This study briefly assesses the environmental and social impacts associated with planning, operation and construction of Hyundai Nishat Motor (Private) plant at M-3 Industry City located near Faisalabad City, District of Punjab Province, Pakistan. This plant focuses in the light commercial transport segment with the introduction of Hyundai Motor Company’s latest and best available 3rd generation engine technology. In order to start a project that could have adverse effect on the environment it is necessary that Environment Empact Assessment report should be prepared. An automobile manufacturing plant has an adverse effect on the community if proper measures are not taken to avoid them (Brown., 1986). So, in this project the first step was the EIA report to minimize the adverse effects. This EIA report emphasizes the importance of plant and also that all the criteria are met during the whole process.
According to the legal requirement of Pakistan government, this document guarantees the implications of Pakistan Penal Code 1860 (In the background of the environment, the Penal Code empowers local authorities to control toxic emissions, noise and disposal of effluents), Land Acquisition Act 1894 (Strengthen the government to acquire private land for lays down the acquisition procedure), Forest Act 1927 Regulates forest resources. Strengthen the government to declare any forest area sheltered or set aside), Nation conserving method (The country’s primary approach outlines by NCS towards conserving natural resources, hopeful sustainable development, improving efficiency in the use and management of resources), Pakistan Environmental Protection Act 1997 (PEPA, 197 is a fairly comprehensive legislation and provides safety, conservation, treatment and betterment of the environment. It contains solid action plans and programs for the safety of pollution and promotes sustainable development), Canal and Drainage Act 1873 (This act prohibits dishonesty or fouling of water in canals (defined to include tube wells, reservoirs, channels and watercourses), or barrier of drainage) and Punjab Environmental Quality Standards (PEQS)-2016 for Social and Environmental sustainability.
Pakistan Environmental Protection Act, 1997: is a quite all-inclusive legislation and provides safety, rehabilitation, conservation and improvement of the surroundings. It contains solid action plans and programs for the impediment of pollution and promotes sustainable development. Punjab Environmental Quality Standards (PEQS)-2016, make sure that most allowable concentrations of pollutants in liquid and municipal industrial effluents discharged to most sewage treatment facilities, inland waters and the sea (three different sets of numbers) and from the industrial sources the maximum allowable concentrations of pollutants (16 parameters) in gaseous emissions must be obeyed. Furthermore, World Bank Operational Policies OP4.01 Environmental Assessment (January199) were used in assessing the significance of impacts from the proposed development, and for determining content and form of reporting from the World Bank was also utilized. This kind of operational policy by World Bank ensures the integrity of the assessment method.
So, this report ensures that the stakeholders were informed of these laws and the project will be according to the requirements set by the constitution of Pakistan. In order to independently work it is compulsory to follow the rules so that the general community and the ecosystem near the plant site remain unharmed (Cheyne., 1998). This report accepts that pollution of any kind has diverse impact on the environment. So, it ensures that the stakeholders are fully engaged about these concerns and committed to solve all the problems and lover the effects as much as possible. The proposed site falls within the boundaries of M-3 Industrial City, which before acquisition was under agricultural cultivation. Villagers around the site area carry out their agricultural activities. In the development of this project all the steps that are compulsory by the law were followed to ensure the reliable functioning of the project (Clarke., 2000). As far as international laws are concerned, this project has obeyed Performance Standards on Social and Environment Sustainability which consist on followings points:
? Management and Assessment of Environmental and Social Risks and Impacts
? Working Conditions and Labor
? Resource effectiveness and Pollution impediment
? Community Safety, Security, and Health
? Land acquirement and Involuntary movement
? Sustainable Management and Biodiversity Conservation of Living Natural Resources
? Native Peoples
? Cultural inheritance
Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) of Auto Plant Project has been carried out in compliance with the mandatory requirement of Section 12 of Punjab Environmental Protection Act (PEPA), 2012 which requires that:
“No Project shall commence construction or operation unless it has filed with the Agency an Initial Environmental Examination (IE) or Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and has obtained from Agency approval in respect hereof. PEPA shall review the IE & EIA and accord approval subject to such terms and conditions as it may prescribe or enquire.”
The implementation stages of the project activity include:
? The stage-1 comprises the onsite contouring studies and soil investigations.
? The stage-2 comprises the Laying of foundations excavation and commencement of erection work. Start of civil, electrical and mechanical work. Development of basic infrastructure. Fitting of instrumentation (like electrical penal etc.).
? The stage-3 comprises the Mill Equipment erection completion. Completion of the basic infrastructures water supply system, electricity supply etc.
The whole process is based on the EIA report. The baseline conditions that can affect the environment were studied (Cooper., 1994). These baselines of study are as follows:
? Physical Environment
? Biological Environment
? Socioeconomic Environment
As far as the decision about the whole process chosen is concerned, it is believed that it was and appropriate and suitable method. Before starting the project consulting the constitution relating to the project is the right decision. For the surety of smoothness in the process following national and international laws about environmental safety and project assessment are a good approach. The report indicates that the concerns about the baselines for healthy ecosystem were of prior concern and this dedication makes a project worthful. Environmental and social laws make sure the stability of the ecosystem in that particular region of concern.
