Name: Mohammed F. Fofana
Metrix number: Tp2016/17/H/1295
Degree obtained from previous institution: B.Sc. in Information Technology- United Methodist University (UMU)
Program applied for: M.Sc. Software Engineering
Supervisor and Co-Supervisor: Professor G.A. Aderounmu and Dr. Odukoya H.O
.Research area: Software Engineering
Research Topic: Identifying web spam with user behaviour analysis.

Chapter one
With user behavior analyses there have been numerals challenges in combating web spam in search engines. With the improvement of growth with the modern approaches of information’s distribution around the word, web search engines have create more important to people life around the world, it make information sharing reading more easy from one place to another by the internet. With all of these beautiful life the internet and web engines providing for the life of people, web spam has become one of the major factors of embarrassment for search engine and web owners. Web spam is junk you see in search results when websites try to cheat their way into higher positions in search results or otherwise violate search engine quality guidelines. A decade ago, the spam situation was so bad that search engines would regularly return off-topic web spam for many different searches.

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In Nigeria there are about ninety one million five hundred ninety eighty thousand seven hundred fifty seven internet users (91,598,757) which constitute about 47.7% of the population using internet, search engines frequently use by about 36.5% regard using search engines as a major way to find newly appeared information of their choice. With the explosive growth of information on the Web, search engines become more and more important in people’s daily lives.

After a certain kind of Web spam appears in search result lists, engineers examine the characteristics of this spam type and design the specific strategies to identify it. However, once a kind of spam is detected and banned, the spammers will turn to develop new Web spam instantly. With this method, anti-spam techniques can only identify Web spam which has already caused severe loss and drawn search engineers’ attention.

In contrast to the prevailing approaches, we propose a different anti-spam framework in which spam sites are identified because of their deceitful motivation instead of their content/hyper-link appearance. We introduce three features developed from user behavior pattern analyses and design a learning-based approach to combine these behavior features to identify Web spam pages. During the check for information using the search engine, it usually returns thousands of results for a certain query, most search engine users only view the first few pages in result lists according to the statistic gather from the research.

There are many anti-spam dictions system built to combat the spread of spam from search engine to another but most of those system purposely use to only detect a specific types of spam. As a consequence, the ranking position has become a major concern of internet service providers. In order to get “an unjustifiably favorable relevance or importance score for some Web page, considering the page’s true value” various kinds of Web spam techniques were designed to mislead search engines. In 2006, it is estimated that about one seventh of English Web pages are spam and these spam lead to great obstacle in users’ information acquisition process.
There are two main types of spam, and they have different effects on Internet users. Cancellable Usenet spam is a single message sent to 20 or more Usenet newsgroups. Usenet spam is aimed at “lurkers”, people who read newsgroups but rarely or never post and give their address away. Usenet spam robs users of the utility of the newsgroups by overwhelming them with a barrage of advertising or other irrelevant posts. Furthermore, Usenet spam subverts the ability of system administrators and owners to manage the topics they accept on their systems.

Email spam targets individual users with direct mail messages. Email spam lists are often created by scanning Usenet postings, stealing Internet mailing lists, or searching the Web for addresses. Email spams typically cost users money out-of-pocket to receive. Many people – anyone with measured phone service – read or receive their mail while the meter is running, so to speak. Spam costs them additional money. On top of that, it costs money for ISPs and online services to transmit spam, and these costs are transmitted directly to subscribers.

Therefore, spam detection is regarded as a major challenge for Web search service providers. State-of-the-art anti-spam techniques usually make use of Web page features, either content-based or hyper-link structure based, to construct Web spam classifiers. In this spam detection framework, when a certain kind of Web spam appears in search engine results, anti-spam engineers examine the characteristics of this kind of spam and design specific strategies to identify it. However, once one kind of spam is detected and banned, the spammers will develop new Web spam techniques instantly. Since the beginning of search engines’ wide adoption in the late 1990s, Web spam has evolved from term spamming, link spamming to current hiding and JavaScript spamming techniques.

Although machine learning based methods have shown their superiority for being easily adapted to newly-developed spam, these approaches still require researchers to provide specific spam page’s features and build up suitable training sets.
Research Statement
After the research we realized that this kind of anti-spam framework has caused many problems in the development of Web search engines. Anti-spam has become an ever-lasting process but it can only detect Web spam types which have caused severe loss and have drawn anti-spam engineers’ attention.

It is quite difficult for anti-spam techniques to be designed and implemented in time because when the engineers are aware of a certain spam type, it has succeed in attracting much users’ attention. Compared with the prevailing approaches, with the help of this research we propose a different anti-spam framework: the User Behavior-oriented Web Spam Detection framework.

Web spam attempts to deceive search engine ranking algorithm instead of meeting Web user’s information needs as ordinary pages. Therefore, the user-visiting patterns of Web spam pages differ from ordinary Web pages. By collecting and analyzing large-scale user-access data of Web pages, we find several user behavior features of spam pages. These features are used to develop an anti-spam algorithm to identify Web spam in a timely, effective, and type-independent manner.

