TITLE:
“Philippine Traditional Architecture: Impact Perceived By The Department of Architecture of Saint Louis University SY 2017-2018”
BRIEF BACKGROUND
 Architecture in the Philippines today is the result of a natural growth enriched with the absorption of varied influences. It developed from the pre-colonial influences of our neighboring Malay brothers, continuing on to the Spanish colonial period, the American Commonwealth period, and the modern contemporary times. As a result, the Philippines has become an architectural melting pot– uniquely Filipino with a tinge of the occidental. (Noche, M., 2015).

Philippine architecture, both product and profession, faces the danger of deterioration of quality and depth wrought by the economic events of the last two years and the continuing lack of intellectual discourse related to pedagogy and practice. (Alcazaren, P., 2003). In a Special Evaluation Study titled ADB’s Response to Natural Disasters and Disaster Risks, 50.3% of the country’s land area is economically at risk from multiple hazards such as floods, typhoon, and earthquakes. (Asian Development Bank, 2012). Houses rooted to the ground increase susceptibility to floods, bolder modern forms increase susceptibility to lateral loads, flat / low-sloped roofs not adapted to the Philippine climate disregarding the simple application passive cooling technique.

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The ‘bahay kubo’ was the original sustainable house. In its form, it already embodies all the design principles we think of as ‘green.’  It is made of low-cost, readily available indigenous materials and it is designed for our tropical climate. (Manosa, A., ND). These same design elements evolved into the ‘bahay na bato’ during the Spanish colonial period.

In the past years the application of traditional style of architecture derived in various influences. Passive cooling through natural ventilation, natural lighting and the use of indigenous materials. Emphasizing on sustainability and environmentally-responsible construction practices. Currently building technology and sustainable design are considered as fundamental to the growing field of contemporary architecture.

The aim of the study is to give an impact to the younger generation and shed light to the intricate features of traditional houses. The study intends to provide a cultural appreciation of Philippine traditional architecture, maintaining the dignity of its effectiveness in the consequent generation. Allows one to understand the relationship of the buildings establish with the site by corresponding to local and environmental conditions.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The aim of the study is to preserve and recognize the importance of Philippine Traditional Architecture by knowing its effectiveness perceived by the architecture department of Saint Louis University SY 2017-2018.

HYPOTHESIS
Focusing
KEYWORDS
Traditional
Deterioration
Disaster
Lateral loads
Contemporary
Passive coolingBIBLIOGRAPHY

