permits the companies to keep up and expand the buyer and product markets CITATION Bak09 l 17417 (Baker ; Sinkula, 2009) and is additionally recognized as an important factor for the long-run success of the organization CITATION Tro01 l 17417 (Troy, Szymanski, ; Varadarajan, 2001) as well as to influence the performance of the product innovation.
Therefore to have a deep understanding of the factors affecting product innovation in engineering’s company point of view, this study needs to be conducted to provide unique information to readers about this topic.

1.4 Research Question
This study will answer the following questions:
RQ1: How is the product innovation in Oscapower Sdn Bhd?
RQ2: What are the motivating factors that affect product innovation in Oscapower Sdn Bhd?
1.5 Research Objectives
The aims of this study are:
RO1: To understand the product innovation in Oscapower Sdn Bhd.

RO2: To explore the motivating factors that affect product innovation in Oscapower Sdn Bhd.

1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study
This study will reports and documents analysis of responses from selected respondent from OSCAPOWER SDN BHD which located in Menggatal, Sabah. The main difficulty that may be encountered is due to the limited number of people to choose as respondent that have the expertise and would be appropriate for this study. The study will be conducted from 06 August 2018 to 22 November 2018. Besides, time constraints will also become the limitation of this study to conduct this research.

1.7 Significance of the Study
This study will give readers to dive deeper into the topic of factors affecting product innovation. It will also help another sector to understand and implement the identified factors in terms of their management towards innovation.

CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction
In order to make changes or improvement, it is a must for an organization to learn something that is new which can give benefits to their company’s performance which this will also stimulate and form a new idea towards an innovation either in products or services. Besides, the company’s capacities will help them to maintain its marketplace while facing the intense global competition. Each company had similar opportunities to present their products at low cost but again as mentioned before it depends on their capability to one step ahead to grab that opportunity.

2.2 Product Innovation: Definition
Innovation is fundamental for an organization that needs to stay focused within the market, as it is the basis for economic growth and may be a source of sustainable competitive advantage that leads to increased value.

According to Freeman CITATION Fre82
l 17417 (1982), product innovation is a method that features the R&D, manufacturing, management, commercial activities and technical design involved in the marketing of a brand new or improved product. Moreover, it tends for being the first that is easily observed and advantageous in the process innovation. Product innovation may be intangible service, tangible product, or a combination of both of it.

The company that emphasizes and owned the innovation competencies is turning into more relevant and important to be used in competing with their competitors as this is also their weapon to face the global change in the market. Further, this idea has been investigated through completely different approaches starting from product, market, organization, and process CITATION Toi09 l 17417 (Toivonen & Tuominen, 2009).

2.3 Purpose of Product Innovation
According to a previous study CITATION Com10 p 2 l 17417 (Commision, 2010, p. 2) companies responded that the purpose they engaged in innovation projects is because of:
To increase the market share
To able meet the buyers’ requirements or standards
To introduce new products to their existing line of products, and
To improve their productivity or reduce production costs.

Companies must be able to adapt to change and must keep up with the market conditions, global economies, business landscape, and technological advances that is always evolving. This is because as an effort to succeed in their targeted market whether it is a local, national or international market.

2.4 Advantages of Product Innovation
Today’s organizations gain their economic benefits and competitive advantage mostly from innovation. According to Reguia CITATION Reg14
l 17417 (2014), the advantages of product innovation both to the company and to the industry can be stated like the following:
Reducing production costs and time of production process which will result in increasing of investments return and production efficiency
Increasing products quality and makes the product to be more competitive in the markets
Increase companies’ information stock
Contribute to company output that will be measured by sales and profits of the new products or services
Customers of innovative products gain an advantage in terms of the variety of selection and higher services.

2.5 Risks and Challenges of Product Innovation
There are many companies that do not have enough financial resources to invest in product innovation project. This is because a lot of money is needed to be allocated along the process of product innovation. Besides, other challenges that company faced includes lack of marketing capability, shortage of expertise or skilled workers, lack of access to the distribution channels or lack of acceptance of retail, lack of debt in financing, management that resist to go for innovation and lastly the lack of creative idea that is unique and out of a box but still fulfilling the customer’s requirement CITATION Com10 l 17417 (Commision, 2010).

2.6 Motivating Factors of Product Innovation
Before venturing to the application of product innovation, companies need to know what factors that can motivate them towards the plan. This factors will stimulate their focus in order to achieve successful product innovation that is superior compared to competitors.

