PATHOGENESIS AND PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
Type 1 diabetes is mainly found in children. It can be caused due to environmental factors as well as passed down through genetics. We have beta-cells in the pancreas which produce insulin. In type 1 diabetes these beta-cells are destroyed Siddiqui, 2011. There are people who are genetically susceptible to this autoimmune disorder. These individuals have an immune system that will have an autoimmune response to beta-cells in the pancreas. People with type 1 diabetes have islet cells that help in establishing the autoimmune processes that cause the destruction of beta-cells Anon, 2015.
Genes play a big role in whether a person is more likely to have type 1 diabetes. The human leukocyte antigen HLA on chromosome 6 was the first discovery that genes also contributed to type 1 diabetes. They actually form almost half of the type 1 diabetes. The two most important haplotypes are DR4-DQ8 and DR3-DQ2. These can be seen in most children who have type 1 diabetes. The genotype that consists of these two haplotypes causes the highest risk of the disease.
The second most common is the insulin gene found on chromosome 11. Over the last few years there are many other loci involved with type 1 disease Gillespie, 2006.
Anon. 2015. Pathophysiology of type 1 diabetes. Available: http://outpatient.aace.com/type1-diabetes/pathophysiology Accessed 4 September 2018
Gillespie,M.K. 2006. Type 1 diabetes: pathogenesis and prevention. Available: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1489998/ Accessed 4 September 2018
Siddiqui, A.A. 2011. Diabetes: Mechanism, Pathophysiology and Management. Available: http://www.ijddr.in/drug-development/diabetes-mechanism-pathophysiology-and-managementa-review.php?aid=6713 Accessed 3 September 2018