Construction of the Scientific Approach

Science refers to the application of a systematic and logical
approach as a means of establishing the mechanism through which different
aspects and elements of the universe operate. The scientific approach is
founded on the principle of empiricism developed by John Locke. The fundamental
assumption in this model is that the sense are the only sources of knowledge,
and that perception is the sole mode of proving the mechanisms of operation of
the universe and its elements. This essay explains the construction of the
scientific approach as evidenced by the development and actualization of the
laws of motion.

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Newton’s laws of motion are a classic example of how the
scientific principles are founded on the on empiricism. Under this approach,
all deductions must be supported by empirical evidence. This is to say, one
must be able to experience the given phenomena so as to arrive at a conclusion
regarding the element noted. Typically, the laws and principles are developed
from scientific inquiries which may occur at two distinct levels, that is: they
may be deducted from the theories and hypotheses or induced from actual
observations and experiments.

In our case, let us consider the first law of motion which
stipulates that, ‘a body maintains its motion along a straight line unless
acted upon by an external force’. The scientific inquiry regarding this law may
have been caused by one of the simple implications of the law such as inertia.
Following the observation, a hypothesis is developed to prove the point. A ball
may be rolled across a slanted surface. The hypothesis in this case is that the
ball will continue to move unless it meets an obstacle. The control set-up in
this regard will be placing a barrier in the path of the ball. The observations
are then recorded and the set of variables established. The variables in this
case are distance and speed. The experiment is repeated for a specified number
of times, each time, with a different pair of variables. The variables are then
plotted on a graph. The analysis of the graph leads to the development of a
conclusion which either supports the null hypothesis or is against it. In
principle the law is only valid if it disproves the null hypothesis.

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