There are several health complications that arise with continuation of excess consumption or deprivation of certain vitamins, minerals, and macronutrients. Long-term effects from this can cause minor to severe health complications in life. To make appropriate changes, we need to start with understanding the breakdown of the analysis. We will go over the areas in which the concern is the greatest reflected in your nutrition.
First, we will discuss Vitamin deficiency. According to Carol’s chart, she averages about
44% vitamin A intake during the week, this puts carol beneath the RDA and is classified as
deficient. Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin, commonly found in foods such as meat, eggs, fish,
milk, vegetables and fruits (Rubino, et al, 2015). Vitamin A is involved with vision, reproduction,
growth development, and immune function(Gatica, et al, 2011). Problems that can occur with
long-term deficiency is night blindness and dry flaky skin(Gunstream, 2015). Women need to
consume about 700 ug of Vitamin A daily. Carol can increase her intake by eating more foods
enriched in Vitamin A on a daily basis, this will minimize any risks of developing long-term
health effects.
With the minerals, Carol also has a deficiency in Calcium. Calcium is an essential mineral that our bodies need. Calcium is required in the cardiovascular system for vascular contraction and vasodilation, skeletal system for muscle function, and CNS system for nerve impulse transmission, as well as endocrine system for hormonal secretion, even though very minimal of total body calcium is needed to support these crucial metabolic functions(2017). Calcium has been documented to aid in the reduction of cardiovascular disease risk by reducing intestinal absorption of lipids, lowering cholesterol levels in the blood, and promoting calcium uptake in tissue cells(2017). There are many areas of health that are related to the deficiency of calcium. Osteoporosis is a well-known disease caused by chronic low calcium levels, especially women, who are more suseptiable for bone and cardiac disease as they age. Women in the age bracket of 50-70 years have a Recommended daily amount of 1,000mg – 1,200mg needed. This can easily be achieved by consuming more yogurt, milk, and cheese. Another source of calcium enriched foods are dark leafy greens like spinach, kale, and broccoli. If it’s not proficient enough to consume RDA of calcium with diet alone, supplementations are available over the counter.
According to Carol’s diet there is an over consumption of minerals and macronutrients. To start with the minerals, Carol shows an increased amount of sodium intake, also known as salt. There is concern in over consumption of sodium in our diet that can have serious effect on our health. Sodium causes water retention, making the blood volume thicker. Thickened blood is harder to pump through the heart and through the blood vessels resulting in hypertension. Chronic hypertension can cause changes in blood pressure resulting in rigidity in the vascular vessels, leading to myocardial infarction, and even strokes because the heart has to undergo more stress to function (2016). There is also leading evidence that too much salt can damage the kidneys, heart, and greater vessels, without even increasing the blood pressure(2016). Sodium is like a silent killer, because it is widely used in all our food as a means of a preservative, and is difficult to control consumption. The main dietary change to help lower the risks involved is to consume more fresh fruits and vegetables, that are potassium enriched and low sodium foods, as well as eating less bread, cheese, processed meat and foods, that contain high content of sodium and minimal potassium(2016).
Lastly, the over consumption of the macronutrient Carbohydrate. Carbohydrates are what fuels the body with energy. The consumption of too much carbohydrates can cause the body to store unused energy into the adipose tissue creating weight gain. Carol’s carbohydrate intake exceeded what the daily recommended amount to maintain weight.
In recent research shows a known correlation between carbohydrates from foods containing simple sugars and starch in conjunction with refined grains, causing weight changes in women (Fogelholm, Anderssen, Gunnarsdottir, & Lahti-Koski, 2012). However, they also discovered that high carbohydrate consumption from fruits and vegetable sources in women provided a tremendous reduction with weight changes (Fogelholm, et, al, 2012). It has been found that with an increased consumption of whole grains, nuts, high-fat dairy and fresh fruits can be a preventative for increased obesity, unlike refined grains, like enriched bleached flours or meat and desserts, that tend to promote weight gain(Fogelholm, et, al, 2012). Carol is currently in the category of being overweight and in her history she struggles with gaining too much weight. Some diet changes would be to consume less refined grains or enriched bleached flours and eat more whole wheat or whole grains like brown rice. Obesity can lead to several health complications, such as cardiac disease and diabetes.
The main goal is to become healthier and maintain Carol’s current weight status. Carol needs to make a lifestyle change, starting with diet and adding more exercise and quitting smoking. Smoking is the leading cause of several health conditions, such as cancer. Diet is a huge contribution to preventions of diseases. Carol needs to be more conscious on what she puts into her body. She needs to eat more fruits and vegetables as the majority of the plate and protein with whole grains as the other. Adding an extra day of walking to Carol’s routine can cause significant changes in the body. Exercise can keep the joints moving and lubricated and help burn calories and the energy that has been stored as fat. Water consumption is very important, as our bodies are mostly made up of water. You can always add flavoring to the water to get accustoming to drinking more. Substituting water for a soda every day makes a big difference, but the new goal for Carol is to drink at least 8 glasses of water daily. With a combination of effort and diet change, Carol can prevent some serious life threatening diseases from taking over her body.


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