This project intended to provide a system that will protect and guide web engine and web user from spammer and spam, that normally embarrassment web user.

This system will provide a strong security against spammer provider and the spam itself from been spread over a network of a company or agency, the system will also help prevent spam for spreading virus and malicious software to computers.

The objective of this project include but limited:
Is to develop web spam detection framework in which spam sites are identified because of their deceitful motivation instead of their content/hyper-link appearance.
We introduce three features developed from user behavior pattern analyses and these features can identify spam Web sites from ordinary sites timely and effectively.

We design a learning-based approach to combine the proposed user-behavior features and compute the likelihood that the Web sites are spam.

Going to create corresponding Web spam training sets, this data set will be used for evaluating performance search engine.
The system going have a spam dictions.
The method that is going be used for this project is to structure and develop a well define system that will be able to trick and block all Spam pages and spam hyper/links. Analysis will be made to discover areas in which web spam are been identify the weaknesses and the objectives of the proposed system and its design will be implemented. This method consisted of but limited to:
The web engine systems will alert the end user about a spam massages
The system will advise the user not to follow the link because It is a spam massage
User will advise and worn about the thread that involve if he/go on the page that they have been worn about
The system will delete on wanted web spam massage
If the page detected is not a spam massage but spam it resemble the name of a spam page you will be given the right to choose go or not.
Add fields that only spam bots can see and fill in.

The system will use a CAPTCHA.

The system will have human-friendly bot-unfriendly test question.

The session tokens that are applied at the site level and required by the form.

Data record from the form submissions like IP address and use that to block spammers.

The implementation of a web spam with user behaviour analysis system will help improve prevent the limitation of web spam from been spread on a company website or organization.

The system will do the following but limited:
The system will have CAPTCHA.

The system will be human-friendly bot-unfriendly test question.

The session tokens that are applied at the site level and required by the form.

We will collect data record from the form submissions like IP address and use that to block spammers.

Scope of the project
The scope of this project is to enlighten the user more on what a spam entitles, and why the user community has become a major focus by spammer.

MATRICC NO: LMBA4-05/18-00016
The Psychodynamic model states that people tend to be successful and self-employed
because of “troubled childhood”. The troubled childhood days are a result of abuses, low self-esteem, low level of confidence and self esteem. Growing in such an environment some people do have suppressed wishes and dreams towards those in control (Jignesh Rathod, 2017).
You are strongly advised to refer the relevant topics covered in this module and refer to real-life industry examples and address the following requirements.

1. Critically articulate the theory or the model associated with the information provided
2. Through a real time example of a businessmen associated with the model, critically
examine the creative and innovation he adapted in his business to be successful

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Question 1: Critically articulate the theory or the model associated with the information provided above

The psychodynamic approach comprises all the models in psychology which see human’s operative built upon the interface of energies and forces inside the individual, mostly unconscious, and amongst the diverse structures of the character. Freud’s psychoanalysis remained the novel psychodynamic concept, nevertheless the entire psychodynamic method contained all models that remained grounded on his ideas, the words’ psychodynamic and psychoanalytic was regularly jumbled. Recollect that Freud’s concepts stayed psychoanalytic, but the term ‘psychodynamic’ mentioned to both his philosophies and those of his supporters. Freud’s psychoanalysis is equally a concept and rehabilitation.
Sigmund Freud (amongst the 1890s and the 1930s) established a group of philosophies that have designed the foundation of the psychodynamic method to psychology. His models are efficiently acquired – i.e., grounded on what his patients told him during a therapy. The psychodynamic therapist would regularly be giving to the patient for misery or worry associated syndromes. Through his psychodynamic philosophy of the psyche, Sigmund Freud declared that our character and the intellectual problems that we grieve can be sketched outside our conscious self-discipline – that our unintentional mind, and the inborn instincts that we might not be alert of, are what inspires the mode in which we act. Freud remained an initial browser of speaking remedy, which presumed that by speaking about an issue with a psychotherapist, an individual can recognize any problems that may have happened previously in lifetime and in chance, overpowered the existing inner battles of their unconscious observance. His interest was in the changing aspects of the mind – the conscious and its subconscious influences. He felt that the energy in the psyche was an endless value, and so instead of vanishing from the conscious, it would shape up in the subconscious and cause cumulative inner tension until it was addressed. For example, if something annoys you, the liveliness of your anger does not expend itself if you internalize it. Rather, it may be moved to the subconscious, and lead to a suppressed anger which you may be ignorant of on a conscious level. Freud claimed that the human psyche contained of three separate areas – the id, ego, and superego – which compete against one another for control over our behavior.
THE ID signifies our most thoughtless, wild needs, and pay no respect for what is suitable or sensible. Inborn characters such as the need for food, water, warmth and sexual desires originate in our id. In a sense, the id is our ‘inner child’ – it drives our natural behaviors from birth and supposes its anxieties to be met instantly, irrespective of any penalties. The id stands by the Desire Code, which declares that we seek to maximize pleasure and sidestep pain wherever possible. Also confined
within the id is the death determination, a self-destructive impulsiveness which drives us to the end of our life.

