The construction History, the first Architect in the construction history was Imhotep. He was an Egyptian chancellor to the pharaoh Djoser possible archived of the first pyramid and high priest of the sun god Ra at Heliolis a major city of ancient Egypt. Imhotep was very little known as a historical figure. Till 3000 years following his death he was eventually glorified and deified. He came to pass in the late 27th century BC). Today they referred him outside the Egyptological community as to a polymath., poet, engineer, magician, scribe astronomer and especially a physician. The construction industry has extended with many other fields like structural engineering and depend on other bough of science like archaeology, history and hoe architecture to examine how the builder lived and recorded their achievements those field made us study construction. Building structures built since the pre- history, the tools used and the uses of different building materials.
The history of building has progress by different fashion in time, marked by few key concept or ideas. Durability of materials used the expand of height and span, the level of control effort over the interior environment and finally the energy obtainable to construction process.
However, the role of the Architects continues to evolve. For example, in the new proposal project, of providing student accommodation together with office facilities. In this development project the Architects will be the leader of the design team. In the building process, where design and construction are separate entities, it is the architect who receives the commission from the client. Because projects today require a large amount of specialized knowledge to complete the design, the architect may require the assistance of consultants from other professional disciplines.
The architect’ function is to provide the client with acceptable and satisfactory building upon completion. This will involve the proper arrangement of space within the building, shape, from, type of construction and materials used, environmental controls and aesthetic considerations – all within the concept of total life cycle design.
The architect’s duties and powers are described under the JCT2005 Standard of forms of Building Contract. a contractor who believes that the architect is attempting to exercises powers beyond those assigned under the contract can insist that the architect specifies in writing the conditions that allow such powers. The architect specifies in writing the conditions that allow such powers. The architect will generally operate under the rules of anancy on the part of the employer. This means that instructions given to the contactor will be accepted and payed for by the employer. In some of contract the architect is terms the supervising Officer. This is the name used, for example in the government’s GC/works/1 forms of contract and is one of the alternative titles suggested in the JCT group of forms. It is used in the GC/Works/1form since the designer may be an engineer rather than an architect, and the terminology has been extended to the JCT form in a similar assumption. The scope of the work undertaken by the architect may be broadly divided into pre- contract duties.
Clerk of works
The clerk of works is employed directly by the employer, but under the direction of the architect as an inspector of the work being carried out. The clerk may give instructions to the contractor, but these are of no effect unless they subsequently authorized by the architect.
Engineers: there is wide range of different types of engineers employed in the construction industry. These may range from civil and structural engineers to building services engineers.
Civil engineers are responsible for the design and supervision of civil and public works engineering and are employed in a similar way to that of architects employed on a building contract.
Structural engineers are usually employed by the architect on behalf of the client. They act as consultants to design the frame and other structural members in buildings.
Building services engineer is responsible for designing the environmental conditions that are required in today’s modern buildings.
Construction Managers The construction manager (referred to in the form of contract as the person in charge) is responsible for the effective control of the contractor’s work and workpeople on site, also being responsible for organization and supervision on the contactor’s behalf, and for receiving instructions from the architect. This may be general a foreman, or a site agent, or a project manager. The person in charge may received initial training as a trade craftsman or be chartered contractor or engineer.
Building control officers – normally employed on behalf of the local authority to ensure that building plan and proposals comply with the building regulations and by- laws made under the public health and building laws. Developers may choose to employ specialist firms instead, and this is an option available because local authority building control departments cannot have monopoly.
Estimators – responsible for calculating in advance of building, the cost of the project to contractor based upon the total costs of all the labour, materials and plant that will be needed.
General practice surveyor – responsible for the acquisition of the building site for the owners before developer and negotiating with adjoining ow before, during and after construction and the disposal (sales or lettings) of the scheme completion.
Interior designers – developing the internal shell of buildings to provide good aesthetic and working conditions to create an acceptable ambience for the owner and user.
Landscape architects – helps to create the all – important context and space in which the building is set. Increasingly in modem buildings this often includes internal spaces.