The study has considered direct, indirect, permanent and temporary impacts of the project. Minor and major adverse effects have been completely discussed and their solution and tackling procedure has been thoroughly discussed. Waste recycling and environmental safety are of concern. Potential impacts that may arise from the execution of the project activities can result in soil contamination, soil erosion, water contamination, change in drainage pattern due to weir construction, water resource depletion, fugitive dust emissions, vehicular and generator exhaust emissions, damage to infrastructure due to blasting and noise nuisance due to blasting, drilling and batching plant. The impact of the project on vegetation are anticipated to be minor.Collaborating effectively with local communities in every phase of the project will lower the risk. Including noise and air pollution, safety hazards and other comparable Potential socio-economic impacts that may arise from the execution of the project activities are provision of job opportunities, aces to the health facilities, permanent acquisition of land and non-land assets for the project, people lose their productive assets to the project, diseases incidences, blockade of aces of local community due construction activities, disturbance of privacy and conflict between workers and local community.
To make sure safety, Contractors will give health checks and immunizations before expatriation. Equipment design and primary operational administration control techniquesArrangement of all solid waste management licenses and permits. Establishment of waste management disposal/recycling techniques and appropriate negotiation of contractor by HNMPL. Monitoring program includes regular monitoring of commissioning and construction actions for their fulfillment with the environmental necessities as per related values, terms and EMtP. The main components of environment as mentioned above is broadly covered bySurface water sources, Ground water quality, Ambient Air quality, Soil Characteristic, Noise, Flora and Fauna and Local communities and their concerns. To the nearest receptor, production relevant noise is not probable to be a concern, but to lessen this potential concern, production will normally occur during daytime hours. In adding up, any extreme noise generated by creation related actions will be shorten and short period. Furthermore, Health impacts associated with plant operations are known to be upper and lower respiratory disease, cardiopulmonary diseases, asthma and birth defects (Gérard., 2012). Construction vehicles / machinery / generators will be checked regularly for noise level by the contractor during construction phase. Construction vehicles / machinery / generators will be checked regularly for smoke emissions by the contractor during construction phase. Collection of solid waste shall be checked regularly by the contractor during construction phase. Sampling and laboratory testing will be done on monthly basis during the construction. These measures are necessary so that maximum limit should not be crossed and people enjoy the benefits of the project (HSC., 1993). In sequence to avoid health impacts adequate measures should be taken during the process so that the dust in atmosphere could not cause respiratory diseases. The noise pollution could not be eradicated because of the heavy machinery used at the site but if suitable measures like avoiding the heavy traffic during night time, proper transfer system of luggage at the site, noise cancelers at a site to lower the noise effect, are taken definitely this will lower noise pollution. According to the report the value of noise pollution will be below the allowable limit so it is of minor adverse effect (Fisher and Ittner., 1996). Moreover, it is the prior responsibility of the project site that no waste could contaminate the land drinking water or no waste enter the drainage before proper treatment. As it is an automobile industry, it contains harmful metals if not taken care of they can be lethal for the biodiversity (Macduffie., 1996). The report ensures that the local community was taken to table about the project pros and cons and removing the adverse effects was the prime importance. The treatment of industrial waste water is necessary according to the report and this is of importance for the health of the public (Parker.,2001).
The contractors aim at the regular checking of the ground water, air pollution and noise pollution. Moreover, there are some important points that there will be different kind of waste during the construction procedure. The problem is if these wastes are not properly cleared they will adversely affect the environment. To avoid these complications, it is advised that the Environmental Protection laws of Pakistan should be fulfilled and international requirements should be met during the procedure. These things will lessen the adverse effects. And a healthy work environment will be developed (Moos., 1974).
According to the guidelines of EIA, the stakeholders should be consulted and a proper time should be allocated for public review. Therefore, this project provides the essential safeguards for the safety of all the elements/segments of surroundings including in particular environment and human health. During the process the stakeholders were determined as follows:
? The primary stakeholders are the initial stakeholders, such as affected persons, general public and women residing in the project area. Accordingly, the consultations /focus group discussions were made with al primary stakeholders for sharing of information about the proposed project and expected impacts and understanding about the concerns by category of stakeholders.
? The secondary stakeholders are the representatives ofGovernmentDepartments/Agencies involved in the planning, plan, implementation along with process of the project, including various government departments such as District Administration, FIEDMC, EPA, WAPDA, Agriculture including the Horticulture wing, Irrigation, Forest, and other relevant departments.
During this process following activities shall be carried out:
? The supporter shall cause to be published, in any English or Urdu national newspaper, a public notice mentioning in this the kind of project, its precise location.