Title: Psychological career resources and career commitment in different sociodemographic groups.
Introduction
Diverse workforce have created a competitive global business market as it contributes to the organisation performances due to the work forces variety of skills, knowledge experiences and attitudes( Arnold & Randall, as cited in Ferreira& Coetzee 2010). A lot of organisations have found a diverse workforce has improved financial performance, improved workforce performance and competitive advantage (Wellbourne at all as cited in Ferreira& Coetzee 2010). It is strategical crucial to retain talented stuff as it has potential financial returns Swart, as cited in Ferreira& Coetzee 2010). They long term employees tend to have goals similar to that of the organisation (Storm& Root as cited in Ferreira& Coetzee 2010). Employees who feel that their psychological needs are being met tend to have job satisfaction to be more committed to the organization as a whole therefore end up staying with the organisation (Lumley: Coetzee & Schreuder as cited in Ferreira& Coetzee 2010.) The aim of this study was to see what and how various demographics have different psychological career resources and organisational commitment. The study is focused on possibly contributing to retaining valuable employees and career development to groups such as employees Africans and women who are now entering the South African Employment market.
Problem of inquiry
Globally the workforce has become quite diverse due the changing environments and it contributes to the organisations performance. Organisations are finding it more crucial to have committed employees
The question to be researched in this article there difference in different socio demographic groups when it came to psychological career resources and career commitment.
Literature review
The career resources model being used is the one developed by Cozetee (2007; 2008). “A well-developed range of psychological career resources is an indication of conscious, self-directed career behaviour that is internally guided and proactively driven by the individual himself.” (Ferreira& Coetzee 2010). Careers which are followed are due to the preferences and values we uniquely have. The values we have motivate us to our preferred career. According to Ferreira and Coetzee (2010), “Career drivers represent people’s sense of career purpose, directedness and orientation towards career venturing.” Author goes on to mention that career- orientated attitudes+ motivate us to try out new careers and job possibilities. Career directness means how clear one is on their career goals and course. “When people are seen to be career venturing is when there is some willingness to take risks.” (Ferreira& Coetzee 2010). The career enablers are those skills which can be transferred that can help them move to other careers (Ferreira& Coetzee 2010). Career harmonisers give controls, encourage resilience and flexibility. If your psychological career resources are established so that they will help u engage in career activity may help you improve job performance (Coetzee 2008; Ebberwein, Krieskok, Ulven & Prosser 2004; Van der Heijde & Van der Heijden 2006 as cited in Ferreira& Coetzee 2010).
Organisational commitment
According to Gbadamosi (2003 as cited in Ferreira& Coetzee 2010 ” a favourable attitude toward an organisation leads to a greater acceptance of the organisation’s goals, as well as an increased willingness to make greater efforts on behalf of that organisation.” Author of the article used Meyer and Allen’s (1991) three-component model of organisational commitments as it was important the research conducted. The preference to stay based on emotional attachment versus continuance commitment versus normative commitment are three main commitments the author noted. Meyer and Herscovitch (2001 ) mention the different mind-sets of commitment such affective commitment see their relevance or value which was derived from their involvement with organisation and those that are at the emotional level usually stay with the organisation (Beck ; Wilson, as cited in Ferreira; Coetzee 2010) . Mind set of continuance commitment is usually there when they stand to lose something or they have no other alternative (Meyer and Allen’s 1991 as cited in Ferreira& Coetzee 2010). The normative mind set make employees feel they have a moral obligation to the organisations (March & Mannari, as cited in Ferreira& Coetzee 2010).
Research design
The sample size of the test were “358 employed adults at managerial and staff levels in the field of economic and management services” Majority were Africans and females whites, coloureds, Indians and males were minority of the group. The Author in Ferreira& Coetzee 2010 used Participants completed the Psychological Career Resources Inventory (PCRI) (Coetzee 2007) and the Organisational Commitment Scale (OCS). The management of higher education institution that participated in the survey gained ethical clearance and permission to conduct the survey Ferreira& Coetzee 2010) . Author went on to state that, “The data analysis procedures chosen for this research were based on their relevance to the exploratory nature of the research design”
Findings
In terms of gender the results showed suggest that the participants seem to be keen on jobs that have more stability and opportunities which help them develop and grow in their expertise, however female participants felt a stronger need than male to venture into new jobs. This was contrary to past researchers findings (Ferreira& Coetzee 2010). When it came to age the survey found that the results showed individuals 25years and younger believe that they are going to achieve their goals and those between 45years and 55years were more prone to continue working in the position they were at the same organisation (Ferreira& Coetzee 2010). Africans in the research were noted to be the ones who were keener to have higher level positions such as management as they saw it as a way of improving their lives (Ferreira& Coetzee 2010). However the later was seen as also true in separated /divorced participants as they felt managerial positions gave some degree of power (Ferreira& Coetzee 2010). Those in managerial positions also showed that in the research showed to have a normative commitment and those that were in executive positions wanted more secure jobs where they could use their skills (Ferreira& Coetzee 2010)
Conclusion
This study provides crucial a knowledge that can be used in future studies which relate to retention policies and career development. All aspects which relate to “the psychological contract between an employee and the organisation and are generally influenced by the individuals’ experiences both prior to and following entry into the organisation “(Allen & Meyer 1990 as cited in Ferreira& Coetzee 2010). Key priority of this research was to inform the human resources and researchers how diverse groups can differ in terms of their organisational commitment and psychological career needs (Ferreira& Coetzee 2010). This research had some limitations to it. The findings could not be applied other sectors and occupational contexts. Author went to mentions the sample group maybe biased as it had more Africans and women therefore could not give a fair answer. Finally “longitudinal studies are needed in order to validate the differences observed in this study between the various sociodemographic groups.” (Ferreira& Coetzee 2010).

ABSTRACT

Many organisations, suffer from designing a supply
chain.  They need to be in close
relation to suppliers, distributors, employees and all other stake holders
to make their product successfully and earn profit back from their product.
This exercise revolves around a case how the organic soybeans producers
overcame the issue of GMO soybeans, and how they sold the natural organic
GMO-free soybeans to the public. This case proves that a
person/organisation should be responsible and design supply chain not only
efficiently but also responsive supply chain to tackle the problems before
it becomes serious issues.