The next component of the psyche is the ego, which acts as a midway between the awkward demands of the id and the outside reality. It tries to please the desires of the id as much as is virtually possible without essentially considering why some demands might be unreasonable. The ego remains self-centred and does not ponder on other people’s needs or wishes. It acts according to the Realism Attitude, which, is different from the Desire Code of the ID, takes the confines of what can be gotten from the outside world.

The final factor of our psyche is the superego. This senses concern for others and again tries to satisfy the wants of the id, but recognize that some of those wants may unfavorably touch others. It acts as a filter for our behavior and preserves our conscience, leading to considering other people’s emotions and to demonstrative responsibility.
The utmost reproach of the psychodynamic approach is that it is irrational in its examination of human behavior. Many of the perceptions central to Freud’s theories are independent, and as such, tough to exam technically. For example, how is it conceivable to scientifically study perceptions like the unconscious mind or the triple personality? In this reverence, it could be claimed that the psychodynamic viewpoint is confirmable as its theories cannot be empirically examined. However, cognitive psychology has recognized unconscious procedures, such as procedural memory (Tulving, 1972), automatic processing (Bargh & Chartrand, 1999; Stroop, 1935), and social psychology have revealed the position of implied processing (Greenwald & Banaji, 1995). Such experimental results have established the character of unconscious processes in human behaviour.
Kline (1989) claims that psychodynamic theory contains a sequence of hypotheses, some of which are more simply verified than others, and some with more subsidiary evidence than others. Also, while the theories of the psychodynamic approach may not be effortlessly verified, this does not mean that it does not have solid descriptive control. However, most of the proves for psychodynamic theories is interpreted from Freud’s case studies. The core situation now is that the case studies are supported on reviewing one individual in detail, and with input to Freud, the persons in question are most often his patients. This makes inductive reasoning to the whole world tough. Other tricks with the case study technique is that it is inclined to scientist favouritism. Review of Freud’s scientific effort advises that he occasionally one-sided his patients’ case antiquities to ‘fit’ with his theory (Sulloway, 1991). The humanistic approach makes the reproach that the psychodynamic viewpoint is too settled. Freud proposes that all views, characters, and reactions are resolute by our infant understandings and unconscious psychological procedures. This is dimness because it recommends, we have no conscious power over our actions, parting slight room for the knowledge of own action.

Question2. Through a real time example of a businessmen associated with the model, critically examine the creative and innovation he adapted in his business to be successful

THE SUCCESS STORY OF OPRAH WINFREY, the wealthiest African American of the 20th era, was born in Kosciusko, Mississippi in 1958, on 29th of January. She is recognized as the most self-made American television fabricator, host, and humanitarian and is among the utmost powerful women in the universe. She did not have a hopeful infancy and had to experience a diversity of poverties in her adolescent life. After her parents’ parting, she was referred to her grandparents, to lived in so much lack. Some say that she used to
dress on clothes made of potato sack. She united with her mother at the age of 6 who relocated with her to Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Her mother spent her all day out employed as a maid at homes and had no time for petite Winfrey. At the age of nine, as she says, she was raped by her cousin, her uncle, and a family friend. When she could not take it anymore, she flees away from her home at the age of 13 and had a child at 14. After her son’s demise in embryonic stage, she went back to live with her hair stylist father in Tennessee. This was the first time, as she recollected, she that she studied extremely hard and attained an honours’ student. Her devotion shortly was rewarded and she turned out to be the most popular student at East Nashville High School and gained numerous honors in open speech competition. Later, she went to study communication from Tennessee State University.
At the age of 19, her life was turned around when she was employed at a local Radio Station as a co-anchor for the local evening news. In 1984, she underway to host ‘AM Chicago’, an early morning talk show where she shared her story and used it to motivate other women who had similar experience with her, which later most watched show in America. Later, it was retitled as ‘The Oprah Winfrey Show’. The combined talk show turns out to be the most widespread show in the Television antiquity with over 30 million American audiences and traversed across 144 nations international. She has also shown herself as the greatest significant spiritual frontrunner through ‘Change Your Life TV’ with 22 million feminine spectators.
Apart from being a TV host and producer, she is the co-founder of Oxygen Media and initiator of Oprah Magazine. In 1998, she began a contribution named “Oprah’s Angel Network” for which she handles all organizational costs. She is recognized as the 32nd most humanitarian person in the universe. In 2005, Business Week recruited her name amongst 50 most substantial humanitarians for her involvement which was comparable to $303 million dollars. As said by Forbes of 2009, her valuable is $2.7 billion dollar.