The first-factor feature is the commitment to learning whereby it is the readiness of the company to vary the method it does things by incorporating new information or combining existing information. In another word, it means encompasses the acquisition, communication, acceptation, and assimilation of the knowledge within the company CITATION Jol07 l 17417 (Jolly & Therin, 2007). An additional learning is a vital investment that is needed for the survival of a committed company and which may lead to higher product innovation performance. Lages, Silva and styles CITATION Lag09
l 17417 (2009) state that company’s learning capabilities for innovation, such as commitment to learning, shared vision, and open-mindedness to innovation were significant predictors of product innovation, that successively affected the economic performance. A company that encourages the development of knowledge can motivate staff to pursue learning activities.

Next factor is the shared vision. A clear direction for learning is probably going to make a company’s strength or maybe a core competency CITATION Sin97 l 17417 (Sinkula, Baker, & Noordewier, 1997). In step with the direction, the shared understanding of the longer-term direction permits the businesses to determine which new product or service to develop. Garcia-Morales, Llorens-Montes, & Verdu-Jover CITATION Gar06
l 17417 (2006) found that strategic factors like transformational leadership, shared vision, personal mastery, environment, and proactivity have positive effects on each company’s innovation and company’s performance that successively have an effect on organizational performance. A shared vision will coordinate the main focus of various departments in the organization and also enhances learning standard.

Lastly, the open-mindedness. It is the willingness to evaluate the company’s operational routine and to simply accept new concepts CITATION Sin97 l 17417 (Sinkula, Baker, ; Noordewier, 1997). Companies should address speedily dynamics technology and turbulent markets. Open-mindedness can enhance valuable operations with new ways of business processes and achieves the company’s competitiveness, performance, survival, growth, sustainability, and success. More open-mindedness promotes companies to realize a competitive advantage and gain better company’s performance CITATION Uss11 l 17417 (Ussahawanitchakit, 2011). UssahawanitchakitCITATION Uss08
l 17417 (2008) found the numerous effects of open-mindedness, shared vision and intra-organizational knowledge sharing on innovation orientation. It is confirmed by Hernandez-Mogollon, Cepeda-Carrion, Cegarra-Navarro, ; Leal-Millan CITATION Her10
l 17417 (2010) about the numerous impact of open-mindedness on company’s originality for brand new product and services by collecting information from small and medium enterprises in Spain. To add in, the company should have the open-mindedness to question the lesson learned in the past and even as necessary to unlearn recent ways because it is to renew or update the knowledge base CITATION Cal02 l 17417 (Calantone, Cavusgil, & Zhao, 2002).

2.7 Measuring Success of Product Innovation / Performance
A company that committed to learning can enhance and achieve its target on product innovation performance. According to Yang, Wang and Cheng CITATION Yan09
l 17417 (2009) the definition of product innovation performance is the market rewards for new product in terms of monetary outcomes (product’s contribution to sales or profits) and non-monetary outcomes (the number of innovations, the speed of innovation, the extent of originality and being the “first” or the market leader). The non-monetary outcomes became an additional standard to overcome the limitation in accessing the confidential monetary data of the businesses CITATION Bak10 l 17417 (Bakar ; Ahmad, 2010). The dimensions of product innovation performance are efficacy and efficiency CITATION Ale06 l 17417 (Alegre, Lapiedra, ; Chiva, 2006):
Product innovation efficacy is the degree of the success of an innovation while product efficiency is the effort made to achieve that degree of success CITATION Ale09 p 217 l 17417 (Alegre ; Chiva, 2009, p. 217)A previous study CITATION Cal13 l 17417 (Calisir, Gumussoy, ; Guzelsoy, 2013) state that the factors in product innovation efficacy are the replacement of products being phased out, an extension of the product range, market share evolution, and opening new markets. While factors in product innovation efficiency are innovation project development- time and cost, number of working hours on innovative products and global degree of satisfaction with innovation project efficiency.

CHAPTER 3
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research methodology is important because this part will act to support researcher idea in doing research. Besides, it gives specific detail of information on how this research will be conducted. In this paper, the researcher will explain about the selection of the type of research methodology that will be used in this study which covers source of information, data of collection method, and list of interviews from staff in OSCAPOWER SDN BHD.

3.1 Research Design
This research paper is using a qualitative study. The study will be conducted by interviewing staff from OSCAPOWER SDN BHD to gain the information needed to answer the research question of this study. The data collection for this study will be taken during the internship period.

