The rule of law is the authority and influence of law in society especially when viewed as a constraint on individual and institutional behavior. Its principle is about all members of a society are considered equally. It is also an absolute predominance or supremacy of ordinary law of the land over all citizens, no matter how powerful the citizen is and a situation in which the laws of a country are obeyed by everyone. This principle encompasses an independent judiciary, equality of citizens before the law, the requirement for governments to base their actions on legal authorities according to the rule of law and citizens having the right to seek legal remedies against their governments. The rule of law implies that every person is subject to the law, including people who are lawmakers, law enforcement officials, and judges. In this sense, it stands in contrast to an autocracy, dictatorship, or oligarchy where the rulers are held above the law. The most important demand of the rule of law is that people in positions of authority should exercise their power within a constraining framework of well-established public norms rather than in an arbitrary or purely discretionary manner on the basis of their own preferences or ideology. It insists that the government should operate within a framework of law in everything it does, and that it should be accountable through law when there is a suggestion of unauthorized action by those in power. However, the rule of law is not just about government. It also requires that citizens to respect and comply with legal norms, even when they disagree with them. When their interests conflict with others’ they should accept legal determinations of what their rights and duties are. Also, the law should be the same for everyone, so that no one is above the law and everyone has access to the law’s protection.

Accountability is the state of being accountable, liable or answerable. It is also an obligation or willingness to accept responsibility or to account for one’s actions. For example, the obligation of an individual or organization to account for its activities, accept responsibility for them and to disclose the results in a transparent manner. It also includes the responsibility for money or other entrusted property. Accountability is also the fact of being responsible for what you do and able to give a satisfactory reason for it. In ethics and governance, accountability is answerability, blameworthiness, liability, and the expectation of account-giving. . In leadership roles,  accountability is the acknowledgment and assumption of responsibility for actions, products, decisions, and policies including the administration, governance, and implementation within the scope of the role or employment position and encompassing the obligation to report, explain and be answerable for resulting consequences. Accountability is an element to indicate who is ultimately answerable for the correct and thorough completion of the task, and the one who delegates the work to those responsible. Accountability also cannot exist without proper accounting practices; in other words, an absence of accounting means an absence of accountability. Example of accountability, as a country mayor, Mc Kinlay has pushed for accountability from drug makers and distributors over the opioid epidemic.

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