In contrastive textology, there are two linguistic disciplines called as
contrastive analysis and contrastive linguistic. This paper will focus on
contrastive linguistic that has close connection with translation studies
before there is no corpus and the connection between both disciplines after corpus is found. Corpora contain many
accurate samples of the language. The importance of corpora lies in the fact that they reveal patterns of language usage which `would not be easily detected otherwise, since “the language looks rather
different if we look at a lot of it at once” (Sinclair 1991:100).
Before discussing about the relationship between both disciplines with
corpus, we must know first the notion of contrastive linguistic and
translation studies. According to some experts, the teaching of language is
based on some principles and one of the most important principles is
contrastive linguistic. According to an expert, contrastive linguistic is
defined as “the systematic synchronic study of similarities and differences in
the structure and use of two or more language varieties, carried out for theoretical
or practical purposes.” (Bugarski 1991:77). Contrastive linguistic contrasts
two language levels having aims to examine the aspects of differences between
both language levels and to identify the difficulties caused by the
While according to Holmes (1988b/2004: 181),
translation studies is defined as the complex of problems clustered round the
phenomenon of translating and translations.’ Commonly, translation studies is
the academic discipline that is
related to the study of the theory and phenomena of translation. From the
mid-1950s, there had been an interest that grows in analyzing the translation
process from different perspectives, especially linguistic ones. Unfortunately, there is no clear-cut approach had yet been put forward to
integrate all the different aspects playing a role in the translation process.
Thus, translation is considered as a branch of other disciplines such as contrastive
linguistic or interlanguage studies.
After knowing the notions of
contrastive linguistic and translation studies, we could know the connection between both
disciplines before there is no corpus. Language
and linguistic relate to both disciplines in general. Contrastive linguistic
and translation studies are also included to applied linguistics in particular. Both
disciplines have a similarity that is both
disciplines discuss about two languages at the same time. Both also have close relationship to the point of having been considered
one and the same thing. Most contrastive linguists consider that translation as a means of establishing the relationships of cross-linguistic. James has stated that “translation
equivalence, of this rather rigorously defined sort [including interpersonal
and textual as well as ideational meaning] is the best available TC [tertium
comparationis] for CA [contrastive analysis].” (James 1980:178).
There are also some theories about the connection between
contrastive linguistic and translation studies given by Halliday, Bausch, Raabe, and Kühlwein et al. Contrastive linguistics is the theory
and method used to compare the working of different languages. Since translation can be considered as a special case of this kind of comparison,
comparative descriptive linguistics includes the theory of translation (Halliday
et al. 1964:112). The interests that are related to contrastive linguistic and translation have led to a significant amount of
literature on the relationship between the two disciplines from a very early
stage (Bausch 1972; Raabe 1972; Kühlwein et al. 1981), before computer corpora
become widely available in language research.
There are two issues that become the focus of the
early perspectives of this connection. The
first is the usefulness of translation equivalence. It is the only valid tertium comparationis (TC) for a successful contrastive analysis. The second is the results application of a contrastive analysis in
different translation studies aspects. Ivir
points out that “Translation can serve as a tool of contrastive analysis, while the
findings of contrastive analysis may – in addition to their other practical
applications – be applied in the training of translators, preparation of
translation manuals, and, most importantly perhaps, in constructing a theory of
translation.” (Ivir, 1981:209).
Then, this paper will discuss about the connection between both
disciplines, contrastive linguistic and translation
studies, with corpus. Corpora,
especially electronic corpora, play
the important role in both disciplines. A corpus provides many real examples of one structure and the same structure. In the beginning
of the 1990s, translation studies has used electronic corpora. According to Laviosa,
“the corpus-based approach is evolving, through theoretical elaboration and empirical
realization, into a coherent, composite and rich paradigm that addresses a
variety of issues pertaining to theory, description, and the practice of
translation.” (Laviosa 1998:1).
Translation becomes the main interest for contrastive linguistic. It is as opposed to previous works that focus mainly on the teaching of foreign language. On the other hand, the focus of translation studies on real translations needs some types or other of cross-linguistic
analysis facilitated by the use of corpora. Without
considering translation as its application, corpus-based contrastive
linguistic can still exist. Whereas any type of approach to translation from a descriptive
corpus-based perspective must consider some types of contrastive aspect.
Translation cannot well exist without the presence of contrastive linguistic.
The previous contrastive analyses play the important role for translation
studies. No study into translation can be done by ignoring previous contrastive analyses. Contrastive linguistic becomes a basic ingredient of translation studies. In recent years, contrastive linguitic dan translation studies show
a parallel development. It is accompanied by a clear shift from the
perspectives of theoretical to a descriptive and applied issues that are
supported by language corpora called translatio-oriented contrastive
linguistic. The focus of translation
studies is on real texts that are translated and their originals has made it
unavoidable to use analyses of a contrastive type.
In conclusion, contrastive linguistic and translation studies have their
own aims in language teaching. Contrastive linguistic has an aim to obtain the
knowledge about two different languages on a basis of descriptive because it
basically refers to descriptive linguistic. While translation studies aims to
get knowledge about the actual translation process between two different
languages. Besides, contrastive linguistic concerns on more general basis. While translation studies contrasts between two
languages on specialized basis. Both
disciplines have a similarity to focus on two language at the same time. Contrastive linguistic and translation
studies have close connection. Language and
linguistic relate to both disciplines in general. Both are also related to applied linguistics in particular. Translation
is considered as a branch of other disciplines such as contrastive
linguistic or interlanguage studies.
Contrastive linguistic and translation studies also have a close
relationship with corpus. Electronic corpora have an important role in both disciplines. In recent
years, contrastive linguitic dan translation studies show a parallel
development that is accompanied by a clear shift from the perspectives of
theoretical to a descriptive and applied issues that are supported by language
corpora called translatio-oriented contrastive linguistic. Corpus gives an important progress in contrastive
linguistic and translation studies. Corpus also gives a big influence in other disciplines and in their relationships.