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The framework as shown in figure 1, shows the convergence of different technologies. The figure depicts the IoV ecosystems – an ecosystem that governs the dependency of each technology between and among each other for the successful and full implementation of IoV system. These technologies includes (1) Electric Vehicles, (2) Electric Smart Grid (for electrically operated cars) (3) Connected Vehicles and (4) Autonomous Driving.
On the contrary, the model implies the different areas of concerns to be explored as follows: (1) IoV for the vehicle control and management; (2) IoV for enabling traffic management and control; (3) IoV as enabling new transport scenarios (multi-modal transport) and (4) autonomous Driving and Interfacing with the Infrastructure (V2V, V2I).
From the above concept model, the IoV Detailed Components its functionalities is shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2. IoV Detailed Components
Figure 2, shows the different elements needed in IoV realization. Such elements are smartphones and smart vehicles onboard units which acquire information from the user (e.g. position, destination and schedule) and from onboard systems (e.g. vehicle status, positions, energy usage profile, driving profile). These elements interact with external systems (e.g. traffic control systems, parking management, and vehicle sharing managements). Primarily, the capabilities of IoV are the ability of vehicles to communicate with proximal vehicles (V2V), with infrastructure (V2I) and with applications (V2X).
C. IoV Implementation: Constraints and Issues
Beyond the potential benefits of the IoV, there are challenges and concerns that need to be given attention. Sensors used by the vehicles and traffic control infrastructures, collects information about road and traffic status. Therefore these sensors and/or actuators must be robust in order to reliably delver information to the system that requires sophisticated data mining strategies. Another thing to look into also is the area along real time information such as: car positions, destinations and schedules that are significant parameters in car system operations.
Generally, the constraints and issues associated with IoV can be summarized based on the extent of efficiency, robustness and effectiveness of the technologies categorized as: (1) embedded System Technology (sensors and Actuators); (2) Infotainment and Telematics Technology (the connected capabilities of car to duplicate entertainment and features of drivers ) and (3) The V2X Technologies
Embedded System Technology associated to IoV includes but not limited to GPS, Digital Communication Module (DCM) and other sensors and actuators that are used in car system physical operations and control. Just the like of DCM, it is responsible in for communicating information wirelessly to telematics service providers (TSP) or the authorize maker itself. Also car requires navigation services and that it needs GPS to ascertain its location. Thus, the timeliness, reliability and accuracy of information captured and generated by sensors and actuators are very important. Fortunately enough, embedded system technologies are already on its finest level. Having this, presumptions risk associated with actual used of these technologies in IoV can be disregarded.
The near-ubiquity of mobile phones and the rapid rise of smart-phones prompted the introduction of “infotainment and telematics” applications as used in vehicle operations. These applications were built on a driver’s “brought-in” phone. These technology services can be categorized into two – (1) Software providers and (2) third-party content and app providers. Considering that this services are manage by third party system then the issue along (1) security and privacy and (2) communication gateways (communication protocols, bandwidth, speed, etc) will arise.
V2X Technologies refers to multiple sensors embedded not only in the vehicle itself but in all manner of Smart devices across the IoT landscape – from wearable and Dedicated Short-range Communications Devices to Smart-Home gadgets to infrastructure– that can communicate with and share data with the vehicle through what is being called V2X integration. On this scenario, the breadth of devices and sensors available create a tremendous scale of data based on a wide scope of detected events. And as such IoV being part of IoT systems, can communicate the generated data to a common platform where it may be aggregated with data originating from sources, including third-party content and social media. These data would then be and analyzed and correspondingly generates information that would deliver to the vehicle or other designated output devices. Note, that this triangulation of data coming from these myriad devices is lies the greatest issues of privacy and security.
In addition, in V2X operation the data representation, transmission and analysis is very complex. The operation usually involves cooperation and collaboration between multiple stakeholders from multiple industry sectors. For this case, such operation requires communications and connectivity thus there is a need establishment of a common communication and network protocol. Note that when multiple connection exist then a bottleneck in communication may also arise which will result to a bottleneck in communication affecting the quality of service.
In conclusion problems associated in IoV implementation revolves along communication technologies which can be summarized as: (1) Security and Privacy (including data ownership) and (2) communication infrastructure i.e. networks and protocols, bandwidth and speed.
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III. IOV IMPLEMENTATION SCHEME
IoV architecture and its implementation mechanism can be categorized into 3 levels as (1) Physical Level, (2) Network and Data Transport Level and (3) the Application Level of implementation. Note that this categorization is in conformity with the standard network layer level as shown in figure 3.

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Figure 3. Communication backbone network
Physical level implementation refers to the physical level of IoV operation such as, sensor detection, actuators response and control, vehicle communication and network connectivity. Specific vehicle operation on this level includes detection of possible collision, control of vehicle braking system and control of auto driving system.
Network and Data Transport level implementation, deals on communication and network connection processes from and between another vehicle, roadside infrastructure units and other IoT communication facilities used for long range data transmission. This particular level also concerns about the network and routing protocols, data transmission speed, and other parameters under network and data transport layer of standard OSI network model.

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