The effect of environmental problems to Moscow’s sustainability
Mahatma Ghandi, who was the leader of the indian independence movement stated that “Earth only satisfy all human’s need, not human’s greed.” (as cited in Nini, 2016). This quote refer to the natural resources in our planet have limited and they can be exhausted by people’s demand. According to the United Nations World about the definition of sustainability. “Sustainability is the capability to satisfy the requirements of the present without compromising the flexibility of next generations to fulfil their own needs.” (Evans, 2018). It contains main three sectors, which is economic, environmental, and social. All three sectors are equally important to help cities to be sustainable. Currently, many local representatives must use a structured process, which is the RFSC, for urban development (Bizarro, n.d.). The Reference Framework for Sustainable Cities (RFSC) is the tool for community European officials that helps to process of cities development for sustainability (Bizarro, n.d.). Research by the United Nations suggests that while global population grows, urban population is also rapidly growing in 2050 (as cited in Hoff, n.d.). Moreover, these people need to use many resources after that they also want to dispose of their waste. From the action of people, it can lead city faces with environmental problems. This term paper will focus on Moscow which is the capital city of Russia. Moscow is the famous city and has many facilities in there (French, 2018). The reason above can causes Moscow to has a dense population, and has many environmental issues. Moreover, environmental problems have effects on the sustainability of Moscow.
The initial environmental problem that Moscow deals with is water pollution. In the past, Russia has a lot of clean water supply, but nowadays a large section of water is contaminated by garbage from factories (Bramlett, 2018). Borgen project reports that “Water pollution become the biggest problem for Moscow, so this city depends on surface water about seventy percent” (as cited in Bramlett, 2018). “There are poisonous substances that surpass safety standards” Dmitry Artamonov, who is a leader of the harmful substances project of NGO in Russia, told to the BRICS Post (as cited in Ritter, 2018). Each instance that is researched by Dmitry Artamonov illustrated that water has a high level of chemicals, including sulfur, oil, heavy metals, and aluminium (as cited in Ritter, 2018). This is a negative impact on people’s health who use water for drinking because nowadays Moscow’s drinking water which is come from upstream locations has contaminant from industries (Ritter, 2018). Eventually, this problem does not only have negative consequences for Moscow, but it also has an impact on Moscow sustainability in long term. We easily observe water pollution cause people do not have a good health. According to the passage about is your water clean? (2014), contagious diseases will be transmit through polluted water ; it impacts on society. When Moscow does not have a good surrounding for tourism, this can lead to decrease profits from tourists, and Moscow may be less attractive places as Vasenina (2013) said attractions may be ugly looking. Water pollution can cause aquatic animals in water dead or extinct (Vasenina, 2013), so it has a large impact on the environment and economy respectively.
Additional evidence that environmental issues are the major problem for Moscow is that Moscow has problem a waste management. From estimation of ecologists, the amount of solid waste in Moscow are increasing per annum, and perhaps in three years all current lowland in Russia will have restricted capacity (Sorokina, 2018). Because of bad smell of waste, thousands of citizens in Moscow have compliant about recycling and waste management (Kravchenko, 2018). NGO of Russia said that “A number of waste that Russian drop about two percent are burnt, garbage recycling only seven percent, and the rest is in landfill from thirty percent in previous decade” (as cited in Mordasov, 2018). However, this problem caused by a lack of attention of citizens and Moscow manage waste inappropriately. The government has decided to solve garbage problem by burning all of them, but this action can cause to air pollution (Mordasov, 2018). In 2017, President Vladimir Putin enacted the law about recycling waste, so he ordered regional authorities to provide waste containers for recycling (Sorokina, 2018). Moreover, in 2018, there are many recycling factories in Moscow (Sorokina, 2018). Eventually, the amount of solid garbage can cause Moscow to have a poor environment and affect its tourism in long term. According to passage about overflowing garbage bins impacts on health and environment (2016), inappropriate waste management can cause poor sanitation and the places do not attract tourists.
The final environmental issue that Moscow faces is air pollution. Even though Moscow may have seemed far away city, Moscow is the city, which has many people live in there. Air pollution is caused by crowded citizens in Moscow and people use a lot of fuels, which come from using cars (Davydova, 2015). According to Aleksandr Kolotov, who is the environmental specialist, atmospheric pollution about eighty percent come from traffic, and air quality is a big issue in Moscow (as cited in Davydova, 2015). Some cities in Russia start to plan regulations about the kind of vehicles and fuels that not pass to environmental standard by improving pedestrian and cycling, also enhancing public transportations. However, Moscow deals with other problems is that the process is very slow and is opposed by certain people group particularly motorists (Davydova, 2015). Moreover, air pollution in Moscow is not only caused by traffic fumes, but it is caused by smoke from industries (“The problem of air pollution in Moscow”, n.d.). For example, according to the passage (as cited in ” The problem of air pollution in Moscow, n.d.), there are twelve heat power factories in city and Moscow’s government supported all these factories, so it can cause people’s health problem. According to Boris Revich, an environment and public health professional, the small molecules, which come from petrol and diesel engine cause people die every year in Russia (as cited in Davydova, 2015) because air pollution cause people have respiratory and cardiovascular problem, and most people, who live near major roads, are risk to have health problems (Roizen, n.d.). Furthermore, air pollution can affect the sustainability of Moscow.
To sum up, Moscow is the capital city of Russia, which has many populations, and people may face environmental problems because it causes from using too many resources from people. The three main of environmental issues that Moscow cannot solve them is that water pollution, waste management, and additional air pollution. These problems have effects to city and sustainability of Moscow in long term. Nowadays, sustainability is a very important concept that every city should concern about it because sustainability allows people in city to gain many benefits. However, another problem that Moscow deals with is people do not worry about the effect of their using resources behaviors. As a suggestion, the government should encourage their people and build campaigns that can convince people to solve environmental problems together. If Moscow can solve its environmental issues, it can keep city to be sustainable.