LEADERSHIP STYLES, FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT, FOOTBALL HOOLIGANISM AND PERFORMANCE OF PREMIER LEAGUE FOOTBALL CLUBS IN KENYA
A RESEARCH PROPOSAL SUBMITTED TO THE SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE AWARD OF THE DEGREE OF MASTER IN MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP OF THE MANAGEMENT UNIVERSITY OF AFRICA.
DECLARATIONThis research proposal is my original work and has not been presented for a degree in any other university.
Signature: …………………………………… Date: ……………………………………
This research proposal has been submitted for examination with my approval as University supervisor
Signature:.……………………………… Date: ………………………………………………
Dr. Washington OkeyoSchool of Management and Leadership
The Management University of Africa
DEDICATIONThis research proposal is dedicated to the players, managers and intermediaries who aim at improving the standards of football in the republic of Kenya in particular and around the world in general. I specifically dedicate it to Football Federation of Kenya President for the recent efforts in improving the game and the foundation being laid for future prosperity of Kenyan football and finally with inconceivable love, I dedicated this proposal to all those who made it a success; my family and all those who selflessly supported this work.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I wish to thank all the Management University of Africa fraternity; they have in one way or another contributed to make this research proposal a success. My sincere gratitude goes to all my fellow students, lecturers, special mention to my supervisor for continuous support. To my family members (my wife Hellen, my children Nimo and Nate) I shall remain grateful for the encouragement and for giving me ample time to pursue this course and allow me to be away when indeed I am required to be with them and in particular I want to appreciate my able supervisor Dr. Washington Okeyo whose support, guidance, patience and constructive criticism have enabled me to make this work as original as it can be.
I wish to acknowledge my very best friends who inspired me to take this journey; Eric Omanga, a friend I have had since undergraduate days, Godrick Simiyu, a scholar of repute who pushed me to enrol and the many friends who spare their resources to support me in many ways. I am grateful to Mr Oliver Sikuku who has invested his time in educating me in football matters over the last six months, Mr Bernard Murunga who has an amouary of Kenyan football history and statistics that will be useful in understanding the objective behind this study.
ABSTRACTThe most challenges of coping with today uncertain in sports management is having to put many sports clubs and organizations on their toes to struggle for survival in the heat of competition, the driver of such strategic move towards clubs survival is the leadership provided by the managers and football administrators who are expected to influence others in achieving organizational goals and motivate staff in order to achieve desired results. The main objective of this study is to determine the relationship of leadership styles, financial management, hooliganism and performance of KPL footballs clubs, with the objectives being to determine the relationship between leadership styles and performance of PLC football clubs; to establish the relationship between financial management and performance of PLC football clubs; to determine the relationship between hooliganism and performance of PLC football clubs; to determine the performance of Kenyan football clubs in the Kenyan premier league. The findings will act as a reference point to other researchers in the same field thus facilitating their studies. To academicians and scholars, the study findings will be beneficial to forming the basis for future research on the subject, providing a critical examination of the field. The findings of this study will provide important information to future researchers interested in this area with references and relevant literature to complete their research work. The study will thus make special contribution to the existing knowledge, address and provide the background information to research organizations. This study will adopt institutional theory, theory of planned behaviour and goal setting theory. The research design adopted will be a descriptive research design that is cross sectional in nature. The study target populations will be 90 staff at football Kenya federation, coaches of Kenya premier league clubs, team managers and selected national super league managers. The researcher will use questionnaires as the main data collection instrument that will be pilot tested using the questionnaire on 9 respondents that will be selected through random sampling. The data will be analysed by use of descriptive statistics. Specifically, means, averages and percentages will be employed by the researcher. The data analysis tools will be simple tabulations and presentations of the report using spreadsheets and SPSS version 24.0. The data will be presented using tables, charts and graphs. Data will be first coded and organized into concepts from which generalization will be made of entire population.