Regulates the crystalloids colloid imbalance and improve renal function
Various types of crystalloids (oxalate, uric acid calcium, and cystine) are present in urine, which are kept in solution by the presence of colloids (mucin and sulphuric acid) in urine by the process of absorption. There is imbalance in the crystalloid colloid ratio. i.e. increase in crystalloid and fall in colloid level leading to formation of renal stones (Hadimioglu, Saadawy, Saglam, Ertug, & Dinckan, 2008). Urinary stone are formed when colloid lose the solvent action or adhesive property. In ethylene glycol induced urolithic rats observed that an elevated level of urinary phosphorus are responsible for stone formation. Increased excretion of uric acid has been observed for stone formation. The predominance of uric acid crystals in calcium oxalate proteins are capable of binding to calcium oxalate and modulate its crystallization also play an important role in stone formation. Super saturation of urinary colloids results in precipitation as crystal initiation particle(Aksu, Demirci, & Ince, 2011).
Common madder (Rubia cordifolia), Pomegranate (Punical granatum) and Morina oleifera polyherbal formulation regulate crystalloid colloid balance by decreasing excretion of urinary calcium oxalate, uric acid, Phosphorus and protein in urolithiasis(Yadav et al., 2011).
Improved renal function
Various nitrogenous substances like urea, creatinine and uric acid are accumated in blood, create obstruction in outflow of urine and decreased the glomerular filtration rate. Numerous herbal formulations such as Moringa oleifera and Rubia cordifolia prevent the accumulation of nitrogenous waste product which are responsible for enhancement of glomerular filtration.
Regulate oxalate metabolism
Hyperoxaluria is most significant risk factor in pathogenesis of renal stone. Increased concentration of oxalate is responsible for precipitation and deposition of calcium oxalate crystals. Aqueous extract of Tribulus terrestris interfere with the metabolism of oxalate in male rats.
Antioxidant activity (free radical scavengers membrane stabilization)
Calcium oxalate crystals leads to the production of reactive oxygen species development of oxidative stress followed by injury and inflammation have significant role in stone formation. Increased level of ROS and reduction in cellular antioxidant capacities due to down regulated expression of the antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase and glucose-6-phopsphate dehydrogenase) as well as radical scavengers like vitamin E1 ascorbic acid reduced glutathione leads to the development of oxidative stress.
Natural antioxidants seems to possible therapeutic strategy for prevent the oxidative stress and renal cell injury in urinary stone. Paronychia argentea, B.ligulata and Trachyspermum ammi prevent the hyperoxaluria oxidative stress and calcium oxalate crystal deposition is due to their potential antioxidant activity. Quercus salicina, Achyranthus aspera, Ammi visnaga and Mimusops elengi should reduction in oxalate induced renal tubular epithelial cell injury due to their antioxidant activity.
Inhibition of ACE/ Phospholipase A2
Renin angiotensin system play an important role in renal disease progression. Renin angiotensin system activate the NADPH oxidase in renal cells which is responsible for ROS production. Using ACE inhibitor or blocking angiotensin receptors seem to significantly reduce renal calcium oxalate crystal deposition as well as the development of inflammation.
Numerous herbal remedies has antimicrobial properties and shown significant action in prevention of urinary stone. (Campos & Schor, 1999)
Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity
Patient having kidney stone suffering from several muscular pain, unable to sit properly. Various plants are showing analgesic properties useful in treatment of kidney stones. Solidago virgaurea and Phyllanthus niruri have their beneficial action in urolithiasis due to anti-inflammatory effect.