MATERIALS AND METHODS
The study was conducted in three purposefully selected peasant associations (PAs) from Harshindistrict of Fafan zone Somali Regional State of Ethiopia from November, 2016 to April, 2017. Harshin district is located 125km far away from Jigjiga, South East of Jigjiga. It is bordered on the South by degehabur zone, on the West by kebribeyah, and on the Northeast by Somalia. Harshin district is located at latitude of 90 13′ 0”North and longitude of 43035′ 0″East. The average elevation of the district is 1555.72 meter above sea level (m.a.s.l).
The mean annual precipitation is 300 400 millilitre per year. Both the mean minimum and maximum temperature in the area is 18.150c. The district has a population of 80,244, with 8,226 or 10.25% are live in urban area, while 39, 275 or 48.95% are pastoralists.
The study animals were consisted of indigenous breeds of dromedaries or one humped camel (camelus dromedaries) and reared under traditional management system which allows free grazing on the field and usually mixed with other livestock from other villages or neighbour. The camels move from feed shortage area to feed abundant areas especially during drought season. Camels of all age categories and both sexes were included in this study.
A cross-sectional study method was conducted from November 2016 to April, 2017 to estimate the prevalence rate and associated risk factors for the occurrence of camel gastro intestinal helminthes in the study area.
Sample Size Determination and Sampling Method
Sample size was determined based on earlier study 80.7% prevalence of camel GIT parasites at Yabello district by Demaleshet al. (2014). The sample size is calculated based the method described by (Thrusfield, 2005) with 5 % acceptable error and 95% confidence and a total of 384 animals were examined from the study area. From Harshin districts the three peasant associations (PA’s) were chosen purposively based on their accessibility of infrastructure, camel population, the distance or proximity to livestock market, availability of watering points and other socio-economic characteristics. Based on the willingness of the owners, selection of herds for camel sampling approximately 96 from lankeyrta, 95 from kuda and 193 from gumar camels were sampled proportionally from each PAs. The age of camels were categorised into three groups, such as 10 years old. The age of the sampled animals was determined based on their teeth or dental eruption according to (Khan et al., 2003). The body condition score (BCS) of camels were estimated by looking the back and flank, then categorized as good, medium and poor according to ( Faye et al., 2001).
Sample collection, transport, handling and examination of faeces
Fresh faecal sample was directly collected from the rectum of the camel by using clean hand glove; approximately 15g amount of faece was placed into separate universal bottles. Meanwhile, proper dating, labelling and coding of the sample was recorded on the spot, such as sex, age and body condition score of individual camel and then the collected sample was immediately transported to Veterinary Parasitological Laboratory of the Region. Then, stored at 4oc temperature for maximum of one day until the analysis was commenced.
Fresh Faecal samples were grossly inspected or visualized with the naked eye to determine the colour, consistency and presence of adult worms or other contaminations. Qualitative faecal examination was conducted in which faecal sample was processed by applying faecal floatation and Sedimentation techniques for the detection of parasite eggs as described by (Soulsby, 1982).
Data management and Analysis
All collected data was entered into the Microsoft excel sheet window, then after conducting the data cleaning, analysis was done using SPSS statistic version 20. The prevalence was determined by the rate of the number of infested animals and total number of animals in the population as described by the formula of (Thrusfield, 2005). Association between hypothesized risk factors, like origin, age, sex and body condition scores was related Chi-square test and the p-value was set at (P; 0.05) was considered as statistically significant in all cases.