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Rob Kitchin and Martin Dodge (2011) detail the ways in which many of the infrastructures underpinning the modern world depend on code for their functioning. They detail the existence of ‘coded infrastructures’ such as computing networks, communication and broadcast entertainment networks, transport and logistics networks, security and policing networks, and even satellite-based global positioning systems. These vastly complex infrastructure networks orchestrate many aspects of daily living and embed code firmly within the systems that constitute contemporary societies. For example, smartphones would be dumb without telecommunications infrastructures; traffic flow in cities would slow to gridlock without traffic management systems; government could not govern without administrative infrastructures, and so on.

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