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TOC o “1-3” h z u DECLARATION PAGEREF _Toc516226377 h iiDEDICATION PAGEREF _Toc516226378 h iiiACKNOWLEDGEMENT PAGEREF _Toc516226379 h ivABSTRACT PAGEREF _Toc516226380 h vLIST OF TABLES PAGEREF _Toc516226381 h ixLIST OF FIGURES PAGEREF _Toc516226382 h xACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATION PAGEREF _Toc516226383 h xiOPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS PAGEREF _Toc516226384 h xiiCHAPTER ONE PAGEREF _Toc516226385 h 1INTRODUCTION PAGEREF _Toc516226386 h 11.0 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc516226387 h 11.1 Background of the study PAGEREF _Toc516226388 h 11.1.1Leadership Style PAGEREF _Toc516226389 h 21.1.2 Financial Management PAGEREF _Toc516226390 h 31.1.3 Football Hooliganism PAGEREF _Toc516226391 h 41.1.4 Performance of Premier League Football Clubs PAGEREF _Toc516226392 h 51.1.5 Kenyan Premier League PAGEREF _Toc516226393 h 61.2 Statement of the problem PAGEREF _Toc516226394 h 71.3 Objectives PAGEREF _Toc516226395 h 81.3.1 Specific objectives PAGEREF _Toc516226396 h 81.4 Significance of the study PAGEREF _Toc516226397 h 81.5 Scope PAGEREF _Toc516226398 h 91.6 Chapter Summary PAGEREF _Toc516226399 h 10CHAPTER TWO PAGEREF _Toc516226400 h 11LITERATURE REVIEW PAGEREF _Toc516226401 h 112.0 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc516226402 h 112.1 Theoretical Literature Review PAGEREF _Toc516226403 h 112.1.1 Traits Theory PAGEREF _Toc516226404 h 112.1.2 Game Theory in Sports PAGEREF _Toc516226405 h 122.2.3 Risk Management Theory PAGEREF _Toc516226406 h 122.2.4 Contingency Planning Theory PAGEREF _Toc516226407 h 132.2 Empirical Literature Review PAGEREF _Toc516226408 h 142.2.1 Leadership Styles and Performance of Football Clubs PAGEREF _Toc516226409 h 22.214.171.124 Laissez Faire Leadership and Employee Performance PAGEREF _Toc516226410 h 126.96.36.199 Autocratic Leadership and Performance PAGEREF _Toc516226411 h 188.8.131.52 Transactional Leadership and Performance PAGEREF _Toc516226412 h 184.108.40.206 Transformational Leadership and Performance PAGEREF _Toc516226413 h 162.2.2 Financial Management and Performance of Football Clubs PAGEREF _Toc516226414 h 162.2.3 Football Hooliganism and Performance of Football Clubs PAGEREF _Toc516226415 h 172.3 Summary and Research Gaps PAGEREF _Toc516226416 h 182.4 Hypothesis PAGEREF _Toc516226417 h 192.5 Conceptual Framework PAGEREF _Toc516226418 h 192.6 Operationalization of variables PAGEREF _Toc516226420 h 202.7 Chapter Summary PAGEREF _Toc516226422 h 20CHAPTER THREE PAGEREF _Toc516226423 h 21RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY PAGEREF _Toc516226424 h 213.0 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc516226425 h 213.1 Research Design PAGEREF _Toc516226426 h 213.2 Target Population PAGEREF _Toc516226427 h 213.3 Sample and sampling technique PAGEREF _Toc516226429 h 223.4 Instruments PAGEREF _Toc516226430 h 233.5 Pilot study PAGEREF _Toc516226431 h 233.5.1 Validity PAGEREF _Toc516226432 h 233.5.2 Reliability test PAGEREF _Toc516226433 h 243.6 Data collection procedure PAGEREF _Toc516226434 h 243.7 Data Analysis and Presentation PAGEREF _Toc516226435 h 253.8 Ethical Consideration PAGEREF _Toc516226436 h 253.9 Chapter Summary PAGEREF _Toc516226437 h 27REFERENCES PAGEREF _Toc516226438 h 28APPENDICES PAGEREF _Toc516226439 h 31APPENDIX I: LETTER OF INTRODUCTION PAGEREF _Toc516226440 h 31APPENDIX II: RESEARCH STUDY QUESTIONNAIRES PAGEREF _Toc516226441 h 32APPENDIX III: INFORMED CONSENT FORM PAGEREF _Toc516226442 h 35APPENDIX IV: RESEARCH STUDY WORK PLAN PAGEREF _Toc516226443 h 36APPENDIX V: RESEARCH STUDY BUDGET PAGEREF _Toc516226444 h 37
LIST OF TABLESTable 2.1: Table showing operationalization of variables20Table 3.1: Table showing target population PAGEREF _Toc516061134 h 22LIST OF FIGURESFigure 2.1: Figure Showing Conceptual Framework19ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONDSTV: Digital Satellite Television
FIFA : Federation International de Football Association French word for International Federation of Association Football
FKF: Football Kenya Federation
KPL :Kenya Premier League
UEFA:Union of the Association of European Football
SPSS : Statistical Package for Social Science
OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMSSponsorship: Is the funding of activities in the arena of sports
Sports: Any form of physical activities that require the talent of person to be applied against the other person
Service Delivery: Refers to the process of offering service and delivering the service spontaneously or with minimal delay
Customer Satisfaction: Fulfilling customers’ needs and demand within the expected given period of time
Performance: It’s what an individual is expected to deliver within a given period of time
This section reviews the research study background, the study problem statement, objectives of the study, research study questions, significance and scope of the study which explores leadership styles, financial management, hooliganism and performance of KPC footballs clubs and chapter summary.
1.1 Background of the study
The most challenges of coping with today uncertain in sports management is having to put many sports clubs and organizations on their toes to struggle for survival in the heat of competition, the driver of such strategic move towards clubs survival is the leadership provided by the managers and football administrators who are expected to influence others in achieving organizational goals and motivate staff in order to achieve desired results. Shafie (2013) describes the importance of leadership style in organization and especially where people are the apparently the biggest asset of the organization. The drivers of companies are managers and the people they manage they give life to organization. Leadership is very critical for all organization in realizing their set objectives since leadership is a key factor improving performance in any organization and the success or failure of any organization depend on effectiveness of leadership at all levels.
