Nowadays many people begin have sexual relationships since adolescence.Undoubtedly, teenage sexual relationships bears great consequences and responsibility. Teenage sexual relationships are followed by an early unwanted pregnancy. It is the most common consequence of teenage sexual relationships. Every year number of registered teenage pregnancy grows and in our country it happens more and more often. For example, as Kasenova (2016) asserts, “According to the Ministry of Health and Social Development of the Republic of Kazakhstan, 33,051 cases of teenage pregnancy have been registered in the last 5 years, including 9,906 abortions among girls aged 15 to 18 years.”.
Early unwanted pregnancy is the consequence of the teenage sexual relationships and carries not only a threat to the health of the future baby, but also it is dangerous for a young mother. The cause of teenage sexual relationships may be the lack of sexual education and this leads teenagers to misunderstanding of their responsibility and consequences. Also, many teenagers think that with the onset of the menstrual cycle, their organism is already ready to conceive and bear a child. But teenager’s organism is not ready for such a load and it is a huge threat to the life of the mother and child. A woman can become pregnant from the first menstruation, even with a single sexual relationship. Therefore, early pregnancy is conditionally divided into age from 11 to 15, and from 15 to 18 years. After conception, the teenagers have choice: to have an abortion or continue the pregnancy. If teenager decides to have an abortion, later there may be gynecological problems, up to infertility. If teenager decides to give birth, then she will undergo a serious test, because in the young woman’s fragile body numerous complex changes will begin to occur that contribute to the intrauterine development of the fetus, prepare the organism for childbirth and breast feeding.
To avoid early unwanted pregnancy scientists do not advise to have sexual relationships, but if it is not possible, scientists offer to use chemical method of contraception-spermicides. Spermicidal methods of contraception are based on the use of agents that have a harmful effect on spermatozoid: they contain an active ingredient that destroys the sperm cell membrane for a few seconds. Spermicidal substances are available in the form of creams, gel, foam, candles, tablets, soluble films. For these agents, the correct use of the method is very important: spermicides must be injected deep into the vagina, no later than 0.5-1 hours before the sexual relationship. Spermicidal applicators, tablets, suppositories, and films should be in contact with the cervix. For most spermicides, the active ingredient is nonoxynol-9, which in addition to the destructive effect on spermatozoid, has a bactericidal and virucidal effect. It inhibits the growth of the following microorganisms: chlamydia, gardnerellosis, mycoplasmosys, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, ureaplasmosis and also reduces the contagiousness of treponema pallidum. Another active component – benzalkonium chloride – is more effective than nonoxynol-9 in 4 times. It is chloryl benzalkonium is the active substance of the agent “Pharmatex”, which when introduced into the vagina provides a spermicidal and antiseptic effect.
The use of spermicides does not give 100% guarantee, but in difference with other contraceptives, spermicides more effective and protects teenagers from sexually transmitted diseases and unwanted early pregnancy. Also, they are safe for health, can be used constantly, can be combined with other methods of contraception (caps, diaphragms, condoms) to improve the efficiency, create additional lubrication, no recipe required for purchase and it can be used urgently. So the teenagers can not worry about their health and about risks of conception of a child. But the using of spermicides has side effects, for example: allergy and irritation, which can bring discomfort to teenager, but it is happens rarely. It means, that using of spermicides has more advantages, than disadvantages and to avoid unwanted early pregnancy teenagers can use spermicides and it is the most safety method for their health.
Also, spermicides are expensive, “pharmatex”- one of the most popular spermicide, costs about 2500 kazakh tenge for one packaging and it is not available to all teenagers, because frequent use hits the pocket of teenagers, who cannot earn money now. This economic factor is the reason that teenagers do not use spermicides and early unwanted pregnancy happens more and more. And if the cost of spermicides was lower, country could avoid many unwanted early pregnancies.
In our century, children began to grow faster and the problem of beginning have early sexual relationships is very relevant not only in our country, but in the whole world. For example, The United States of America has the highest rates of teenage pregnancy according to statistics for 2013: 52 girls out of 1000 are pregnant.
Teenagers should begin have sexual relationships after 18-19 years old, because it will be better for their organism and for their future babies. After 18-19 years, organism of young woman will grow stronger and be able to bear healthy child. But if teenagers will begin have sexual relationships, the using of spermicides will be the most effective to avoid early unwanted pregnancies.