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Through the observation, there are a portion of the theories from various researchers that reviews and understand child development in various areas.

In one of the observation, it was noticed that she was able to dress and undress without any assistance however she was unable to button and unbutton on her own and needed assistance. In Lev Vygotsky’s theory, he sees cognitive development as a socially mediated process, in which children rely on the assistance of a grown-up and more expert peers as they acquire knowledge and problem-solve through Zone of Proximal Development and Scaffolding.

When she was having a conversation with me, she told me “Tomorrow my Papa is going to bring me to swimming!”. She was able to exhibit the use of future tense. In Jean Piaget’s second theory of cognitive development – Preoperational Stage, it expressed that mental images free child from the here and now, enabling them to think about objects when the items are not physically present, and to think about occasions before, during, and after their event.

During the observation, I could also notice that when her educator advised her to get different scissors, she did not give her reason on why she was using the scissors that her partner wants to use, rather, she just took after her teacher’s instruction. She was also able to comply with the teacher’s rule. This could be due to the classical conditioning that her educator has worked with her. Ivan Pavlov and John Watson found that by using classical conditioning, it can use stimulus to evoke reactions, thus, this can be used to instruct children to perform task or response to rules and so on with the provision of the trigger.

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