Most of the people of today are contented to say that nightmares are “bad dreams” which these two terms mean differently and are commonly mistaken for having similar triggers. Nightmares become so intense they will wake you up. Bad dreams, on the other Hand, are especially haunted by interpersonal conflicts. The Oxford English Dictionary traces the first used of “nightmare” in English to around 1300, as “a female spirit or monster supposed to settle on and produce a feeling of suffocation in a sleeping person or animal”. Others traces the “mare” of the night in some linguistic form all the way to our earliest languages as humans. Since we experience most “nightmare” at night, “night” was naturally put together with “mare”, which traces in English to before the 12th century. A “nightmare” soon came to mean any bad dream, whether it is a suffocating feeling or not. However, People are commonly mistaken nightmares and bad dreams are the same. But nightmares have different levels to it then bad dreams because they affect the individual physically, they occur in different period of REM sleep. The content is more disturbing than a bad dream, which is typically driven by fear and stress in a person’s life.

Nightmares are vivid, they are commonly associated with many different conditions. Nightmares typically imply nocturnal awakening (Levin ; Nielsen, 2007). Whereas, bad dreams are usually defined as dreams that doesn’t wake the dreamer. Nightmares are the most commonly experienced sleep disorder. Since nightmare often keeps the dreamer awaken during the night. Nightmares are inherently distressing, prevent restorative sleep, and are associated with a number of psychiatric problems (Rek 2017). They usually makes the dreamer experiences intense fear or anxiety and has an immediate recall for what is happening in the dream. The dreamer becomes more alert and usually increased heart beat and fast breathing, so when trying to go back to sleep is a bit hard.

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