Scandinavian countries. The approach used was qualitative with narrative elements and findings showed that motivational factors influencing green procurement are the government seriousness and emphasis on the use of green product once they appear to be important and relevant regardless of the cost.

It is wealth noting that cost implication is an important factor pertaining to commodity prices. In most cases green products are expensive than non green products. This may foster the practice depending on requirements and concerns of the government on vital and key areas. Regardless of all benefits that green procurement offers, price differential is still a predominant criterion in selection. This entails a gap to be envisaged in Tanzania as the study pointed out that pricing is important for the government to waive the decision to pursue green procurement and vice versa.

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According to Simpsoms, (2007) each government has the role to enforce strict policies and regulations to be complied so as to encourage green procurement practices. Public entities have the role to comply with government regulations. Testa et al (2013) mentioned that existing regulatory support helped public authorities in European Union in developing green procurement practices. Likewise, Ramakrishna et al, (2015) conducted a cross sectional study on factors influencing adoption of green procurement in small and medium enterprises in Malaysia where a sample of 175 employees was surveyed and supported by stakeholder theory model. The findings denoted that government regulation is among the important factors influencing adoption of green procurement. Furthermore, a study by Yang and Zhang (2012) on factors for green procurement in China indicated the same findings that procurement laws and policies are among the indicators for green procurement adoption.

Kaikuye (2017) in the study of assessing green procurement practices in Tanzania procuring entities a case of Government Procurement Service Agency reported that green procurement in Tanzania is faced by difficulties including poor regulatory framework which does not support implementation of green procurement. Similarly a study by Kibwereza, (2016) on factors affecting implementation of green procurement, a case of Morogoro Municipals mentioned lack of regulatory support as being among the challenges on implementing green procurement in Tanzania.

It is therefore necessary to put in place procurement policies for environmental friendly products so that governments can penalize actions of environmental contamination to entities that do not comply with the policies and laws. Despite that, the current rules and regulations in many countries do not constitute promotional traits on goods which are environmental friendly as they are treated the same as others. This entails a gap to be envisaged in Tanzania on assessment of factors hindering adoption of green procurement.

Availability of green product is said to be another factor influencing adoption of green procurement practices as denoted in the study on factors influencing the uptake of green procurement in Italy where a survey of three Italian regions was conducted. (Testa et al, 2012) Walker and Brammer (2009) also argued that availability of green products plays an important role towards adoption of green procurement. According to the report by International Institute for Sustainable Development in 2013, about 58% of respondents on their survey cited poor availability of green products being a reason for not purchasing green products (IISD, 2013). Likewise, the study conducted in Nigeria Universities, among 150 lecturers who were issued questionnaires, 68% responded that availability of green products have high influence towards purchasing green products. (Karatu and Mat, 2015)

Green products and services are scarce in some areas and sometimes rare to be found to carter for the demand satisfaction because their production requires high technology which means high investment and also green products are produced in small amount due to market uncertainties. This entails a gap to be pursued by assessing the causality between the identified factors hindering adoption of green procurement practices in Tanzania. With that, Testa et al (2012) and OECD (2015) suggests that commodity pricing, commodity availability as well as the regulations for purchase of items are the main issues which affect adoption of green procurement practice. Therefore, the study seeks to assess the causality relationship between the three factors identified on green procurement practices.

2.4 Challenges on implementation of Green procurement
There are a number of challenges encountered during implementation of green procurement. According to Borchers and Wolpe (2012), insufficient knowledge on green procurement concept, difficulties in finding green products, lack of political commitment and price of green products


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