Planners – involved with the legislative aspects of the building’s location in interpreting the strategic plans of local authorities. This ensures that the building fits into the environment (urban, rural and economic).
The built environment professional bodies
Designing, costing, forecasting, planning, organizing, motivating, controlling and coordination are some of the roles of the professions involved in managing construction, whether it is new built, refurbishment, engineering or maintenance. These activities also include research, development, innovation and improving standards and performance.
The following in the table below are some of the main first professional bodies in the construction industry.
Professional body year
Royal institution of Chartered surveyors 1822
Institution of Civil Engineers 1818
Chartered institute of building 1834
Royal Institute of British Architects 1868
Institution of Structural engineers 1925
Chartered institution of building services Engineers Royal Town Planning Institute Task2
The factors which differentiate between construction company’s contracts and tendering. Construction companies are likely different from each other depending the types of work they carried out. The choices of managerial structure best suited for company are many and depend upon several factors such as size of the company. Its geographical location, the type of work being done, and the managerial and technical skills available. They are divided into three groups small, medium or large enterprise. Small companies can also have entered in to general contract or sub- contracting. In small contracting they normally work on jobs that required small amount of finances (capital) for the types of works they do does not required much estimating or a large construction company. They normally perform on home alterations or small office ”paper work” in their homes at night or weekend, after working with their tools of them of trade during the day. The capacity to grow from this types of contracting to general constructors based on the training and business capacity of the persons on the business. Normally if they are smart enough to be good small renovation contractors they can anticipated of moving into larger field of work. With small companies the simplest form of organisational structure is that where the company is divided by functions. This type of structure is used by smaller company with construction interest limited to few specialists only, e.g. one or more of following: Concrete structures, Steel erection House building, Earthmoving, pipelaying, etc. it also well suited to the small and medium size local construction company, where technical specialities are few and departments are controlled by a single manager, and all the contracts handled from head office, with perhaps only general foreman or unsophisticated management on site. The medium-size Companies: As a increases volume of its turnover, the contracts under- taken tend to become more complex. Extra skills need to be recruited to service these more involved projects. The head office structure, there- fore, not only expands but forced to sub dived into elements.
The large company generally undertakes contacts of many types and sizes with a considerable in resources requirements, demanding skills over a wide spectrum. The underlaying principle of the simple form structure is often retained, but with fundamental decision regarding decentralisation allowing the company to subdivide into product groups. For example, civil engineering, housing, building or geo- graphical area. The structure types are particularly common with the medium size contractor with a national coverage of contract work. The separate groups are usually largely autonomous with only major polices controlled from central source. Structure type is adopted by the very large national contractor with enough turnover to set up almost autonomous units in strategic geographical locations throughout the country. These divisions also have much of the simple type of structure, again with only major polices decisions taken at head office. The functions such as personal, legal matters, marketing, design and technical services, and finance are base in the head office to provide a group service. The decentralisation approach may be under increasing pressure future because of the improvement being made in computerised data collection, recording and communications. The tendency is always for head office to superimpose centrally made polices for its subsidiaries in most decision areas, whenever it becomes technically possible.