McLeod, S. A. (2017). Psychodynamic approach. Retrieved from
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Bargh, J. A., & Chartrand, T. L. (1999). The unbearable automaticity of being. American psychologist, 54(7), 462.
Erikson, E. H. (1950). Childhood and society. New York: Norton.
Freud, A. (1936). Ego & the mechanisms of defense.
Freud, S., & Breuer. J. (1895). Studies on hysteria. In Standard edition (Vol. 2, pp. 1–335).
Freud, S. (1896). Heredity and the etiology of the neuroses. In Standard edition (Vol. 3, pp. 142–156).
Freud, S. (1900). The interpretation of dreams. In Standard edition (Vols. 4 & 5, pp. 1–627).
Freud, S. (1909). Notes upon a case of obsessional neurosis. In Standard edition (Vol. 10, pp. 153–249).
Freud, S. (1909). Analysis of a phobia of a five-year-old boy. In The Pelican Freud Library (1977), Vol 8, Case Histories 1, pages 169-306.
Freud, S. (1915). The unconscious. SE, 14: 159-204.
Greenwald, A. G., & Banaji, M. R. (1995). Implicit social cognition: attitudes, self-esteem, and stereotypes. Psychological review, 102(1), 4.
Jung, C. G. (1907). Ueber die Psychologie der Dementia praecox. Psychological Bulletin, 4(6), 196-197.
Jung, C. G. (1912). Wandlungen und Symbole der Libido: Beiträge zur Entwicklungsgeschichte des Denkens. F. Deuticke.
Jung, C. G., et al. (1964). Man and his Symbols, New York, N.Y.: Anchor Books, Doubleday.
Kline, P. (1989). Objective tests of Freud’s theories. Psychology Survey, 7, 127-45.
Stroop, J. R. (1935). Studies of interference in serial verbal reactions. Journal of experimental psychology, 18(6), 643.
Sulloway, F. J. (1991). Reassessing Freud’s case histories: The social construction of psychoanalysis. Isis, 82(2), 245-275.
Tulving, E. (1972). Episodic and semantic memory. In E. Tulving & W. Donaldson (Eds.), Organization of Memory, (pp. 381–403). New York: Academic Press.
Wilson, T. D. (2004). Strangers to ourselves. Harvard University Press

Name:Mohamed Saad Abdul Cader
Student No:SID 8308
Module Name:Strategic Brand Management
Study Centre:Strategy –Sri Lanka
TASK ONE (Words 1274)
1.1Brand Audit for Coca Cola2
1.2 Brand Association and Brand Awareness of Coca Cola4
1.3 Critical Evaluation of the current status of the brand and the challenges faced by Coca Cola at present4
TASK TWO (Words 1358)
2.1 Brand Planning6
2.2 Strategic Recommendation7
2.3 Designing of Marketing Mix9
References 11
To: Marketing Manager
From: Mohamed Saad Cader – Brand Manager
Subject: Brand Plan for Coca Cola
1.1 Brand Audit for Coca Cola
Owner of the Brand – Coca Cola Incorporation is the owner of the Coca Cola brand, head quartered in USA
History of the Brand – Coca Cola brand was first introduced in 1886 by a pharmacist named Dr. John S. Pemberton. This original recipe for Coca Cola was initially sold a patent medicines in soda fountain stores claiming that it would be a remedy for ailments which includes nausea, heartburns and headaches. The bookkeeper of Dr. Pemberton designed the logo and named the beverage as “Coca Cola”.

Prior to Pemberton’s death he sold the business to an Atlanta businessman named Candler and by 1889 Candler acquired the rights for both the formula and the Coca Cola name and the brand. He incorporated Coca Cola company in 1892 expanding the distribution of Coca Cola syrup concentrates to soda fountains beyond Atlanta. Moreover, Candler promoted the drink through giving free drink vouchers and also outfitting pharmacies and soda fountains with items carrying Coca Cola branding.

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The marketing promotions carried out resulted in a significant increase in demand. In 1894 a businessman in Mississippi began bottling the beverage in order to make t portable. By 1895 Candler built bottling plants in multiple cities to deal with the increasing demand. CITATION Mah09 l 1033 (Sagar, 2009)With the beverage gaining popularity in the bottle form, many counterfeits were produced. This compelled Coca Cola to invest in advertising to urge the public to demand the genuine. As a result, in 1916 the first contour bottle was manufactured allowing Coca Cola to distinguish its products from the imitations.

In 1919 Coca Cola Company was sold to a group of investors and as a result the company was expanded talking Coca Cola brand and beverage to the rest of the world.

Coca Cola started distributing bottles as “six packs”, encouraging customers to purchase the beverage for their homes as well.

In 1928 Coca cola was introduced as a sponsor for Olympic Games, allowing the company to gain high level international exposure which has continued up to present.

