Reflection & Critique #1
Done By: John Chen Admin No. : P1502628
Analysing the ECOasis fronting Singapore Polytechnic’s FoodCourt 2
In Singapore, a Typical Plaza usually have its landscape and hydrology as a separate system. They often have water features however, they are seldom natural elements. The pools are typically tiled concrete with minimum to no landscaping and plants are also often for aesthetic purposes planted in separate pots and planters. Their water features are seldom for storm water management and often replenished with fresh tap- water.
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Fig 1. Typical Plaza

Fig 2. ECOasis at Foodcourt 2
In contrast, the ECOasis fronting the Foodcourt 2 is an integrated ABC Plaza Design. As it is designed to adopt the Active, Beautiful and Clean waters, ABC Waters programme by PUB.
Firstly, this ECOasis is constructed with up to 50% of recycled materials such as sustainable composite timber and recycled concrete slabs. The plants and flowers affected by renovation within the campus are relocated to this ECOasis instead to being discarded.
Secondly, rainwater that is collected at the roof of the linkway bridges and buildings which are incorporated in the design is then diverted to the collection tank through rainwater downpipes. The collected rainwater will then go through a natural filtration process through terraces with plants before being discharged into the pond. When the capacity of the pond has reach its maximum, the excess water is stored in an underground storage tank and used recycled to be used as irrigation for the plants and to replenish the mini waterfall instead of using fresh water or discharging the excess water. This can help to reduce the consumption of fresh potable water.
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731520131445Excess water for irrigation of plants
00Excess water for irrigation of plants

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Thirdly, the plants and water features are incorporated as part of the ECOasis instead of being separated. Other than begin an aesthetic water feature to beautify the environment, the plants also act as a cleaning agent by cleansing the water naturally by trapping particles, taking in nutrients and other pollutants hence, improving the water quality.
Fourthly, the design of this ECOasis incorporates the linked bridge and platform instead of being separated. This design allows the linked bridge and platform to act as a collection point for rainwater and at the same time the beautifying the area and providing a conducive outdoor environment for learning and working.

Lastly, the ECOasis also uses solar panels to generate power for use at ECOasis and surrounding.

In conclusion, this ECOasis is designed as an integrated plaza with ABC waters design features such as plants acting as a natural filtration system, excess water used as irrigation, incorporated landscape features, underground storage tank and solar panels which simulates water collection, filtration, retention and recycling. These features help to keep the ECOasis self-sustainable which requires low maintenance, a dynamic yet conducive environment. Therefore, the ECOasis at food court 2 is an integrated Plaza with ABC waters design features.

The
possibility of servitude was not a thought that began in the New World.  It began oversees, across the Atlantic Ocean,
with the first colonies in the mid 1600’s. 
Servitude was an acknowledged English practice, with failed endeavors by
a few settlers, to force upon indigenous clans effectively here until the point
when they struck African Gold.  Menard
(2013) stated, “One of the major historiographical debates about the
colonies of British America concerns the seventeenth-century transition from a
workforce dominated by British indentured servants to one dominated by African
slaves”.  The disclosure of African
Gold, otherwise known as, free help was now present throughout the New
World.  In itself, this was a grave
inconsistency to the introduction of this New World, which was conceived in
liberty and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal, even
though the New World began as a slavery society.  Both Britain and the five southern colonies
(Georgia, Maryland, North and South Carolina and Virginia) started to
appreciate great financial success and prosperity, not just from its source of
free labor, but also from its production of such cash crops that included
tobacco, rice and indigo.  These colonies
also reaped outstanding profits by exchanging slaves, via trade.  The flourishing economy of the New World was
powered on the backs of voiceless and faceless African slaves.

            From the 1660’s through the American
Civil War, no North American power extended as broadly as the Empire of Britain
and the United States.  Both England and
the United States utilized state power to defend slaves, reinforce
slaveholder’s cases of authority, fortify cases of power in sovereign
borderlands and conquer new regions in order to protect slavery in the most
important colonies or states. Hammond, J.C. (2014).  They also used their power in order to
achieve profits from its cash crops.  

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            By the mid 1650’s, the English settlements in the New
World, perceived there to be much money to be made through the free labor of
African slaves.  Eagerness and the
unquenchable craving for riches, glory, and influence drove the settlers, which
thus bolstered the unstable development of the African slave exchange industry,
in order to take care of the high work demand of the plantation owners.  The financial revelation of African Gold had
turned into a new economy for the New World settlers, as well as England, which
too had turned into a noteworthy partner in the African slave industry.  In 1760, there was an estimated four hundred
thousand African slaves in America, which rapidly grew to almost four million a
century later.  In 1860, slavery had
spread over the south from Georgia to Texas, yet the plantation owners were
still not happy. They were in search of more slaves in order to increase the
size of their plantations and estates.

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