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Keywords: Sustainable
supply chain management, Risks, Stakeholder, Risk management

Introduction

Designing
supply chain is a difficult task. It is entirely different for different
organisations. One organisations design of supply chain doesn’t work for
another. While supply chain design, it should not only be efficient but also
responsive, to meet uncertainty of demands all the time. Our team exercise is
about an example of commercial production of GMO-free soybeans supply chain. Most
of the countries are in demand of GMO free soybeans. But normal producers and
importers found it so difficult. Because there was no mechanism of tracking the
origin of the products and controlling their production and commercialization
in an adequate way to guarantee the absence of GMOs. Hence gebana – a Swiss
association of NGOs and consumers, decided to backup the commercial production
chain of GMO-free soybeans to supply the Swiss market. Our group work lies in
understanding how the organisation managed this issue of this supply chain and
overcame from that.

Background

ABDC
rating:

Title:
Risk Management in Sustainable Supply Chain Management (SSCM): Lessons Learnt
from the Case of GMO-Free Soybeans

Year
of publication: 2005

Authors:
Tauscher et al

Objective:
To find a systematic approach that work out best for the company to meet its
demand as well as manage the risks.

Results:
BSD developed a systematic management model which can be suitable for specific
needs of industry.

Methodology:

After
the green revolution in the late 1970s, soybeans supply got the attention of
consumer organization. Political claim from political claim was made since the
production of soybeans involved animal feeds and that it reduced biodiversity.
In the 1990s, the Genetic Modified Organisms (GMOs) was introduced. People in
Europe were in demand for GMO-free products because of the protest of NGOs and
consumers against genetically modified products. Importers found it difficult
to trace the origin of the product.

A Swiss
association of consumers and NGOs called gebana hired a consultancy BSD for
commercial production chain of GMO-free soybean to supply the Swiss market. BSD
defined three goals for the soybean supply chain.

The first was to export to Switzerland
GMO-free soybeans including a guarantee of GMO absence.
The second goal was to develop a new soybean
product which could add environmental and social value
The third goal was to make a social fund with
the revenue generated from soybean sales which is then given to the
producers for local development.

 

The role of BSD is to
function as a third party, without any involvement in the production chain, but
with technical knowledge of standard and with the sole interest of establishing
a good production chain. It also required the communication between the facilitators.

 

Results:

Along with the globalisation of world economy, the
speed at which information is processed and the concerns regarding human rights
and environment related issues arise have become rapid. These have a highly
direct reflection in the consumer market also. There has been a lot of steps
adopted to improve the supply chain management wherein, information is
traceable, transparent and is evident to be much more secure.

In order to achieve this the corporates have started
to ensure that they maintain a good “sustainable supply chain management
system”.

It defines social
and environmental standards
Ensure that the
business practices are sustainable
Involvement of
strategic planning
Monitoring and
evaluation of processes.

 These are
further explained with the references taken from the case study on “Risk
Management in Sustainable Supply Chain Management (SSCM): Lessons Learnt from
the Case of GMO-Free Soybeans”.

In 1990s several NGOs and huge population of consumers
were against GMO food products. The Buyers, supermarkets and importers were in
search and demand for the GMO-free products. In order to identify and track
their origin, control and ensure proper production and commercialisation, the
Swiss association called ‘Gebana’ came into action to support this process to
supply the GMO-free soybeans to the Swiss market.

The association had several Goals.

·      
To export GMO-free soybeans to Swiss market

·      
Guarantee the organic certification

·      
Have efficient working control system to ensure
quality production of GMO-free soybean

·      
To produce more social and environmental value
of soybeans.

·      
Have information passed on among the agro and
food industries.

·      
Ensuring that proper funds are created for the
soybeans production for producer’s increase in socio-economic status.

·      
Continuous evaluation of all social conditions
prevailing and ensure the cooperation among the industries, producers and
consumers.

Conclusion

For any
industry to be successful in the business, they should have a good team to work
and a framework produce efficient product. The most important is the
sustainability in the production. Further on this case of Soybean, it
illustrated the need for sustainable supply chain management and managing
inherent risks. Here in this case, proper process was not planned to attend the
risks. This would lead to the bottlenecks and conflicts. They didn’t have
responsive supply chains. Lastly, any supply chain process should have a
strategy to avoid and eliminate risks and other further consequences. Each
process is different from the other, so that has to be addressed using tailor-made
methods. The main necessity here is to find the appropriate strategy to curb
the risks that are involved. So any company should involve in total quality
management to handle the process and the its risks.

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