Notably, it has been widely accepted that effective organizations require effective leadership and that employee performance together with organizational performance will suffer in direct proportion to the neglect of this, Furthermore, it is generally accepted that the effectiveness of any set of people is largely dependent on the quality of its leadership effective leader behavior facilitates the attainment of the follower’s desires, which then results in effective performance. According to Dimitropouls (2010) Football today has become a capital market and the main characteristics of which is the investment of uncounted billions. Excessive expenditure for transfers, Astronomical sums for signing contracts with footballers, battles among sponsors to get the star footballer to advertise and promote their products, negotiations to obtain the television rights and managers trying to find the model team for potential investors.
Performance of a football club may carry different meaning for deferent persons depending on the nature of the relationship between the individual entity and the football club. Football stakeholders who may be interested in the performance of the football club include fans, the sponsor, the betting companies, club owners, the media, the football players, the government and the local community. Performance can be measured as result on the play field, the hype generated, and the revenue amongst others. The performance of the clubs in the eyes of the supporters is the most influential in the running of the football clubs, however this is the most difficult to estimate due to the fact expectations of this group is the most difficult to comprehend (Gonzalel- Gomez ; Picazo- Tadeo, 2010). Poor planning or lack of it, coupled with underperformance, has played a big role in investors’ hesitance to delve into the murky waters that is club football in Kenya. Potential sponsors often cite poor performance and a lack of market appeal as the major reasons for not sponsoring KPL football clubs.
Kumar (2014) define leadership as a process by which a person influences others to accomplish an objective and directs the organization in such a way that makes it more coherent and cohesive. These are accomplished through the application of leadership attributes such as values, ethics, beliefs, skills, character and knowledge. Leadership is the integrated sharing of vision, resources, and value to induce positive change. It is the ability to build up confidence and zeal among people and to create an urge in them to be led. Wammy & Swammy (2014) see leadership as a social influence process in which the leader seeks the voluntary participation of subordinates in an effort to reach organization goals and therefore a leader is a person who delegates or influences others to act so as to carry out specified objectives. Leslie (2013) asserts that leadership is the ability to influence people to willingly follow one’s guidance or adhere to one’s decisions. On the other hand who a leader is; one who obtains followers and influence them in setting and achieving objectives. In Sundi (2013), “Leadership is the ability to convince and mobilize others to work together as a team under his leadership to achieve a certain goal. Leadership is the influencing process of leaders and followers to achieve organizational objectives through change (Lussier & Achua, 2009).
Lohrke, Bedeian and Palmer (2010) established that there is a direct link between participation of organization leadership style and success of strategies in the organization. They further also established that management commitment is a sound quality policy which states organization corporate vision and mission of the quality of the service or product the organization produces. Douglas, Coleman and Oddy (2009) explains that for an organization to implement a strategic decision there are varying needs that influence the process such issues includes objectives, services and product required, the organization structure and the process involved. The leadership in organization provides a life line in action and strategy needed in the implementation process; studies have shown that the imperativeness of organization leadership and management is the key to success of strategic plans.
1.1.2 Financial ManagementThe goal of any business enterprise is to generate revenue and profit which in the long run determines its viability and ensures its sustainability in the long term. In order for this objective to be realised the organization must apply sound financial management practices in its day to day business operations CITATION And12 l 2057 (Andersen & Gatignon, 2012). According to Fort and Fizal (2010) the long term prosperity of sports leagues requires the maintenance of both sporting and financial viability. This relates to the goals and objectives of the clubs. A study by Prochazka (2012), report on the financial conditions and transparency of the Czech professional football clubs. The UEFA approved the club licensing and fair play regulation in 2010, which governs the requirements on transparency and financial conditions of football clubs participating at the Europeans cups. The study was conducted in two phases the first one was the compliance with information duties set up by Czech commercial law was analysed and according to the survey most of clubs in that league submitted their financial statements to the business register with a delay and some of the clubs don’t submit the financial statements at all despite the submission being mandatory. This unacceptable state of affairs boosts the risk of bankruptcy of the football club rapidly taking into account an overall poor financial health of Czech football clubs, which is evidence by the finding of the study.
Smith (2009), established that the visionary dilemma facing sports clubs has its roots in two prevailing models of organizational behavior in sports markets. The first one being profit maximization model which assumes that a football club is a simply firm in a competitive product market and profit is the single driving motivational force. The second is the utility maximization model, which emphasizes the relationship between clubs playing in the same league and their desire to win as many games as possible. The utility view assumes that sporting firms are by nature highly competitive and status conscious and that is the most important benchmark is competitive success. However changes in the sporting context and changing management practices in sporting firms have complicated this issue. The growth of broad based leisure industry with blurred market boundaries, increasing competition for the discretionary consumer’s dollar and increasing professionalism of officials and players have forced many football clubs to solely concerned with winning to focus more strongly on cash flow and profits CITATION Smi09 l 2057 (Smith, 2009).
Andrew and Ritzer (2007), indicated that virtually all aspects of the global sport institutions are driven and defined by the following processes; marketing and management of sporting entities according to profit motives, the predominance of producing entertainment driven experiences and the generation of multiple sport related revenue streams. In the process these firms have become structurally embedded, the organization form has become institutionalized creating greater levels of formalization.
1.1.3 Football Hooliganism
Football hooliganism has attracted a lot of literary research into the causes and its effects for both clubs and the fans and the general society. Jewell, Simmons and Szymanski (2014) define hooliganism as episodes of crowd trouble and violence inside and outside football stadiums on match days and have adverse effects on the sport and the football clubs. Braun and Vliegenthart (2008) gave reasons that contribute to fans violence and they included frustration resulting from economic depravity, the second reason is derived from political process theories that explain the collective action in this case violence is dependent on the degree of freedom that political process gives the citizenry, the third reason is pegged on the media where violent behaviour is copied from the media content and finally the other reason is anchored on the social learning theory which indicates that fan collective violence is inspired by what the fans see on the pitch especially from aggressive play by soccer stars. They also stated that the real purpose of hooliganism is for the violent group to humiliate the other group and use the actions of the authorities to get their message across.
Jewell, Simmons and Szymanski (2014) conducted a research to establish the impact of hooliganism on performance. Their study made two assumptions one which where revenues were assumed to be determined by the performance of the team on the field and the second where performance on the second where performance on the field affects the level of hooliganism that the poorer the performance the higher the chances of hooliganism. From the findings the study mirrored how different levels of hooliganism affect the level of performance of the team and eventually the amount of revenue that the team collects. The study establish that lack of performance on the field of play fuels hooliganism when fans become disgruntled with the football results, and on the other hand levels of hooliganism may rise with the increase in performance of the opposing team since fans will embark to hooliganism to intimidate the other team and fans; steer their home team to play better and as well as intimidate the referee to make decision in their favour.
Kenya is not left behind in matters of crowd chaos during football matches. Football has become the norm when there are big matches between two big clubs in Kenya AFC Leopards and Gor Mahia these are most supported clubs with huge fan base. Fans rivalry contributes to crowd violence and leads to property damages, serious injuries and even death at times and such occurrences have led to several consequences and the measures imposed to curb such incidents. Ayieko (2011) Gor Mahia football club was forced to play in empty stadiums after a ban on spectators was placed on the club due to chaos caused by her fans against Postal Rangers on February, 2011 and in 2014 an incident between AFC Leopards and Gor Mahia fans clashed and caused serious damage at Nyayo National Stadium and the two clubs was temporary ban from using the two stadium that is Nyayo National Stadium and Moi International Sports Center Kasarani. According to Nyende (2011) Gor Mahia lost its sponsorship from Super Sport Limited that also terminated live broadcast of matches involving Gor Mahia.
1.1.4 Performance of Kenyan Premier League Football Clubs
Performance is considered as one of the factors that maintains effective and efficiency in the organization as well as the efforts that make sure organization becomes competitive in the market level. Organizations cannot be formed without existing staff, for that reason executives have to determine the causes that lead to deteriorating of performance. Football performance is both affected by external and internal forces. The external forces that influence performance include competition, technology and working environment, while the internal forces include ability, motivation levels, skills and knowledge. Therefore it’s important to understand internal forces as well as external forces affects performance of football clubs in general CITATION Gre07 l 1033 (Green ; Heywood, 2007).
According to Pinder (2008) efficiency of football clubs performance can be determined by natural aptitude that the organization acquires over time. The reason why a person is motivated to perform certain tasks but he does not have the necessary skills and ability to perform the job, the performance can still be affected due inadequate skills required. Positive staff perception in terms of ability, motivation and conducive working environment are important to enhance and drive interests of employees to accomplish organizational goals Amar (2012), football clubs performance levels can be enhanced with motivation and economic wellbeing can be increased as well. In other words if staff are not motivated to perform their duties, their personal satisfaction cannot be achieved and as result performance level will be low hence decrease in productivity. Once productivity is reduced the finances of that organization will go down in the market. Kreitner and Kinicki (2011), workers’ ability in determining the effectiveness of performance is crucial for the organization, although staff with high motivational level can still perform-well if they possess sufficient skills. In order for staff to remain relevant at the work place they have to make sure that they have the ability to perform better than others in any assignment given to them by their employers. Individual performance can be identified by role perception CITATION Loc11 l 1033 (Locke, 2011).
1.1.5 Kenyan Premier League
The Kenyan Premier League Limited (KPL) is a private company limited by shares. The company was incorporated on October 31, 2003 under Chapter 486 of the Companies Act of the Laws of Kenya. The Kenyan Premier League Ltd (KPL) is a private company incorporated in October 2003 under the Companies Act of Kenya. The KPL is fully owned and managed by the eighteen Premier League clubs. The KPL is affiliated to the Football Kenya Federation (FKF), which is also a KPL Special shareholder and voting member of the KPL Board of Directors. The KPL and the Premier League clubs are members of the Football Kenya Federation and pay a consolidated annual affiliation fee agreed by the FKL-KPL Joint Executive Committee which consists of three members appointed by the FKF and three members appointed by the KPL and is chaired by a FKF representative or the KPL representative on alternate basis. Among other responsibilities, the FKF-KPL Joint Executive Committee helps coordinate the annual calendar of events and fixtures and considers changes in the Rules of Governing Kenyan Football as well as joint projects of mutual interest and benefit for both parties and Kenyan football such as training courses for top coaches, match commissioners, referees and youth development. It also approves annually the selection of top referees for the Premier League for appointment to matches.
The FKF National Executive Committee includes one KPL representatives: The KPL representative is appointed by the KPL Governing Council. The FKF Annual and Special General Meetings include the Chairmen of the eighteen Premier League clubs as voting members. KPL launched and successfully managed the Kenyan Champions League which became one of the most highly competitive and fair play leagues in Kenyan football history. It was also the best managed with no matches failing to kick off, no abandoned matches, no incidents of hooliganism, no referee boycotts, no two-match weekends for any club, no serious injuries to any players, no appeals against the referees or results of any matches and no disciplinary action needed against any club officials or players. Also, no team dominated the other teams as the goal difference was two goals or less for all but two matches. The KPL would likely not have survived without the insistence and persistence of FIFA on protecting the principles and integrity of our sport. The watershed event for saving and improving Kenyan football was the meeting convened by FIFA in Cairo, Eqypt in January 2006. The meetings in Cairo involved the Presidents and senior officials of FIFA and CAF; the Minister, Assistant Minister and senior officials of the Kenyan Ministry of Sports; the Chairman and two senior officials of FKL; and three KPL club representatives CITATION Foo12 l 2057 (Footbal Federation Kenya, 2012).
1.2 Statement of the problem
In today competitive environment, organizations face a lot of challenges in meeting their objectives just like footballs clubs in Kenya most of them if not all are riddled with unrest by players, underperformance of the referees, hooliganism, poor leadership and below par performance in the international competition among other challenges. Professional football in Kenya is still in the developing stages and investment is on and off, where investors should put their money and what the expected results are. There are fears that football has just become another branch of the corporate world and due to this football in Kenya has lost charm. Despite the proven popularity of football in Kenya, why has the industry not become self-sufficient, why is the industry not absorbing and employing the youths that constitute over 50 percent of unemployment and the desire that has been demonstrated by corporates organizations and individual well-wishers.
Football in Kenya has continued to suffer from financial and management constrains for the last two decades. Today Kenyan league has no sponsor since the withdrawal of Super Sport and Sportpesa and most of other sponsors have also started taking cue and even the national league football is yet to attain financial sustainability. The underlying is the ability of football clubs to consistently raise revenue, invest wisely, manage cost and adopt sound financial practices to keep them financial viable in the long term,. From the researcher’s observation, none of these local studies have established the relationship between leadership styles, financial management, hooliganism and performance of KPL footballs clubs; it’s in this light that current study intends to conduct the current studies with the aiming to fill the information gap and to establish if leadership style has a role to play in the performance of football clubs in Kenya.
The main underlying objective of this study is to determine the relationship of leadership styles, financial management, hooliganism and performance of KPL footballs clubs
1.3.1 Specific objectives
To determine the relationship between leadership styles and performance of PLC football clubs.
To establish the relationship between financial management and performance of PLC football clubs.
To determine the relationship between hooliganism and performance of PLC football clubs.
1.4 Significance of the study
The findings will act as a reference point to other researchers in the same field thus facilitating their studies. To academicians and scholars, the study findings will be beneficial to forming the basis for future research on the subject, providing a critical examination of the field. The findings of this study will provide important information to future researchers interested in this area with references and relevant literature to complete their research work. The study will thus make special contribution to the existing knowledge, address and provide the background information to research organizations.
The national government, the county government and the ministry of Youths and Sports will benefit from the study findings for the important information the study shall obtain from the field will help in policy formation and better management of funds allocated to sports. To the policymakers in all level of government the study will provide fundamental information that will enable the in the development of policies in relation to the use of various financing approaches to improve financing of local football clubs and hence proper management of football teams and will inform specific action that needs to be taken by regulators in order to improve the financial stability and overall competitiveness of Kenyan football league.
The study will be useful in providing directions on how to improve the performance of football clubs in achieving profitability through financial and leadership strategies as well as partnering with corporate organizations. The study will help football managers and clubs administrator who will gain insights on profitability and performance of the clubs for they will be in a position to lay out strong financial base for better and improved performance, sustainability and realization of potential of football as the emerging sports industry in Kenya and Africa as whole.
For football fans the recommendations to this study when implemented will improve the quality of football matches and football fans will come out in numbers to support local football clubs by purchasing the replica jerseys and they will view matches of good quality, intense and competitive; have better quality stadia and local matches will be in a position to be viewed in the international TV channels.
The corporate organizations that will be interested in sponsoring any football club will have options for financial cooperation with teams that are well managed and may endorse to have their bill board displayed during football matches. The corporate will gain by advertising its product and services in the stadium and a wider market will position to be informed on the products or services hence enhancing its brand as well as customer loyalty.
1.5 ScopeThe research will be confined to Football Kenya Federation head office located in KFF Complex next to Moi International sport complex Kasarani along Thika super highway in Nairobi. This study will be carried out in the month of Feb to April 2018. The researcher will sample employees in all level of management and non-management staff in providing needed information. The study target populations will be 90 staff at football Kenya federation, coaches of Kenya premier league clubs, team managers and selected national super league managers.
1.6 Chapter SummaryThe chapter provides study background and the setting required to put the research problem in to proper context and understanding, the chapter includes the outlines the background of the study, statement problem, study objectives, significance and study scope. Therefore this chapter guided as the principle upon which literature is reviewed, research carried out and analysis made in order to achieve the main research objectives.
CHAPTER TWOLITERATURE REVIEW2.0 Introduction
In this chapter the researcher has reviewed literature that explores what has been done on leadership styles, financial management, football hooliganism and performance of football clubs and related literature. Literature review comprises documentation of information that relates to the subject under investigation. Moreover, it helps determine new approaches and stimulates new ideas. The chapter further present theories related to the study, empirical literature review, research gaps, conceptual framework, operationalization of variables and chapter summary.
2.1 Theoretical Literature Review
The theoretical review is a logically described, developed and elaborated network of associations among variables deemed relevant to the problem situation identified. Theoreies are generaly formulated to understand, predict and explain a phenomena and in many cases to challenge and extend the existing knowledge within the limits of critical bounding assumptions. The theoritical literature describes and introduces the theory that explains why research problem under investigation exists and is a structure that can support research study theory (Sekaran, 2010).
2.1.1 Traits Theory
Trait is among the oldest theories of leadership that was discovered in 1940s that assumes that great leaders are born with distinguished personality traits that make them better suited for leadership and different from other people’s especially the followers. Stogdill (1948) observed that leadership situations vary significantly and place different demands on leaders and leading to the emergence of behavioral and situational approaches. According to Hersey and Blanchard ( l988) the personality traits of a successful leader are presume to be the person possessing these traits emotional stability, good personality, initiative, reliability, persuasive power, ability to make quick decisions, desire to accept responsibility, honesty, integrity, flexibility would become successful leaders. The behavioral theory emphasis the point that behaviour of a leader provides greater satisfaction to the followers. However this approach has its own limitation that states that particular action and behaviour of a leader maybe relevant and effective at a particular point of time while at another it may be ineffective and irrelevant which makes this approach a time factor which is a important element that need to be considered. The study will adopt the theory to determine the relationship between leadership styles and performance of football clubs.
2.1.2 Game Theory in Sports
This theory was developed in 1950, under these theory originators Osker Morgenstern and John von Neumann states that they are two ways of playing the game of business, that is by either following the rules of the game stated by contract or by freewheeling where players engage without any external constrains and also that business is complex and has a mix of both ways. Football being a business entity it has employed these methods were teams are constantly competing for the best players in order to be successful in the flied of play which will then affect the economic aspect of the football club.
According to Giulianotti and Robertson (2004) there are reasons why teams hire apart from football itself such as a football club in Europe will sign a player from Asia in order to improve on the sale of merchandise from his country of origin. The stakes in world football have been raised big money investment in the football industry by TV and radio broadcasters and rich people around the world. This has distorted the mainstream definition of footballing success and as a result teams have had to adapt to survive. Game theory best explains the flux in the industry where teams have to come up with ways of ensuring they can get the best players, best home ground and adapt new ways of playing to ensure footballing success, business success and popularity success. The study will adopt this theory because it explains the changes brought about in organization by social values, regulations that affect performance of the football clubs.
2.2.3 Risk Management Theory
Risk management theory applies in the assessment, identification and prioritizing of risks followed by economical and coordinated of resources to monitor; control and minimize the impact of unsuccessful measures. Effective business risk management has beneficial implications to organizations; these benefits include improved innovation, better management of contingent, superior financial performance, and better value for money, waste reduction, minimize fraud, greater competitive advantage among other benefits (Wenk, 2005).
This helps the firm to balance the most significant business pressure, responsibility to succeed and risks associated and generated by the firm itself in a commercial achievable way. This action will enable risk managers to be aware of the risks they face and therefore monitor and if need be they was able to change strategy. The theory is fundamental to this study in logic that financial management and performance of PLC football clubs functions at an efficient level, then all this institution products to have optimally priced and finances are properly managed.
2.2.4 Contingency Planning Theory
Contingency planning also referred to as business continuity planning, is theory that is well associated with risk management, the basis of this theory is that since all business risk cannot be fully eliminated in practice. Despite firm’s efforts to mitigate, avoid and prevent risk incidents will still definitely occur (Hinson, 2008). With reference to this study contingency theory can be used to mean controls, plans, process and the totality of activities, it’s the act of preparing for major catastrophe and occurrences, articulating malleable strategies and rationalizing appropriate assets that will come into play in the event. In this study contingency planning theory involves the preparing for the unexpected and planning for the unknown. The basic purpose of contingency planning theory is to minimize the adverse consequences of catastrophe and occurrences (James, 2013). Contingency Planning Theory will be adopted in this study because it is describes and explains the relationship between hooliganism and performance of football clubs.
2.2 Empirical Literature Review
The empirical review highlights the past studies on the variables of the study. This includes the studies conducted on leadership styles, financial management, football hooliganism and performance of football clubs. It reviews the aspects of football club performance.
2.2.1 Leadership Styles and Performance of Football Clubs
Leadership has been researched on over the years and there is no clear definition of leadership that has been universally accepted. There are many definitions of leadership by various scholars such as Talat (2015) asserts that leadership is a wide spread process which calls for delegation of power, authority and responsibility that direct, persuade and guide followers towards achieving organizational and personal goals. Therefore leadership styles covers each and every aspect that deal with both internal and external aspects of an organization such as guiding and helping the workforce to accomplish and achieve their tasks by acting or being a role model, dealing and handling conflicts among other issues.
Kumar (2014) defines leadership as a process by which an individual influences others to accomplish objectives and directs firm in a way that makes it more coherent and cohesive. This can be achieved through leadership attributes such as ethics, values, skills, character, knowledge and beliefs. According to Kumar (2014) leadership is an integral part of sharing resources, vision and value to induce change in a positive way, it’s the ability to build up zeal and confidence among the followers. Memon (2014) defines leadership as process by which an individual influences the thoughts, attitudes and behaviors of others by taking responsibility for setting direction for the firm, others to see and visualize what lies ahead and figure out how to archive it.
Every leader has a different behaviour of leading his flock and this is known as leadership style and according to Cuadrado (2007) leadership style is made up of a set of patterns, structure initiation which includes task oriented leaders and consideration which includes relation oriented leaders. According to Memon (2014) leadership style as a way of providing motivation, direction and implementing plans. Leadership style are seen as approaches that leaders used to lead and manage organizations and leaders that use a combination of styles are more effective because there is no one best style of leadership.
220.127.116.11 Laissez Faire Leadership and Employee Performance
According to House (2009) leadership ability to lead is contingent upon various situational factors that include the leaders preferred style. The contingency theory of leadership supports freedom of leadership in leading organization. The laissez faire style have been tested and found to be reliable and valid in explaining how effective leadership can be achieved, the style stress on the importance of focusing in the inter personal relations between various situations, employees and leaders style. According to Kumar (2014) laissez faire style maximum freedom is allowed to subordinates, it gives leaders free hand in deciding their own policy and the independence of decision making. This style of leadership caries the belief that most effective leadership style depends on the ability to allow some degree of freedom to staff in administering any leadership style. Kerns (2008) discussed the relationship of values to organization leadership and he supports the laissez faire style in bridging the gap between employee and employer and his concern was solely on the fact that laissez faire would create a positive environment though which employer and employees feel like a family regardless of their positions.
18.104.22.168 Autocratic Leadership and Performance
These leaders are in experienced with leadership trust upon them in their positions that involves people management. These leaders retain for themselves the decision making rights. This type of leadership can damage an organization irreparably as they force their followers to execute strategies and services in a very narrow way based upon a subjective idea of what accomplishment looks like. According to Michael (2010) there is no shared vision and little motivation beyond pressure. Autocratic leadership eliminates creativity, innovation and commitment and most followers of this kind of leadership style can be described as biding their time waiting for inevitable failure this leadership style produces and the removal of the leader that follows.
22.214.171.124 Transactional Leadership and Performance
This style of leadership emphasizes to transaction between leaders and subordinates and its characterised by two aspects that is exception management( the leader monitor deviations from established standards and take corrective action to achieve organizational goals) and contingent reward (is where leaders makes agreements on what must subordinate do and promising reward obtained when the goal is achieved). According to Yulk (2009) asserts that transactional leadership style is that kind of leadership that emphasizes on transaction between leaders and subordinates. This leader motivates and influences subordinates by exchanging reward with performance. In this style of leadership the subordinate is promised to be given reward when subordinates are able to complete their duties accordance with the agreement. This leader encourages employees to work but it can affect performance in a positive and a negative way. The positive effect can occur when employees assess this kind of leadership positively and negative effect occurs when staff considers the style cannot be trusted because they are dishonest and don’t keep their promises.
126.96.36.199 Transformational Leadership and Performance
This leadership style seeks to transform of visionary and it becomes collective vision where employees works to realize the vision into reality. The transformational process is seen through certain leadership behaviour such as idealized influence, inspirational motivation, attributed charisma, individualised consideration and intellectual stimulation. According to Yulk (2009) transformational leadership style can improve performance because transformational leadership style wants to develop knowledge and employees potential. Leader with transformational leadership provides opportunity and confidence to his subordinates to carry out duties in accordance with his mind-set to achieve organizational goals. Transformational leader that gives attention to individual will be capable to direct vision and mission of organization, providing motivational support, and creating new ways to work effectively.
2.2.2 Financial Management and Performance of Football ClubsThe underlying is the ability of football clubs to consistently raise revenue, invest wisely, manage cost and adopt sound financial practices to keep them financial viable in the long term, however according to Wilson (2011) football has lagged behind other business sections from a financial point of view, despite the noted changes in athletics football in Kenya lack financial viability. In most cases of performance evaluation the word that is mostly cited is profit. With reference to this the most successful football clubs around the globe have recorded astounding revenue every calendar year and one could be compelled to say that they are doing well financially. Football is the most popular sport in the globe in terms of participation and view ship of more than 4.5 billion people (Barrack, 2017).