3.2 Sources of Information
Researcher uses primary data in this study which mean original data will be collected first-hand sources from respondents. The researcher will collect primary data through an interview with the staff in OSACAPOWER SDN BHD. Besides, the researcher also use secondary data which classified into two types mainly:
Internal sources
The information retrieved from within the organization is called internal sources. The information collected is based on the operational activities of the company which is the schedule of genset service and maintenance, report of diesel usage, and the list of genset model available in the company. This will be used to understand the nature of the company as well as to back up the study.

External sources
The information obtained from outside the organization sources is called external sources. This research collects information through journal articles that relate to product innovation and, websites of the company that might be relevant for the purpose of this study. The previous studies (which from journal articles) help the researcher to understand the nature of research and are helpful to understand the concept involved in this paper.

3.3 Data Collection Method
Interviews
In this study, the researcher will conduct personal interviews with the selected person from OSCAPOWER SDN BHD. They will become the respondents that will answer the research questions.

3.4 List of Interviewees
No. Name of Respondent Position Working Experience
1 Mr. Huang Hwa Yong Director 19 years
2 Jerome GombungSupervisor 13 years
3 Mhd. Kadir Bin Haji Alih @ Totoh Staff 16 years
3.5 Interview Protocol
Personal interviews will be conducted between researcher and the selected respondents that have experience and knowledge in OSCAPOWER SDN BHD. During this interview, all the information given by the respondents will be recorded.

3.6 List of Interview Questions
Research Objective Questions
Can you introduce about yourself and what is your position? How long you have been working in this company?
RO1: To understand the product innovation in Oscapower Sdn Bhd.

1. Based on your understanding, what do you know about Product Innovation?
2. Do you think Product Innovation is important to enhance the company’s performance in Oscapower Sdn Bhd?
3. What product innovation has Oscapower Sdn Bhd done so far?
4. What product innovation will Oscapower Sdn Bhd do in the future?
RO2: To explore the motivating factors that affect product innovation in Oscapower Sdn Bhd.

5. Why product innovation is important in Oscapower Sdn Bhd?
6. What motivates product innovation in Oscapower Sdn Bhd?
7. What are the benefits of product innovation to Oscapower Sdn Bhd?

3.7 Data Procedure
3.7.1 To understand the product innovation in Oscapower Sdn Bhd.

To understand what kind of product innovation that OSCAPOWER SDN BHD has done so far. Several interview sessions with the selected respondent will give a fresh and specific information for this objective.

3.7.2 To explore the motivating factors that affect product innovation in Oscapower Sdn Bhd.

To find out what motivates Oscapower Sdn Bhd to do product innovation. Literature has confirmed that company that does product innovation are more competitive that than their competitors and thus enhance the company’s performance. The interview method with selected respondents will be conducted to collect information for this objective.

