If we talk about sustainable engineering first we should talk about development so what are the impacts on environment, economy and societal structure due to various developmental activities error happening.so change any of the above component can cause an impact on the ultimate objective of human development so whenever development happens there is an exploitation of resources which leads to changes in qualitative and quantitative characteristics of environmental components which could lead to depletion of natural resources .some examples can explain these notes such as over fishing over exploitation of ground water ,deforestation and industrialization. sustainability is just concept in which developmental activities are directed in such a way that the needs current and future generation are also preserved so how can we preserved these needs by integrating, environmental protection ,social advancement ,and economic prosperity.
Engineers are ancestors who basic engineering aspects such as food production ,waste management sanitation industrial processing and energy development .The concept of sustainability was interested among the people from ancient times to the current world. A restricted society might experience an average development success which made to be respected.
Introduction for sustainability
Sustainability means meeting the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs sustainability is giving future generations as many opportunities as, If not more than, behave had our selves. A sustainable world is one where human needs are met equitably without harm to the environment or sacrificing the ability of future generation to meet their own needs.
Environmental sustainability is a ability to maintain the qualities that for example, most people want to sustain(maintain): Human life, The capabilities that the natural environment has to maintain the living conditions for people and other species (example: clean water and air, a suitable climate),The aspects of the environment that produce renewable resources such as water, timber, fish and solar energy, The functioning of society, despite non renewable resource depletion. The quality of life for all people; the livability and beauty of environment. Americas’ challenge is to create a life sustaining Earth, a future in prosperity and opportunity increase wild life flourishes and pressures on the oceans earth and atmosphere diminish. The three legged stool of sustainability is environmental, social, egomaniac.
The extravagant lifestyle of the western world(undreamed of 50 years ago) is depleting the planets resources at an unsustainable rate .Engineers provided the technology that has made this depletion possible, so we must play an important part in addressing the problem. To do this, engineers of all disciplines must understand the main principles of ecologically sustainable development.
Real life complexity
In many real life situations, there is no single straight forward criteria for judging a “good” solution. There are often multiple parties with different vested interests. Economic, social and environmental aspects of a problem from the so-called triple bottom line .The TBL is a set of design criteria that sits alongside technical measures, and is used in the engineering method to inform decisions.
Ecologically sustainable development
There are a number of definitions of ecologically sustainable development(ESD).Such as “Development meets the needs of the present without comprising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” next one is ” Using conserving and enhancing the community’s resources son that ecological process, on which life depends, are maintained, and the total quality of life , now and in the future, can be increased. “These are some of them
History of environmental awareness
Community discontent with environmental impact of industrial revolution. Racchel Carsons book “Silent spring”(1962),regarding the effects of DDT In the 1970 S,mass media and telecommunications brought environmental concerns to an international audience. Australian federal election in 1983 was significantly influenced by proposed Franklin River dam.
In the 1970 S environmental protection agencies emerged to regulate air and water pollution.
Rio Earth summit of world leaders in Brazil(1992)led to the Rio Declaration, which recognizes the need for sustainable development and joint action.
During the 1990 S, Australian and NZ governments enacted legislation for enterprises to evaluate and manage their environmental impact.
Current debate about restricting CO2 emissions.
Energy and resource use that minimizes pollution and waste, and that considers that broder environmental, social and economic impacts on people, now and the future.
Strategies for sustainable engineering
There are a lots of strategies for sustainable engineering. Some of them are maintain ecological integrity and biodiversity, apply precaution ;don’t wait for scientific proof that an emission is harmful, consult stake holders, promote Equity for all people, including future, conserve resources, limit emissions and practice industrial ecology is use waste from one industry as feed for another.
promoting intergenerational equity.
Ensuring that future generations have access to resources that would provide opportunities for a quality of life equal to or better than that enjoyed by the current generation.
Consider such examples as collapse of the cod fisheries in the 1990 S, overuse of waste sinks, such as atmosphere and ocean sand Poor farming practices leading to salinity.
Promoting intergenerational equity
Ensuring the consumption of resources and distributions of wastes does not disproportionately favor one country, region or social group, causing disadvantage to another, consider the fact more then, billion people do not have safe drinking water and consider the large number of children who die from preventable diseases.
Triple bottom line analysis (TBLA)
An approach to cost –benefit analysis commonly used for evaluating the sustainability of corporate or industry operations, or for evaluations a range of options.
Indicators of environmental, social and economic sustainability can be either qualitative or quantitative. They should aim to be reliable, useful consistently presented, reproducible, auditable and demonstrate full disclosure.
Now we have a little bit of definition sustainability, so now we think about applications of sustainability principles in designing. Design is not only connected with products but also the development and commercial sustainability. Frequently we use sustainable design, eco-design and green design. It shows that design is essentially synonymous for more works.
In design we can see many principles these principles make the design sustainable. An environmentally friendly approach and nature resources consideration are mainly required for a sustainable design to a design process. “Sustainable design is the practice of designing building so that they exist in harmony with natural systems”. Which describes sustainable design in the architectural sector that is defined by American society of Interior designers with smithlewis architecture. But those principles not limited to product design, architecture design, interior design and graphic design.
There are more common principles in the philosophy of sustainable design between other areas such as product and process and innovation, etc. First one is using manufacturing process and producing product which are more energy efficient that traditional processes and end products. Longer-lasting and better functioning products which will have to be replaced less frequently, which reduces the impact of producing replacement are required to build and engineers are requested to consult sustainable design standards and guides and to design products for re-use and recycling and making that recyclable products to disassemble. Because of the parts could be reused to make new products easily. People who are in the engineering field have to consider product life cycle and have to use life cycle analysis tools to help them to design sustainable products. We must shift the consumption mode form personal ownership of products to provision of services which provide similar functions some examples companies that have made this shift are carpet tiles, copier leasing rather than purchase and car sharping.
Finally materials should come from nearby, sustainably managed renewable sources that could be composted when their usefulness is exhausted.
Resources is important thing for sustainability in concept. We can divide global perspective of resources in to kinds which are renewable and non renewable resources which either continuously available or regenerate in a short time span is called as renewable resources. But resources which are rely on geological activity to regenerate is called as non renewable resources. We can divide renewable resources in two kinds in a energy serving way which are you how resources and continuous resources. Trees and ground water is a best example for flow resources. Solar energy is a good example for continuous resources and also non renewable resources have to kinds which are minerals and fossil fuels iron and lime stone which are minerals that we studied in our school studies. We already knew that coal, oil are fossil fuels.