Products offered under the brand – The product portfolio offered by Coca Cola includes over 500 beverage brands, inclusive of 3,500 beverages. These range from regular, low and no calorie sparkling beverages to still beverages such as 100% fruit drinks and fruit juices, sports ; energy drinks, water, teas, coffee and milk and soy-based beverages. CITATION Sau08 l 1033 (Aggarwal, 2008)Position of the brand- Initially the brand was positioned as a patent medicine which can be used as a cure for headache. However, since year 2014 the positioning has changed and has been focused on “live on the coke side of life”, refreshing the world and quenching thirst, cultural values, family, friends, every day life’s joys, open happiness and consistency & high quality. Main highlight of the approach is “think global, act local” approach
Brand Elements – Coca Cola name with the unique letters and the colour, Coca Cola Logo, the contour bottle, the unique taste
Distribution – Within Coca Cola’s distribution strategy bottling partners play a significant role. Company produces the beverage bases, concentrates and syrups and sells to the bottling partners and they manufacture, package and distribute the final product to the vending partners and customer who then again sell the beverage to the consumers. CITATION Ran09 l 1033 (Verma, 2009)Competitors – Direct competitors are Pepsi, Red Bull, Diet Coke/ Diet Pepsi, Fanta, Gatorade, Dr. Pepper, Mountain Dew. Lipton, Nescafe and Tropicana can be identified as the indirect competitors
Approximate value of the brand – The brand value of Coca Cola in 2018 amounts to 79.96 US Dollar Billion.
1.2 Brand Association and Brand Awareness of Coca Cola
Brand association and brand awareness play a significant role in creating strong brand recall in the mind of the customers. Being well aware of this Coca Cola has invested heavily on creating brand awareness and brand association though effective utilization of many modes.

During the initial stage Candler used a coupon system which enabled customers to get free drinks through which created a strong word of mouth popularity for the brand. This contributed effectively in creating the initial brand awareness and association inspiring the customers to try the product. CITATION Kev09 l 1033 (Keller, 2009)Subsequently the brand promotion has been carried out through both conventional and non-conventional advertising which include TV advertising, large display units, magazine advertising, pennants etc. Moreover, Coca Cola has invested heavily in community events, sponsoring the events and also offering free drinks at the events creating an emotional link with the customers. One of the major highlights of the brand promotion activities of the company is sponsoring sports events which are local as well as international which includes massive international events such as the Olympic. Unless and otherwise for the successful brand association and awareness, Coca Cola would never be able to become the global carbonated beverage giant possessing unmatched customer appeal and loyalty.

1.3 Critical Evaluation of the current status of the brand and the challenges faced by Coca Cola at present
Being the world’s largest carbonated beverage manufacturer with extensive presence in more than 200 countries in the world Coca Cola brand and the product holds undisputed customer loyalty and appeal given the consistency in quality and taste in all locations in which it operates and the emotional link that the brand crates with the customer life events.

Coca Cola’s position in the global market remains stable and strong yet the company operates in an extensively competitive business environment where the competition from Pepsi is increasing at a rapid rate. In addition to being profitable and driving business expansion, at present Coca Cola is intensely focused towards building a sustainable community through introduction of initiatives to reduce their environmental foot print, support active and healthy living, create safe and inclusive work environment and also enhance economic development of the communities in which the company operates. CITATION UCM10 l 1033 (Mathur, 2010)Furthermore, it is evident that the sales revenue generated by the brand especially the carbonated beverage portfolio has experienced a sharp drop mainly due to the rapid consumer shift towards healthy consumption patterns.

Amidst the circumstances it should be highlighted that Coca Cola stands strong in the global context withstanding the increasing competition and at the same time investing a considerable amount of money and efforts in new product developments to create business benefits from the emerging trends in consumer preference.

Further to the above, following can be identified as the main challenges faced by Coca Cola brand and the product; CITATION Har061 l 1033 (Verma, 2006)Being well aware of the sugar and calorie levels of Coca Cola and the other carbonated beverages, consumers are increasingly shifting towards healthy beverage types such as fruit drinks and fruit juices. This has resulted in a considerable drop in sales revenue for the company
Another main challenge is company’s inability to find an alternate sweater to be used in its beverage formula in place of sugar which is natural, safe and contains low or no calories.

Scarcity of water and poor quality of the available water- In Coca Cola’s production process water is a main ingredient. At the same time water is a limited resource in many parts of the world. In many instances Coca Cola has been brought to the lime light due to its large volume of water consumption. With the increase in demand for water it is also visible that the quality of the water declines which will increase production cost for the company.

Increasing cost of energy – Coca Cola’s logistics operation involves a large number of trucks and also the production process involves large consumption of electricity, gas and other energy sources. With the increasing cost of energy, it is unavoidable that cost of production would increase shrinking the profit margins. CITATION Kel08 l 1033 (Keller, 2008)TASK TWO
2.1 Brand Planning
Brand planning is seldom an overnight activity, hence requires both time and energy of the brad management team of the company.

The most essential elements in an effective brand planning process involves the following;
Marked Research – Market research is a prima facie element in brand planning mainly to identify where the brand stands in relation to the competitor brands in the market. This can be carried out either through obtaining the services of a professional market researcher or through interviewing the customers.

Target market – Branding requires clear identification of the target market. This is mainly because the modes that the company should use to create brand association and brand awareness widely vary depending on the type of the target customers.

Positioning – This refers to developing a perception amongst the customers on the brand. In order to drive a positive perception, it is a must that a clear marketing message be communicated to the customers. CITATION Kev13 l 1033 (Keller, 2013)Competitive analysis- Identify who the competitors are and how they are competing against the company and its product/ brand. Creating an in-depth knowledge on the competitors through an effective competitor analysis would enable the company to stand out from the competition
Market strategy – Market strategy is the key to driving brand. Company should create a closer look at the entire marketplace and identify specific tactics to create awareness and association with the brand amongst the customers.

Budget – Developing a budget is part and parcel of an effective branding plan. A month by month schedule should be developed to spend on branding, whilst keeping a track on any areas which create over spending.

Metrics- The branding success should be analyzed using either Google Analytics or through simple excel formula to elevate the actual ROI against the budget.

2.2 Strategic Recommendation
center10160Brand Equity Pyramid
00Brand Equity Pyramid

Many of the challenges faced by Coca Cola could be sorted by implementation of actions in line with the brand resonance pyramid identified above.
Brand resonance is driven through the strong connections between the consumer and the brand. Those brands which carry strong brand resonance benefit due to the increased customer loyalty and the decreased vulnerability to competitors’ reactions. The main challenge for the company is to ensure that the customer poses the right experience to generate the right brand knowledge.

In light of the present challenges faced by Coca Cola, The view of that creating and maintaining intense level of customer loyalty would provide solutions to many. For example, though the company has been criticized on many occasions for over use of water which is a scarce resource, with customer loyalty being extensively strong, the adverse impact created on the brand due to pressure group activities could be minimized. Moreover with the increasing cost of energy and the resulting thinning profit margins could also be solved through price increases as with high level of customer loyalty and the strong emotional link maintained between the brand and the customers, it is unlikely that the demand would impactfully drop due to the price increase, as the customers have become extensively price inelastic due to their loyalty towards the brand.

In line with the present trend in healthy consumption amongst customers and the decreasing sales revenue and profitability for carbonated beverage producers due to the high calorie and high sugar content of the products, it is a must for Coca Cola to launch products containing healthy characteristics like low or no calories, low or no sugar etc catering to the needs of the present customer segment as well as maintaining its market share whilst preventing the health and figure conscious customers from switching towards competitors. CITATION Sau08 l 1033 (Aggarwal, 2008)With the customer loyalty high and emotional link between the product and the customers being strong, Coca Cola would be able to position its healthy beverage range, effective, drawing customer appeal across the countries in which it operates creating a tight competition in the market.

25908001019175Brand Value Chain
00Brand Value Chain
Given the strong brand loyalty and reliability it is likely that customers would opt for Coca Cola branded products in place of other brands threatening the existence of smaller/newer brands of healthy beverages whilst creating strong competition against the sales revenue/ profitability and market share of the large players like Pepsi. CITATION Kel08 l 1033 (Keller, 2008)5248275154305Stakeholder Value
00Stakeholder Value
3495675144780Market Performance
00Market Performance
1781175173355Customer Mindset
00Customer Mindset
left201930Marketing Program Investment
00Marketing Program Investment

ATL/BTL adsCreate awareness Create loyalty Increase share
Healthy beveragesencourage and build premium pricing price, Market
Confidence capitalization
4419600130175Investor sentiment
00Investor sentiment
2647950130175Market place Conditions
00Market place Conditions
885825139700Program Quality
00Program Quality

Emphasis on flavors Wider network distribution, High Brand Awareness
and healthy products, More rangers of product More confident on brand
Clear focus on Coca cola Brand
Brand Value Chain is mainly discussed about the stages of values and how it multiple from the attributes program quality, market place conditions and the investment sentiments. This is important in the context where all board of directors is having only financial background
The main marketing activities are BTL/ATL Promotions, Paper advertisements, Radio advertisements, Sponsorships and brand associations. These events are structured to portray the essence of the brand and the organizations values.

This exposure is targeted at creating a unique pictures and occupying a place in the mind of the consumer. Below are some of the key outcomes of the marketing efforts..These activities create an intense drive in the market place and enable the product to be priced at a premium level in comparison with competitor brands. This further increase the chance of capturing previous untapped market segments and once exposed to the key value factors they become loyal customers.

