Schizophrenia is a complex mental disorder that does not have a cure. There have been many attempts at treatments over the nineteenth, twentieth and the twenty-first century but as history has shown the treatment of the mentally ill have not always been humane. The understanding of the disorder has evolved since it was first given the name of dementia praecox popularized by psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin, later known as schizophrenia thanks to Eugen Bleuler. There have been many theories through history some have thought schizophrenia to be disturbances of self, some have thought it to be frustrations breaking the psyche. Now it is known to be more complex than that. Even though there is not cure there are available avenues to help those afflicted with symptoms.
Szasz, T., & Gendlin, Eugene T. (1971). From the slaughterhouse to the madhouse. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research & Practice, 8(1), 64-67.http://web.b.ebscohost.com.nuls.idm.oclc.org/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=1&sid=4dedb073-3827-4373-9d01-8e3c4fe7e2aa%40pdc-v-sessmgr02
The author tells of how electro shock therapy went from a way to sedate pigs to a psychiatrist from Italy named Ugo Cerletti using it on a schizophrenic prisoner who was left in his custody. Cerletti administers the treatment first without consent from the patient who is called by his initials S.E. Then Cerletti administers treatment of EST again against the consent of S.E.
I intend to use this article to show an example of how schizophrenics were treated as objects in experiments and not as humans. How therapeutic treatments for schizophrenia were often inhumane.
Arantes-Gonçalves, F., Gama Marques, J., & Telles-Correia, D. (2018). Bleuler’s Psychopathological Perspective on Schizophrenia Delusions: Towards New Tools in Psychotherapy Treatment. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 9, 306. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00306/full
The author describes Bleuler’s perspective on the negative symptom of delusion in schizophrenia. The article talks about the importance alogia plays on the other symptoms of schizophrenia. It also talks about three different types of delusions.
I plan on using this article to give a description on the way Bleuler viewed schizophrenia and how he played a role in developing how others see schizophrenia today.
Faria, M. (2013). Violence, mental illness, and the brain – A brief history of psychosurgery: Part 1 – From trephination to lobotomy. Surgical Neurology International, 4(1), 49.
In this article the author talks about the history of, trephination, lobotomy, and electro shock therapy. These are different types of psychosurgeries. It also talks about the founders of these surgeries.
I plan to use this article to introduce different treatments for the mentally in the 20th century. I will show how there was little regard for patients physical health while being treated in asylums.
Brus, M., Novakovic, V., & Friedberg, A. (2012). Psychotherapy for Schizophrenia: A Review of Modalities and Their Evidence Base. Psychodynamic Psychiatry, 40(4), 609-16.
The authors of this article talks about four different ways to treat schizophrenia and how each one affect schizophrenics. They talk about the psychological and social roles of schizophrenia too.
I intend to use this article to introduce four modern ways of treating schizophrenia. I will show how some are more promising than others, but a combination may be what is most helpful.
Chung, M. C., & Hyland, M. (2012). History and philosophy of psychology. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.
The authors talk about a brief history of schizophrenia. They talk about different ideas that Minkowski, Blankenburg, Bin and Laing had about the disorder. They also talk about how schizophrenia relates to self and to agency.
I intend to use the text book to illustrate how the view of schizophrenia has changed over the years for from psychanalyst to psychoanalyst.