References
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Long winding streets, beautiful public parks, and history, in the form of a red-bricked trail dedicated to the liberation of the United States and the freedom of all peoples (the Freedom Trail), defines the city of Boston. At the heart of this modern city, located across Beacon Street from the State House, is a memorial dedicated to the men of the 54th Regiment Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry, the first African-American unit of the Union Army. It stands quietly amongst the vibrancy of downtown Boston, serving as a monument to the bravery and sacrifice of the 54th Regiment, and also of the terrible human cost of the Civil War. But it also exists as a reminder of how far the nation still must go to achieve true racial equality: the city of Boston, like most other major American cities, is defined also by its racial segregation.Just three miles south from the 54th memorial, across the Massachusetts Turnpike and the South End, stands a neighborhood neglected. It has Victorian-style triple deckers with flat roofs, dusty lots, and stores alongside the streets. But the lots are mostly abandoned, relics of the Boston housing crisis of the 1950s and the 1960s, and the run-down, derelict triple deckers stand as reminders of the area’s poverty and hopelessness. The neighborhood is also predominantly black.The racial segregation of Boston is accentuated if one walks two miles either north or south from the center of the South End, a diverse neighborhood characterized by rows of bowfront, five-story, red-brick homes. Racial segregation in Boston has clear and defined boundaries, and it becomes even more evident as one crosses the Boston Extension of the Mass Pike. Walk two miles north from the South End, and one arrives at the iconic rowhouses and narrow, gaslit brick streets of Beacon Hill, where 86.8% of the population is white (2% are black) and the per capita income is $78,569. Two miles south, and one happens upon the projects, public housing, and triple deckers of Roxbury, where 56.9% of the population is black (whites make up 8.1%) and the per capita income is just $18,998. Outside Boston, the suburbs are almost entirely white.What happened in Boston in the 1950s, 60s, and 70s to create such a city reflected what was happening in major industrial cities all across the United States during this time. A postwar black Great Migration into northern urban cities was followed by white flight and racist housing policies, and the construction of highways straight through and around urban areas served only to expedite this process and to make clearer the physical separation between whites and minorities in metropolitan areas. Whereas urban highways once promised a future of economic prosperity and the prospect of cultural diversity to Bostonians and other urban Americans, in reality, they had the opposite effect. Urban highways racially and economically segregated American cities by facilitating white flight to the suburbs, by destroying local, predominantly minority businesses and communities during construction, and by acting as a physical and symbolic barrier between various communities. The construction of highways through and around Boston in the 1950s and 1960s, paired with the mass movement of blacks into Boston and federal housing guidelines, created two distinct cities. In the end, it was these three factors, and not self-segregation, that created the deep racial segregation that exists in the Greater Boston area today.The story of how Boston, and other major northern industrial cities, came to epitomize modern segregation begins immediately after the end of the post-Civil War Reconstruction efforts. As white supremacy was rapidly restored across the South, an era that was once viewed as an opportunity to reform the South gave way to an era “defined by the rise of Jim Crow segregation, disfranchisement, the emergence of sharecropping, and lynchings”. Black migration thus began after Reconstruction, and continued throughout World War I, but exploded in the 1940s and 1950s during the Second Great Migration. The motivation of migrating blacks remained the same post-Reconstruction, during the First Great Migration, and post-WWII, during the Second Great Migration: Southern lynching, anti-black riots, Jim Crow racism, and white efforts to eliminate black advancement all helped to reignite a mass migration of blacks from the South to northern cities. In 1910, the percentage of blacks living in the South was 89%, and in 1940 this figure stood at 77%. By 1970, this had decreased dramatically to 53% as a result of the Second Great Migration.Boston’s ethnic patterns reflected the overall pattern of the nation during these years. In 1930, Roxbury was only about 14% black, and in Boston as a whole, blacks remained a relatively small minority until the Second Great Migration. As the black population rapidly increased, they expanded into other parts of Roxbury in search of housing, and later into Dorchester and Mattapan. Yet, even as Boston became blacker and more diverse, racial segregation in the metropolitan areas continued to rise. As the black population began to increase in some communities (including Roxbury), whites continued to flee Boston in increasingly larger droves to its outer suburbs. The gradual rise in racial segregation between the suburbs of Boston and the city itself can be observed in Boston’s demographic trends throughout the late-1900s: in 1940, Boston was 96.7% white and just 3.1% black. The share of the black population slowly begins to rise: in 1950, it was 94.7% to 5.0%; in 1960, it was 90.2% to 9.1%; in 1970, 81.8% to 16.3%. By 1980, the ratio of whites and blacks in Boston was 70.0% to 22.4% (later years show the impact of Hispanic immigration into Boston). This demographic change was accompanied by increasing de facto segregation between blacks and whites. As whites streamed out of Boston, blacks were increasingly segregated, concentrated, and isolated within the city of Boston.Yet even these figures fail to accurately capture the degree of racial segregation within Boston itself. Within Boston are distinct neighborhoods, each characterized by some degree of wealth and racial homogeneity. The two wealthiest major residential neighborhoods (per capita), Beacon Hill and the North End, are 86.8% and 90.88% white (2% and 1.13% black), respectively, while the two poorest neighborhoods, Roxbury and Mattapan, are 56.9% and 82% black (8.1% and 11 % white). Beacon Hill and the North End lie north of Interstate-90; Roxbury and Mattapan both rest south of I-90.One reason for the separation between the races within Boston was due to racist federal housing policies. These policies constituted a major part of residential segregation, and directly contributed to the rise of homogeneous neighborhoods within an overall diverse area. Redling, the “practice of denying or limiting financial services to certain neighborhoods based on racial or ethnic composition”, was formalized in the housing industry with the creation of the Federal Housing Administration (FHA) in 1934. The FHA released guidelines endorsing, and even recommending, redlining in neighborhoods. A 1936 FHA Underwriting Manual instructed potential lenders to protect themselves and their neighborhoods against “adverse influences” – defined as “the infiltration of business and industrial uses, lower-class occupancy, and inharmonious racial groups.” It claimed that “the infiltration of inharmonious racial groups will… tend to lower the levels of land values and to lessen the desirability of residential areas” and that “if a neighborhood is to retain stability it is necessary that properties shall continue to be occupied by the same social and racial classes.” It even went as far to support segregation in education: “schools… should not be attended in large numbers by inharmonious racial groups”.In 1935, the FHA created the now-infamous “residential security maps” in order to appraise neighborhoods for their level mortgage insurance risk. The “desirable” areas were shaded green, and denoted “Type A – First Grade”. “Still Desirable” neighborhoods were blue, and known as “Type B – Second Grade, while “Declining” areas were labeled “Type C – Third Grade”, and outlined in yellow. Neighborhoods that were considered the riskiest for investment were known as “Type D – Fourth Grade”, and shaded red (hence the term “redlining”). Type D neighborhoods were almost exclusively poor and black. A 1936 FHA map for the Greater Boston area shows Roxbury entirely redlined, while large portions of Dorchester and Jamaica Plain are redlined.Boston real estate companies and banks took advantage of these guidelines to exploit both black and white property owners in the Greater Boston area during the 1950s. Blockbusting tactics were used to scare white residents to sell their houses quickly for below-market prices, before “the infiltration of inharmonious racial groups” led to plummeting property values. Along with blockbusting, redlining insured that only the newly-arriving African-American migrants would be able to settle in those areas.The implementation of these federal policies aggravated residential racial segregation and urban decay. FHA policies stripped the inner city of middle-class inhabitants while also funneling blacks into racially segregated neighborhoods due to limited housing opportunities. Even when blacks managed to attain property, it was substandard in quality, overcrowded, and had lower assessed property values. Whereas the Underwriting Manual institutionalized racism and segregation within the housing industry, the FHA maps were used to geographically segregate blacks from whites. While housing discrimination institutionalized racial segregation within Boston, the development of major highways magnified the effects of segregation by providing an escape route for whites out of the city and into the suburbs, away from minorities. The highway that drove suburbanization in the Greater Boston area was Route 128, an outer beltway around the city. The construction of Route 128 (between 1960 and 1965) coincided with a migration of blacks into Boston, as well as the redevelopment of Boston’s economic center. But redevelopment neglected to account for the increased black population by increasing the supply of housing, so, as blacks moved into the city, “whites moved out as housing renewal for the urban work force was accomplished by relocation to the suburbs”. Route 128 resulted in explosive industrial growth in many of the suburbs: land in the new Route 128 corridor was cheap, easily accessible by car, and located close to industry offices. Major companies, including Microsoft, Raytheon, and Fisher Scientific operated offices along the Route 128 corridor. However, the industrial successes of Route 128 failed to permeate into inner-city Boston areas, and ultimately only benefited suburban areas. Predictably, these suburbs were almost entirely white, devoid of almost all black participation, even as Boston’s black population was rapidly increasing. New housing developments in the Route 128 suburbs were restricted by racially prohibitive covenants and federal guidelines, and towns began to use zoning laws to push out low-income residents. As a result, by 1970, all of the suburban towns were 98% white. Thus Route 128 became somewhat of a border between Greater Boston and the more far-flung suburbs; just as highways facilitated the movement of people out, they also spatially divided Boston from it surroundings suburbs racially. A report by the Massachusetts Commission Against Discrimination in 1975 paints the picture of devastation that the Route 128 highway had on Boston. First, “construction of the high-speed circumferential highway, which opened the gateway to suburban land, permitted problems of space to be solved by relocation rather than a reconstruction of the city”. Boston’s failure to increase the housing supply to account for the influx of black residents from the Second Great Migration served to concentrate black residents within Boston, and the construction of the highway allowed whites to flee out of the city. Wealth followed the white residents, who were replaced by poorer, black migrants. The report goes on: “Route 128’s history represents a social failure approaching disaster in terms of its impact on the poor and minority groups… [the suburbs] are beautiful, although their beautiful was paid for, in part, by the ugliness of others. Their gains, from the larger perspective, were the region’s loss”. In essence, the “new