This results the meeting of financial budgets will increase the stakeholder value while increasing Brand Equity
Therefore, all in all it could be stated that by strengthening brand resonance Coca Cola would be able to continue strong even amidst the present challenges faced.

2.3 Designing of Marketing Mix
Marketing mix is a set of actions or tactics which a company uses to promote its brands or products in the market. The main elements of the marketing mix can be identified as the 4Ps; product, price, place and promotion. It is of prime importance that the marketing mix be carefully selected to ensure that the new product launched is sustained in the market for the long-term creation customer satisfaction whilst becoming an essential in their daily routine.

Product – Product is the healthy beverages that would be developed and launched under Coca Cola brand. The main product characteristics are low calories and low sugar levels, which have become the main concerns of the present-day consumers. CITATION Mah09 l 1033 (Sagar, 2009)Price – Prices would be set slightly above the carbonated beverage range yet at a level which is affordable to all. This ensures that the new product is capable of capturing market share creating tough competition to other products which are of similar nature.
Place- Places of product availability would be maintained similar to the places of availability of Carbonated beverages under Coca Cola brand. Therefore, it would be essential to distribute the product efficiently and effectively, worldwide using the same distribution channels; that is with the use of Coca Cola bottling partners. CITATION Kel08 l 1033 (Keller, 2008)Promotion – Promotion is of high importance for creating market awareness for the new product range which is fundamental in generating demand as well as capturing market share. Therefore, it is suggested that company use both conventional and non-conventional promotion modes for the new product range which include large display boards, frequent advertising in the TV, sponsoring community events etc.
Give the present-day techno savviness of the community it would be more prudent for Coca Cola to use social media marketing (Instagram, Twitter, Snapchat, YouTube, Facebook) which would create a higher market reach as well as higher level of customer engagement at a relatively low cost compared to other promotional means.

In light of the above that the given present context of carbonated beverage industry in the globe, it is a must for Coca Cola to diversify in to healthy beverage segment to sustain amidst the customer switching towards heathy consumption patterns. With high focus placed on building customer loyalty. We are confident that the company would succeed in extending its product life cycle, effectively combatting the threats from the external environmental factors.

BIBLIOGRAPHY Aggarwal, S., 2008. Brand Management: A Theoretical and Practical Approach. s.l.:Global India Publications,.

Keller, 2008. Strategic Brand Management, 3/E. s.l.:Pearson Education India.

Keller, K. L., 2009. Strategic Brand Management. s.l.:China Remin University Press.

Keller, K. L., 2013. Strategic Brand Management. s.l.:Pearson Education.

Mathur, U., 2010. Product and Brand Management. s.l.:Excel Books India.

Sagar, M., 2009. Brand Management. s.l.:Ane Books India.

Verma, H. V., 2006. Brand Management: Text and Cases. s.l.:Excel Books India.

Verma, R., 2009. Brand Management. s.l.:Laxmi Publications Pvt Limited.


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Favorite film scene
The movie that I am about to share is Evil Dead II (1987). It is a 1987 American comedy horror film directed by Sam Raimi as well as a parody sequel to the 1981 horror film The Evil Dead. The film was written by Raimi and Scott Spiegel, produced by Robert Tapert and Bruce Campbell as Ash Williams aka the main protagonist.
Filming primarily takes place in Michigan and North Carolina in 1986 and was released in the United States on March 13, 1987. However, the movie was able to only obtain minor box office success as it only manages to achieve just under $6 million USD. Despite the petty success, it manages to garnered positive reviews in which the critics praised Raimi’s directing and Campbell’s performance. The film itself although wasn’t much of a box office success but it was an influential one. The movie Evil Dead II is able to amass a cult following and was followed by a third sequel, Army of Darkness, in 1992 as well as a television series, Ash vs Evil Dead, 2015.
Although genres like comedy and horror may seem like conflicting genres but are actually consider as two sides of the same coin. In laymen terms, they have an vital element in common which is the element of shocking the audience with the unforeseen in order to elicit a raw emotion like fear. However, comedy often seeks to focus the silliness of an idea while horror did something similar but works to terrific with all too fears presented in a intensified reality. It takes a skilful and delicate balancing act to successfully blend these two genres within a single film. This is because this combination aka the ideas of horror and comedy is a particularly difficult challenge for filmmakers as if one focus too much on each separate genre will destroy its delicate balance. Despite this, there are many different tactics that are possible each with their own necessary blend of ingredients to play the audience’s emotion just right. For film like Evil Dead II, the editing for it is a lot better than the first instalment as it becomes a major point where it’s used for comedic effect and some of its horror scenes.
In the beginning, It is often felt that the introduction to Evil Dead II is so cheap and imitative. No offense to it but that was exactly what the film was going for as it by showing recaps of the previous movie. This time around Kaye Davis and Sam Raimi smartly switches up with quick cuts and smart transitioning from one shot to another. One example is during the opening title of the film, the camera zooms into the middle of the titles and proceeds to zoom further into a tunnel where we follow the car. This creates a seamless introduction to the world we’re going to be thrown around in. Another good example of this would be when Bobby Joe’s death scene. In that scene, Bobby gets attacked and dragged into the demonic tree. The camera zooms in with her as she gets dragged before sending her into the dark abyss, after which jumps into the the frame containing the Necronomicon pages comes crashing down onto the table.
In addition like the POV shots of the evil spirits are one of its major point. We as an audience stoop and weave in and out of the camera shots. It’s sort of like providing us with almost a rollercoaster of a film. This gives each scene and camera shot this almost lucid and fluid connection. We’re not like watching one scene, then another scene and another. But instead we’re watching the events take place simultaneously as one event. For the comedic effect, there are times where Raimi skillfully uses some quick-cut editing on some of the scene like giving it some spice to it. Near the beginning, the scene shows Ash glances over his car as he plans out his escape, and we’re shown to a quick-cut of him runining off into the dark woods. Watching this scene sort of confuse me but for some reason I found this particular scene seems rather energetic and funny about this kind of quick-cut editing.
On top of that, it is a decent example of storytelling through showing rather than telling as well as showing a state of mind through the editing. In that scene, Ash is implied to be trying to think of the fastest route out of the ordeal as his mind is all over the place. It isn’t necessary for us to see him rushing towards his car as the editing was able to perfectly implied as well as reflecting how instant and snappy his decision making. The example would be when Ash need not hesitate, so neither does the camera (camera movement can help to show hesitation in character or situation).
The usage of a certain type of quick cut editing like montage is also being use in portraying an iconic badass scene. The sequence aka ‘Groovy’ is the best example of montage. In this sequence, Ash obtains help from Annie to make the chainsaw hand and shotgun holster to fight the deadite. It first kick off with a scene where he opens the shed lock and quick cut to the scene where he opens the door (showing both him and Annie). After that, he opens the light bulb and then jump to many scenes showing the contruction of the weapons. As soon as the weapons are done, the montages stop and the camera slowly pans towards him as he starts off his chainsaw hand (badass music kickstart)by cutting off the shotgun barrel (to make a sawed-off shotgun). The Camera then proceed to slow panning towards him and stops as he says his most iconic quote. The Sequence is pretty marvellous at that time and akin to Edgar Wright’s quick cut of spreading jam on toast as well as putting a tie on in Shaun of the Dead. The scene is really snappy and vibrant as it sort of embodies the hysterical tone of the film as well as its methodical technicalities.
Another example of this type of quick cut editing can be seen in the cabin run scene. In this scene, it is shown that Ash has crashed his car and flew out of it. The scene that cuts to him running and then cut to show the monster point of view chasing him as he runs into the cabin. The camera proceeds to follow him as if the monster is chasing him into the cabin until it reaches a point where he disappears. The scene is also backed up by some horrifying sound as the monster chases him. The cuts for the scene were fast paced as to disorient the audience. The quick cutting with fast moving clips creates a pace in which the audience starts to believe that everything on screen is in haste. It gives the feeling like the sense of urgency. The mid close up of Ash face in the running scene and the hand held camera (aka the monster) that follow him seems to lend to the urgency in the scene.
During this scene the camera is mostly left uncut as it shown the monster follows him and was held on screen for longer than expected. This in turns cause the audience to start feeling discomfort and anticipates a change to come. Holding on a shot can be difficult as this was done to grab onto the audience attention and avoid losing it. Hence, if an editor chooses to extend a shot, it should be part of a sequence that have build up the dramatic tension to have a grip on the audience.
The film despite its low budget, the crew is also quite resourceful when implementing some special effect into the film for its wacky horror feel. One such example took place when Ash’ possessed deadite girlfriend Linda returns from the grave with her severed noggin and creepiness. In the scene, her head falls into his lap and a long and slimy tongue head towards his mouth. In those days, there weren’t much advanced special effect to be applicable. To obtain the tongue effect, the team had use the process of reverse motion, where the tongue actually begins in Campbell’s and is retracted into the fake Linda head where action is called.
Although the film is known for having low budget, it helps to usher a new era of independent genre filmmaking where aspiring young writers and directors were moved to create their own inspired vision. Inspiring them to create their own ‘cinematic lunacy’ with little going for them but their active imaginations and willingness to tell their stories on film by any means necessary. Future Lord of the Rings trilogy director Peter Jackson started his career making inexpensive splatter flicks like Bad Taste and Braindead (released in the U.S as Dead Alive) whose go-for-broke style and gooey gore effects are influenced by Raimi’s own work. Famous filmmakers around the globe like Guillermo Del Toro (Pan’s Labyrinth), Edgar Wright (Shaun of the Dead) and Eli Roth (Cabin Fever) made features bearing a notable stylistic or dramatic influence from the Evil Dead films.


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