? The public notice issued shall fix a date, time and place for public hearing of any comments on the project or its EIA. The date set for public hearing shall not be prior than thirty days from the date of publication of the notice.
? The EPA shall also make sure the circulation of the EIA to the involved Government Agencies and solicit their comments on it.
? All comments received by the EPA from the general public or any Government Agency shall be collated, tabulated and accordingly thought-about by it before its call for approval.
The information collected for this part of study is as under:
? General information about nearby villages
? Basic facilities available in the nearby villages
? Educational, Medical & Recreational facilities
? Sources of income
? Major Conflicts Types of community
? Major Castes
? Ethnic and Sectarian Status
? Perception about the Project
? Perceived positive impacts during production
? professed negative impacts during production
? Perceived positive impacts during operation
? Perceived negative impacts during operation
? Gender Role and Status
As a consequence of the Public Consultation, the following suggestions are made:
? The management of the Project should measure up to the positive hope of the citizens of the region and give them maximum employment opportunities.
? Environmental defense according to the legal national & international needs should be make sured throughout the project prepared life, thus guaranteeing protection of the surroundings and human health. Property development approach through conservation of natural resources management is the best method.
It is an important thing that the before initiating this project the stakeholders are determined. The stakeholders play an important part in the development of a project. it is necessary the life of primary stakeholders is affected by these projects. On site activities add disturbance in their daily life style. It is a good thing to understand their concerns about the project that either they are happy with this project or not. If they are happy well and good. If they are not happy with this development then it is necessary to improve the project with necessary changes so that the primary stakeholders take interest in the development of project and show patience during the development. As it is an automotive plant, it can add air, noise, water and environmental pollution. So, the major concern of primary stakeholders remained their health. Environmental stability. Moreover, noise, water and air pollution add adverse effects on the people and biodiversity of the ecosystem. It is compulsory for the owners to meet all the environmental protection laws so that the society remains unharmed. During the survey it is perceived that the general public is happy with the project development and they are willing to sacrifice a bit of comfort for the project. It is always a demand for a project that it should increase the employment rate (Goldenhar., 2003). So, in this It is recommended that the project contractor and proponent should prefer the local communities to hire during commencement of project. Another positive pressing concern was raised that every person that could be benefitted by the project in the nearby society should be taken on the table. The secondary stakeholders had the keen expectation that the project will meet all the environmental safety laws and every process will be in the domain of the constitution. The gender role was of concern in the primary stakeholder engagement. Both men and women should be provided with equal opportunity and technical training skills so that they can work in the project and provide comfortable life to their families. An approximate calculation indicated that the addition of this project will increase the input to the Gros household Product from 2.3 percent to 3.8 percent;
? To increase addition to production from 22 percent 30 percent and
? To increase direct and indirect employment from 2.4 million currently to 4 million.
The EIA report emphasizes that the project’s adverse effects are very less than the benefits of the automotive plant. In Pakistan, the automotive field require advancement and with the addition of this manufacturing plant in the region the prices will be lower and tough competition will be among the automotive industry. Where there is a competition there is a hope of improvement. This plant adds a boost toward the employment and advancement in the field of automotive industry in Pakistan. The EIA report also clarifies that there were no endangered species in the are so it is not of concern. Moreover, an EMP has been made to deal with the concerning environmental issues (Neal., 2000). The limitations of the plant are that if the environmental safety effects are not taken care of it will badly disturb the life there. It can cause heath issues and add to pollution. So, EMP aims at ensuring the reliability and applications of all rules and regulations set by the Pakistan Environmental Protection law. The samples of soil, air, water and life there was also studied that could be directly affected by the plant so that adequate measure could save the environment. It is made sure in this assessment report that all pressing issues relating to the environmental safety will be perused completely to utmost satisfaction level. And these concerns are necessary for an automobile plant (Jasinski., 2016).
Recommendations for this plant include that they should have the most appropriate design meeting all the standards according to the safety. All environmental friendly machines should be provided there to lessen the noise, treat the waste material, avoid contamination of canal water or the drainage should be properly treated. When all these measures for the safety of workers and the people residing in the area taken the criteria for the heath of people will be met (Zohar., 2002). Toxic metals should be checked and their flow in the water bodies or atmospheric air should be controlled. If the traffic flow is maintained during day time it will be better so that at night it might not disturb the communities residing there. Night work at the site should be minimized to ensure the criterion. To add beauty and filter the atmospheric air trees should be planted. The CO2 emission in the environment due to the generator and vehicular traffic at the site should be reduced by using appropriate standard technologies like EURO 4. If all the parameter like ambient air, noise level in the atmosphere and waste water remain in the described limits then the standards of PEQs will be met. As far as the work on the site is concerned it is reported by the communities there that all the standard is being followed there to construct a state of the art project. It is also advisable that the storage tanks should be properly secured to avoid leakage (Flin., 1996). Incidental medical facilities should be made sure. Workers health should be monitored there to ensure their health. So, automobile plant should ensure as much safety level as by law (Sofia., 2010).