housing, jobs, schools, and amenities of suburban life which followed the completion of Route 128 were for whites only”. While Route 128 was a circumferential highway around Boston, the construction of highways through Boston also devastated the city. The construction of the Center Artery and Southeast Expressway of Interstate 93 through Boston required the city to create space for the new highway. From 1950 to 1953, as the state began to condemn properties, entire neighborhoods and blocks in Chinatown, Waterfront, and North End were demolished, and along with it, businesses and homes. Most of them were minority-owned businesses, providing crucial jobs to local communities. At the same time, the Southeast Expressway of I-93 was constructed. When both opened in 1959, they cut straight through the city in a north-south direction. The enduring legacy of the Southeast Expressway is to serve as the border between predominantly white South Boston, and predominantly black Dorchester and Roxbury. Despite being intended to spur urban revival, highway projects through Boston only encouraged people to abandon the main city, speeding up the process of suburbanization. The justification for the construction of highways through cities derived from a theory by public officials and urban planners that new urban expressways had the potential to revive the deteriorating urban core. Post-WWII, many public officials saw urban expressways to clear decrepit urban areas. Urban slums were seen as tumors, and if highways could be routed through areas of blight, they could be “reclaimed” for productive uses. Accordingly, a 1944 report by the federal government recommended that highways penetrate American cities, and called for inner and outer beltways encircling cities. In 1965, this theory of urban revival was enacted into law through the Federal-Aid Highway Act, which offered state highway departments 90-percent federal funding for their major highway projects. Justified as “essential to the national interest”, the act expanded the interstate system to 41,000 miles, and $25 billion was authorized to construct the network. When President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed the bill into law, his vision was for “an America where a mighty network of highways spreads across our country.”The passage of the Federal-Aid Highway Act in 1956 resulted in drastic changes to the fabric of urban America. City officials could now use federal funds to eradicate areas of blight – provided they did it through the construction of highways. This restriction proved to be incredibly consequential to the development of the inner city. City officials constructed urban highways along the path of least resistance – meaning poor, often black or immigrant areas. In most cities, the interstate system’s highways ripped through residential areas, utterly destroying low-income, black neighborhoods. By 1969, “federal highway construction was demolishing over 62,000 housing units annually – possibly as many as 200,000 people each year”. Still, this stunning figure fails to account for the impact of displaced black residents on surrounding neighborhoods. White flight was a direct result of these newly-homeless black residents forced into for relocation housing. Even if black residents sought to flee to the suburbs, they couldn’t due to racially restrictive housing policies. In many cities, these restrictions left African-Americans crowded into small neighborhoods. The forced relocation of black residents triggered a reorganization of urban neighborhoods. Coupled with limited inner-city housing, a rising black population resulted in dislocated blacks being pressed further into urban slums. All these factors led to a racial restructuring of the city, in which black residents were pressed deeper into the city while white residents dispersed outwards to the suburbs. Thus, the expressway construction of the 1950s and 1960s “ultimately helped produce the much larger, more spatially isolated, and more intensely segregated” black neighborhoods of today’s American cities. Rather than resuscitating central cities, the new highways systems speeded suburbanization and deepened postwar urban racial segregation.In the years following WWII, Boston officials desperate to reinvigorate a deeply stagnant economy became enticed by the possibilities offered by the Highway Act. City officials could now undertake a series of new highway projects with “10 cent dollars” from the Highway Act in an effort to attract business and capital. Thus, on March 5, 1962, construction began on perhaps the most destructive of Boston’s highways: the Boston Extension of the Massachusetts Turnpike (part of Interstate 90). The Boston Extension ran east-west through the city of Boston, and allowed the Mass Pike to extend straight into the heart of Boston. Homes in Newton, Chinatown, Brighton, and the South End were demolished. Six lanes of the Mass Pike tore apart Newton Corner, and “entirely eliminated” the historically black neighborhood in the Hicks Street area of West Newton. In 1963, the Pike’s construction reached Chinatown, separating the neighborhood into two. More homes and businesses were destroyed in downtown Boston, where expressways and access ramps were built to accommodate the increased traffic.What migration, housing, and highways left Boston was a city deeply divided into two. Some might even classify Boston as two distinct cities, as a city of haves and have-nots. While for one city it “was the best of times”, for another city it “was the worst of times”. Even as Boston transformed itself into a modern city of innovation and wealth, poverty was left concentrated in the neighborhoods of Roxbury and Dorchester. As whites fled to the suburbs, blacks were left behind in inner-city slums. Urban highways, despite initial visions of a vibrant city, left entire neighborhoods in ruins and failed to bring about that vision, leading to disastrous consequences for America’s urban black population. Politically, they reduced the power of the black electorate by leaving them susceptible to gerrymandering. To say that this was the result of self-segregation is to ignore a racial injustice. But by acknowledging the history, one can learn a valuable lesson for the future.

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