The Thought Card story was written by a famous author, Hanoch McCarty. The story was from A 4th Course of Chicken Soup for the Soul and published on April 1, 1997. Chicken Soup for the Soul is a series of books, usually consisting of short, inspirational stories and motivational essays. The 4th Course of the Chicken Soup for the Soul book includes heart-warming stories concerning with love, parenting, teaching, learning and death. The Thought Card story highlights parenting and teaching. In the story, the author displayed some conflicts between a young boy and his parents and the unique assignment of his teacher. It conveys the message that human beings always need to do introspection without blaming others when they have problems in their society. It is a good motivational story which guides students to take their responsibility, to know a means of communication between parents and teachers and to find the solution of their own problems by themselves instead of blaming other people.
This study primarily aims to help the students and future learners who are interested in exploring literal translation. It also tries to analyze the nature of translation method. To achieve these aims, the objectives of the study are-
To be able to touch with translation methods, particularly literal translation method
To explore how literal translation method is used in this short story
To identify how words, phrases, clauses and sentences are translated by literal translation method
To know the reasons why the author used this method
To examine the distinct effects of the translation.
?The research questions for this study are:
How many words,phrases,clauses and sentences translated by literal translation method are found in the short story “The Thought Card” and its translated version?
Do these categories portray as an essential part in this paper?
What difficulties are found in this paper?
?Translation is still important even in this era of globalization where mostly everyone use English as a second language because it is not only a way of rendering words to other words but also a very vital way of explaining things without harming the origin. Then, it also conveys cultures of people all around the world.
?In Cambridge Dictionary, it is said that translation is the process of rendering and expressing something from one language to other language. As Foster mentioned in 1958, translation is the one which the items of a text is altered from the source language into target language. As Newmark said in 1988, translation is translating the meaning of a text of the source language into the target language according to the way that the author intended the text. Furthermore, as Venutti expressed in 2000, translation is a way of communication and the intention of translation is to convey the substance of the original one to the foreign readers.
In Cambridge Dictionary, it is shown that literal translation is translating the same meaning as the basic or original meaning of a word. As Newmark said in 1988, literal translation is direct translation, and in literal translation, the meaning of the words is kept, but the word orders are rearranged in order to fit the structure of the target language, and it points out problems to be solved as pre-translation process. Moreover, as Oxford expressed in 2014, translators try to search a direct coherence of words between the source language and target language when they render things literally.
?Hanoch McCarty was born in 1940. He is one of America’s most sought-after keynote speakers and also an inspirer and an energizer.
?He is very popular because of his great energy, appropriate usage of his examples and stories, the drama and the humor of his presentations. Interacting with his audience in the most exciting ways also makes him famous. All over the world, Hanoch conveys over 90 presentations annually. He has spoken in most major cities in the United States as well as in the 16 countries including mainland China, Japan and Norway. He speaks to schools; whole school systems, faculties of just one school, members of educational professional associations as well as to non-profit groups. He also speaks to professional associations such as medical practices, law practices and so on. His presentations are filled with high energy and touching stories. After his presentations, his audiences feel refreshed and renewed as well as are ready to make a difference.
?Hanoch is the author of many books and training programs such as Self Esteem in the Classroom, Growing Pains in the Classroom, Ten Keys to Successful Parent Involvement and so on. Moreover, as a coauthor, he wrote these five best-seller books with his wife Meladee: A 4th Course of Chicken Soup for the Soul, Chicken Soup for the Grandparents’ Soul, Act of Kindness: How to Create a Kindness Revolution, A Year of Kindness: 365 ways to spread sunshine and The Daily Journal of Kindness.
?U Phae Myint was born in 1949 in Rakhine State, Myanmar. He is a Burmese fiction writer and politician. His wife is Daw Khin Nwe Oo and they have two children.
?He was educated at Thandwe State High School in Rakhine State in 1966. He graduated from University of Medicine (1), Yangon in 1975 and studied journalism at the Indochina Media Memorial Foundation at Bangkok. He worked as a physician until 1988. He previously served as editor for two publishing houses, Sarpaylawka Bookhouse and Myanmar Book Publishing House.
?He won Myanmar National Literature Award in 1995. He was suggested to be Minister for Information in President U Htin Kyaw’s Cabinet on March 22, 2016. The Assembly of the Union confirmed it on March 24. Over forty books of fiction, non-fiction and translated works have been published. Some of them are Ward No-6 (Original by Anton Chekhov), Parts for Sale and Other Short Stories which won Myanmar National Literature Award and On Death and Other Short Stories.
Accomplishing this paper, a descriptive qualitative method is applied: transforming rough data into a clearer form of data which make them easy to understand, managing data to conduct descriptive information. To have knowledge of literal translation, some data and ideas are collected from reference books and online resources. Researching on literal translation, firstly the definitions and methods of literal translation are studied, secondly how words, phrases, clauses, and sentences are translated are explored. There are totally (91) words, phrases, and sentences that are translated by using literal translation method. 15% of words, 77% of phrases and 8% of sentences are explored. However, clause is unable to find out.
Considering this study, we have found out several translation methods such as literal, word-for-word, faithful and sematic methods. However, we sorely target at the exploration of literal translation method. So, four categories such as words, phrases, clauses and sentences using literal translation method are particularly researched. Then, while exploring, 14 words out of 91 (15%) are translated word to word. 70 phrases can be expressed as a percentage (77%). Unlike words and phrases, there are only 7 sentences (8%) are discovered. However, clause to clause category of literal translation method cannot be found out. Comparing with other studies, a small number of words, phrases and sentences through literal translation method have been observed. This is because Author U Phae Myint, the translator of “The Thought Card”, mostly used semantic and faithful methods not to weaken the essence of the original story. All in all, this study illustrates the nature of literal translation method and it is a great support for our future study concerning the literal translation method.
This section presents the conclusion of this paper concerning with the result that comes out from the previous section. This paper represents the application of literal translation method used by U Phae Myint in the short story, “The Thought Card” by Hanoch McCarty.
According to findings and discussion of this study, it is clear that the use of literal translation method in this short story is a few., the translator gives the general meaning of the text without deviating from the original meaning comparing to other stories. This is also the reason for a small number of findings concerning with literal translation method.
As a result of this story, this short story can draw attention from readers through its translation method. The choice of translation method makes the text in the story alive. Although the translator of this story, U Phae Myint mostly uses semantic and faithful methods, he cannot omit to use literal translation method in translating some words, phrases and sentences. Therefore, it is obvious that literal translation method is the one which the translators cannot ignore to apply in doing translation.
For future researches, some fields are left to study. Future researches can be done by studying on other translation methods, procedures and other topics in translation of the story. The present paper could only give the details about literal translation method in “The Thought Card” due to the limitation of time.
This dissertation may be helpful for students who want to be proficient in translation. The detailed analysis about literal translation method in this paper is so clear that they can fully understand this method. However, it is not enough to understand just one method to be clever at translating. It is important for them to understand well about other areas of the translation to be proficient in translation field.