The tendering process: invitation for a contractor to submit a tender may arrive at the contractor’s office in variety of different ways. Usually, however, before the documents are sent to the contractor, the client consultant who may be dealing with the project, would first enquire whether the firm is interested to submitting a price. This is generally done whilst the documents are still being prepared in order draw up the list of tenderers. It provides the consultants with a list of interested tenderers and allows the contractor time to consider the project and with the knowledge that a possible tender is to be prepared. The preliminary enquiry would identify the main characteristics of the project. On other occasions, the tender documents will arrive at the contractor’s office unexpectedly. Which is not a good practice and has disadvantages in that the work of the tender office may need to be rescheduled to cope with its tender preparation. The steady flow of enquires and the winning of suitable contracts is in line with the ups and downs in the economy. If a regular workload could be sustained, then contractors might be more easily able ahead, charge more consistent prices and undertake the work more efficiently. In some circumstances of industry recession, some return the documents unopen to the client or consultant. The time allowed for the preparation of tenders must be sufficient without requiring the work to be undertaken in haste. The contractor, prior to any documents, will need to satisfy on the following points: are they capable of carrying out the work, do they want to carry out this work, do they want to work to work with tis client and the consultants. For the client and the advisors select a construction they should have already established the contraction firm is financial record and standing, recent experience of similar types of project, general experience and reputation, management capability; and current level of workload. In order or whether or not to submit a tender for particular project, a contractor will need to establish the following, the approximate cost, duration and personal and plant requirements for the project, Can the firm’s resources adequately meet those requirement, is the project suitably located or is it in a location posing special problems for the delivery of materials or the availability of labour, is it a type of project with which the firm is familiar if not will this impose, for example, higher then usual insurance terms and premiums, what competition is there for this project? Time and costs involved in unproductive tender preparation can be considerable, and estimators must use their time carefully and what other possible are likely to be on the market.
The key stages in a construction project and how Building Information Modelling information’s inform the different stages
Building Information Modelling is the creation and managing information in the construction industry projects processes which made professionals to collaborate on a range of data comes together in a digital description of every aspect of the built asset.
How the construction industry has developed suitable collaboration strategies in support of greater recognition of health & safety.
The health and safety at work Act 1974 was introduced in the basis of the UK heath and safety law, which sets out the general duties for employers and employees to: secure the health, safety and welfare of people at work, protect people other then those at work against risks to their health and safety arising out work activities.
The duties are intended to encourage employers (individuals or organisations) and employees to take a wide-ranging view of their roles and responsibilities, including: employers, the self-employed, employees, manufacturers designers, suppliers, people in control of premises.
Duties are imposed on individuals and employing organisations, be they corporations, companies, charities, or government departments, are intended to encourage employers and employees to take a wide-ranging view of their roles and responsibilities.
The main duties of employer to their employees; every employer must ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable, the health, safety and welfare at work of all his employees.
Examples, the provision and maintenance of plant and system of work that are safe and without risk to health.
Arrangement for ensuring health and safety with the use, handling, storage and transport of articles and substances.
The provision of information, instruction, training and supervision to ensure, the health and safety at of employees.
Maintenance of any workplace, under his control, in a health and safety and safe condition, including any means of access and egress.
The provision and maintenance of a safe and health working environment with adequate facilities and arrangements for the welfare of employees at work.
The employer has an absolute duty (shall) to prepare and revise, as necessary, a written statement of his general policy with respect to he health and safety at work of his employees and the organisation and arrangements in force for carrying out the policy.
The employer has an absolute duty to consult safety reprehensive regarding arrangements for enabling employee co-operation in promoting and developing and checking measures to ensure the health and safety at work of the employees
The duty of every employer, if requited safety representative, is to establish a safety committee to keep under review the measures taken to ensure the health and safety at work of his employees.
Duties of employers and the self-employed to people who are not their employees
Every employer and self-employed person has a duty to conduct his undertaking in such a way as to ensure, so far as is reasonable practicable, that persons not in his employment who may be affected, are not exposed to risks to their health and safety. Self- employed persons are also required to protect themselves from risks to their own health and safety.
Under the health and safety at work Act 1974. The general duties of employees at work are; Every employee has two duties while at work:
To take reasonable care for the health and safety of himself and of other persons who may be affected by his acts or omissions at work.
To co-operate with his employer so far as is necessary to enable the employer to comply with his own duties.
Duty not interfere with or misuse anything provided in the interests of health, safety or welfare
No person shall intentionally or recklessly interfere with or misuse anything provided in the interests of health, safety or welfare welfare whether for protection of employees or other persons, this duty is imposed on all people, including children, be they at work or members of the public.
The construction industry has developed suitable collaboration strategies in support of greater recognition of health and safety through the introduction of the Construction (Design and Management) Regulation 2015(CDM)
The aim of the Construction (Design and Management) Regulation 2015 (CDM) is to integrate health and safety into the management of a construction project and to encourage everyone involved to work together.
