The Design Argument
The Design Argument
The Design Argument
This argument also known as the Teleological Argument was given by William Paley and states that a designer of the universe must exist because the universe and the living organisms in the universe indicate a design in how they are arranged, their consistency, their unity, and their pattern (Geisler, 2013). This argument recognizes the complexity of the design of the universe, which did not happen by chance rather recognizes a designer behind every happening. The complexity of the design can be seen through the specified design, the low chance of occurrence, and the specific pattern of the design hence the recognition of high intelligence in the design (Geisler, 2013).
Nothing so complex and of high intelligence could happen by chance or through natural processes (Oppy, 2014). Hugh Ross supported this argument by stating that there are 140 features of the universe that are finely tuned for physical life, 402 features of the planetary system finely tuned for intelligent life, and 922 features of the planetary system finely tuned for various life forms (Oppy, 2014). These features indicate a complex and a specific design of the universe. Scientists try to look for explanations for every happening but they have no evidence to support these happenings and no law to guarantee the values detected (Oppy, 2014).
Bill Dembski supports the claim by stating the zero chance or the impossibility of the probability of these happenings by chance or natural means (Oppy, 2014). The fine-tuning of systems is not based on any law and these occurrences exceed the probability of random formation. How the universe operates and the perfect manner in which living organisms function as different parts function individually for the total function of a living organism to be recognized indicate a designer behind every aspect of the design (Oppy, 2014).
Objections to the Teleological Argument
The Teleological Argument is based on analogy and explains happenings in the universe beyond our experience. Supporting information cannot be proved as it is based on our reasoning and this can mean that there is no designer behind the creation of the universe (Farley & McKim, 2014). Although there is a beauty in the design and a complexity in the nature of living organisms, David Hume pointed out the suffering and evil on the universe, which goes against the perfect design of the universe by a perfect God (Farley & McKim, 2014).
Scientists argue that the universe could not be designed since it’s not a non-living thing rather is a living organism due to the changes and developments witnessed through scientific researches (Farley ; McKim, 2014). Hume argued that just because people think that the universe was designed by a perfect designer does not necessarily mean that it is perfect. The natural disasters and calamities happening around the universe are against God’s nature of a perfect being (Farley & McKim, 2014).
Addressing These Objections
The scientific community argues that the design of the universe, the pattern, and the complexity happened by itself which is not possible as there is no evidence to prove this argument (Harrell, 2016). This happening can only be explained by the existence of an ultimate being who is God capable of doing all these supernatural causes. This complexity and design could not have happened by chance but by a powerful creator with a purpose of every cause (Romans 1:20-21, King James Version).
Everything created in the universe has a purpose and did not happen for no reason. The Bible which is God’s word supports the Teleological Argument and states that God is the sole provider of the universe who provides rainfall, the sun, and everything else on the universe for his purpose (Acts 14:17). The Bible also states that the heavens declare the glory of God and the sky above proclaims his handiwork which means that God is responsible for the design and creation of the universe (Psalm 19:1). God created the heavens and the earth (Genesis 1:1). This is evidence of God as the designer behind the creation of the universe.
The Soundness of the Argument
The Teleological Argument is a sound argument because the universe indicates a design and a purpose (Harrell, 2016). Everything in the universe has a purpose and works perfectly for that purpose. This complexity of the universe and the living organisms in it could not happen by chance. The Teleological Argument is quite convincing since scriptures from the Bible support it. The Bible states that God is responsible for the creation of the universe and everything in it as he is a powerful being, divine, and has invincible attributes (Romans 1:20).
The scientists have also been unable to provide explanations of the complex designs of the human body, which is made of different biological parts, which work together for the whole functioning of the body (Harrell, 2016). These parts include the brain, the heart, and other parts, which work together in unison. The functioning of one part is related to the whole body functioning. The Teleological Argument supports the existence of God and holds him responsible for creating the universe (Harrell, 2016).
Farley, B. W., ; McKim, D. K. (2014). In the twilight with God: A critique of religion in the light of man’s glassy essence. Eugene Oregon: Cascade Books.
Geisler, N. L. (2013). Christian apologetics. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic.
Harrell, M. P. C. M. U. (2016). What is the argument? An introduction to philosophical argument and analysis. London: Mit Press Ltd.
Oppy, G. (2014). Reinventing Philosophy of Religion: An Opinionated Introduction. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK.