Name: Anathi
Surname: Ndzimande
Student number: 21802215
LACTOBACCILLUS ACIDOPHILUS
There are multiple beneficial bacteria in the digestive system of human. Lactobacillus acidophilus is a bacterium in our intestine and plays an important role in our health. This bacterium produces lactic acid with the aid of an enzyme called lactase that breaks down lactose and this is a sugar found in milk. It is often used as probiotics this is a live microorganism which, when administrated in adequate amounts confer a health on the host (Hill et.al, 2014). Studies have proven that a L. acidophilus happens to be a probiotic and research has proven that it has some health benefits. However, there are many strains of this L. acidophilus, they each have different effect on our body (Ljungh et.al, 2006). The benefits of the bacterium are:
It is to ensure that it helps in improving blood pressure and cholesterol levels in an individual.

It can fight most infections like viral, bacterial and fungal such as virginal infections, vulvovaginal candidiasis infection, yeast infection.

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It defends infants by making the condition favorable for them like it can prevent flue and colds especially in children.

It can be good for your health because it is able increase the uptake of nutrients by improving the appetite and having a high supply of the required nutrients.

It assists in the digestive tract by ensuring that all unnecessary substances are extracted, maintains the required pH in the intestine and destroys pathogens.

It can withdraw all allergies by reducing the effectiveness of allergies.

It can improve immune system when taken as a supplement with probiotics.

It can help fight and reduce chances of chronic diseases attacking.

It can be used to produce antibiotics such as acidolin, lactobaccilin and others.

It helps improve the digestive condition.L. acidophilus is a normal bacterium that can be a supplement particularly found in most fermented foods. Just like any bacteria it has its own side effects when consumed too much, not being detoxified and not allowing your body to adjust to it.

REFERENCES
Hill, K., Guarner, F., Reid, G., Gibison, G.R., Merentein D.J., Pot, B., Canani R.B., Flint, H.J., Salminen, S., Calder P.C. and Sanders, M.F. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2014 Aug; 11(8): 506-14.

Ljungh, A. and Wastrom, T. Curr. Issues Intest Microbiol. 2006; 7(2):73-89.

NAME: JOHANNA N. SIMON
COURSE: 13BARTS
MODULE: THEORIES OF ETHICS
LECTURER: MR. B. KASERA
ASSIGMENT: 2
DUE DATE: 30 APRIL 2018
STUDENT NUMBE: 201308860
CHAPTER SUMMARY ON IMMANUEL KANT’S DEONTOLOGICAL THEORY
Deontologists believe that morality is a matter of duty. We have moral duties to do things which are right to do and moral duties not to do things which are wrong to do. Whether something is right or wrong does not depend on its consequences. Rather on the action itself. The rightness of an action according to Kant depends not on its consequences but on whether it accords with a moral rule, one that can be willed to be a universal law.

Kant’s deontological theory on good will and duty states that the conception of the morally good will can be understood in terms of the concept of duty. He argues that to have a good will is to be motivated by duty. Suppose a shop keeper sells his goods at a fixed price, giving the correct change and acting honest in this way, of course this is the morally right thing to do. but it does not show that he has a good will, since acting like that is just in his self-interest, so we can act in accordance with duty but without being motivated by duty.

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There are two classes of duty: general duties we have towards anyone example, prohibitions such as do not lie, do not murder, but some may be positive like help people in need. Second there are duties we have because of our particular personal or social relationships. If you are a parent, you have the duty to provide for your children. Deontologists argue that there are times when we should not maximize the good, because doing so will be to violate a duty which means that our duty are quite limited, while there are number of things we may not do we are otherwise free to act as we please.

Kant held that nothing is good without qualification except a good will, and a good will is one that wills to act in accord with the moral law and out of respect for that law rather than out of natural inclinations. He saw this moral law as a categorical imperative i.e. an unconditional command and believed that its content could be established by human reason alone which means act only on that maximum through which you can at the same time the will become a universal law. Or so act that you treat humanity in your own person and in the person of everyone else always at the same time as an end and never merely as means. He believed that because people are ends in themselves, we must always treat them as such, and never simply as a means, however he does not say we cannot use them as a means, but we can’t use them as only means, we rely on them in many ways as means to achieving what we want. Example people in a restaurant are a mean to getting what I want to buy; I also respect them as an end which is very important to Kant. To treat someone as means, and not as an end means that we should appeal to other peoples reason in discussing with them what to do. Rather than manipulate them in ways that they are unaware of.

Kant’s hypothetical imperatives have to do with what you ought to do on the basis of some desire or goal. Example if you want to attend a meeting you ought to get the at least some few minutes early. In this example the goal is explicit, but hypothetical can also leave the goal implicit e.g. eat at least an apple a day (if you want to stay healthy). Why can’t I just say ” I want to attend the meeting but refuse to get the on time” or ” I want to be health but refuse to eat an apple a day” why ought I to do these things given what I want? Kant argues that willing the end entails willing the means.

Kant’s explanation on value state that value is subjective. Sometimes value is not simple the value to other people as a means in relation to some purpose or desire they have. In conclusion, one of the biggest difficulties with Kantian ethics is that it discounts outcome as a valid factor in evaluating the moral worth of an action. While it is not necessary wise to rely solely on outcome (as in utilitarianism) it is problematic to discount the outcome altogether.

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