The CDM requires: a realistic Project Programme with adequate time allowed for planning, preparation and the work itself
Early appointment of duty holders
Sufficient information, instruction, training and supervision to enable all duty holders carry out their jobs in away that secures health and safety
Starting at the design phase identification and reduction of risks through application of the general principles of prevention
Co-operation and condonation between duty holders and coordination of work
Consulting with and engaging workers to promote and develop effective measures to secure health, safety and welfare
Heath and safety resources proportionate to the risk and complexity of the project.
Processes for risk management, provision of information and the co-operation and coordination of duty holders are managed through clearly defined roles and responsibilities and the use of two key documents – the construction phase plan and the health and safety file.
All projects require:
Workers with the right skills, knowledge, training and experience
Projects where more then one contractor is involved a principal designer and principal contractors must be appointed, a health and safety file should be maintained.
The CDM regulation allocate specific duties to the following seven parties. The duty holders may be organisations rather then individuals and may be within the same organisation.
The client, Domestic clients, Designers, Principal designers, principal contractors, contractors, workers.
The key roles and duties are summarised
The clients: may be individuals or organisations for whom a construction project is carried out.
Main duties, make suitable arrangements for managing a project. This includes making sure:
Other duty holders are appointed, sufficient time and resources are allocated, revenant information is prepared and provided to other duty holders, the principal designer and principal contractor carry out their duties, welfare facilities are provided.
The Domestic clients (people who have construction work carried out on their own home, or the home of a family member that is not done as part a business, weather for profit or not)
The domestic clients are in scope of CDM 2015, but their duties as a client are normally transferred to the contractor or a single contractor project, the single contractor on project involving more than one contractor.
The Designers (as parts of the business, prepare or modify designs for a building, product or system relating to construction work) Main duties: when preparing or modifying design, to eliminate, reduce or control foreseeable risks that may arise during, construction, the maintenance and use of building once it built and provide information to other members of the project team to help them fulfil their duties.
The Principal Designers (Designer appointed by the client in projects involving more then one contractor. They can be an organisation or an individual with sufficient knowledge experience and ability to carry out the role)
Duties: plan, manage, monitor and coordinate health and safety in the pre- construction phase of a project. This includes: identifying, eliminating controlling foreseeable risks, ensuring designer carry out their duties.
Principal contractors (contractors appointed by the client to coordinate the construction phase of a project where it involves more than one contractor)
Duties: plan, manage, monitor and coordinate health and safety in the construction phase of a project. This include: liaising with the client and the principal designer, preparing the construction phase plan, organising co-operation between contractors and coordinating their work.
Ensure: suitable site inductions are provided, reasonable steps are taken to prevent unauthorised access, workers are consulted and engaged in securing their health and safety and welfare facilities are provided.
Contractors (Those who do the actual construction work and can be either an individual or a company)
Duties is plan, manage and monitor construction work under their control so that it carried out without risks to health and safety. For projects involving more than one contractor, coordinate their activities with others in the project team – in particular, comply with directions given to them by the principal designer or principal contractor.
The workers (The people who work for or are under the control of contractors on a construction site)
Duties: they must be consulted about matters which affect their health, safety and welfare, take care of their own health and safety and others who may be affected by their actions, report anything they see which is likely to endanger either their own or others’ health and safety and co-operate with their employer, follow workers contractors and other duty holders.
In the construction phase plan: the client must ensure that a construction phase plan for the project is prepared before the construction phase begins. The plan may follow the health and safety arrangement for managing the significant health and safety risks associated with the construction phase of a project, the site rules.
The description of the project such as key dates and details of key member of the project team, the management of the work including the health and safety aims for the project, site rules, arrangements to ensure co-operation between project team members and coordination of their work, e.g. regular site meetings, arrangements for involving workers, site induction, welfare facilities, fire and emergency procedures and control of any of the specific site risk, where they are relevant to the work involved.