According to Madrigal (2009) organizations have increasingly turn to sponsorship as marketing communication tool in the hope that goodwill that consumers feel towards an event and a sport team will rub off on their brands. In the market place today the current scale of investment in sponsorship is substantial. Sponsorship works differently in relation to the consumer than do other forms of promotions and advertising. Globalization of business has not left behind sporting fraternity according to Deloitte and Touche (2009) the cornerstones of commercial revenues of Europe’s most financially successful clubs are their key sponsorship deals on shirt front and kit. These clubs offer unique global exposure and partnership possibilities which has helped to develop and sustain values.
The traditional sources of revenue collections have been and continue to be gate collections and subscription. Smart (2007) noted that with increasingly popularity of international sporting events, tournaments and matches there is a significant increase in the number of spectators paying to attend, this has increased clubs revenue base. According Deloitte and Touche (2009) match day revenue collections is largely derived from gate receipts that include season tickets and membership subscription. According to AFC Leopard website the club has a branch network of supporter’s groups and associations approximated to be over 100 in Kenya and over sixty unofficial branches worldwide. A report by Nkaari and Ocholla (2010) identify several factors that affect attendance and revenue collections. The first is the fixture, the game to be played, high demands matches, and high intensity matches invoke a lot of passion and interest. They further indicated media attention is focused more on intense fixtures which in turn drive their demand and the game day is also an important factor Sunday is the most popular game day compared to Saturday. Wednesday floodlit games have become popular of late. The other factor is the match venue.
2.2.3 Football Hooliganism and Performance of Football ClubsFootball hooliganism has attracted a lot of literary research into the causes and its effects for both clubs and the fans and the general society. According to Jewell, Simmons and Szymanski (2014) hooliganism can be defined as episodes of crowd trouble and violence inside and outside football stadiums on match days and have adverse effects on the sport and the football clubs. Braun and Vliegenthart (2008) on their study title ‘the contentious fan’ they attempt to give reasons that contribute to fans violence and they included frustration resulting from economic depravity, the second reason is derived from political process theories that explain the collective action in this case violence is dependent on the degree of freedom that political process gives the citizenry, the third reason is pegged on the media where violent behaviour is copied from the media content and finally the other reason is anchored on the social learning theory which indicates that fan collective violence is inspired by what the fans see on the pitch especially from aggressive play by soccer stars. They also stated that the real purpose of hooliganism is for the violent group to humiliate the other group and use the actions of the authorities to get their message across.
Kenya is not left behind in matters of crowd chaos during football matches. Football has become the norm when there are big matches between two big clubs in Kenya AFC Leopards and Gor Mahia these are most supported clubs with huge fan base. Fans rivalry contributes to crowd violence and leads to property damages, serious injuries and even death at times and such occurrences have led to several consequences and the measures imposed to curb such incidents. According to Ayieko (2011) Gor Mahia football club was forced to play in empty stadiums after a ban on spectators was placed on the club due to chaos caused by her fans against Postal Rangers on February, 2011 and in 2014 an incident between AFC Leopards and Gor Mahia fans clashed and caused serious damage at Nyayo National Stadium and the two clubs was temporary ban from using the two stadium that is Nyayo National Stadium and Moi International Sports Center Kasarani. And Gor Mahia was fine ksh 2.8 Million while AFC Leopard was fines Ksh 2.4 Million. According to Nyende (2011) Gor Mahia lost its sponsorship from Super Sport Limited that also terminated live broadcast of matches involving Gor Mahia.
2.3 Summary and Research Gaps
African Center for Open Governance in 2010 conducted an analysis for the reasons behind the poor performance of football clubs in Kenya. However their analysis only focused on the activities and intrigues of FKL and FIFA without examining the respective football clubs there for it was not clear how various football club were financially managed.
Omondi (2010) conducted a study and he established that the majority of football clubs top management lacked organization commitment, there were no organizational structure and inadequate resources hence there was need to establish that if the top management of football clubs are making good financial decisions. Another study by Ngucine (2006) conducted a survey on promotional mix used by self-supporting football clubs in Kenyan premier league to attract funding and he established that the extent to which self-supporting football clubs in the premier league in sourcing for funding and he found out that to small extent the football club use outdoor advertisement to attract funds. From the researcher’s observation, none of these local studies have established the relationship between leadership styles, financial management, hooliganism and performance of KPL footballs clubs; it’s in this light that current study intends to conduct the current studies with the aiming to fill the information gap and to establish if leadership style, financial management and hooliganism in the performance of football clubs in Kenya.
H1 there is a significant relationship between leadership styles and performance of Kenyan Premier League football clubs.
H2 there is a significant relationship between financial management and performance of Kenyan Premier League football clubs.
H3 there is a significant relationship between hooliganism and performance of Kenyan Premier League football clubs.
2.5 Conceptual Framework
The study was guided by the following theoretical structure. A theoretical framework introduces and describes the theories that attempt to explain the research problem under study with a keen focus on the specific variables being sought in the study.
Figure 2.1: Figure Showing Conceptual Framework90805205740 Leadership Styles
00 Leadership Styles
2853055116840FOOTBALL CLUBS PERFORMANCE
00FOOTBALL CLUBS PERFORMANCE
2.6 Operationalization of variables
Table 2.1: Table showing operationalization of variables
Variable Type Indicators Type of Data Analysis
Leadership Styles Transformational
SPSS, Inferential and Descriptive statistics
Financial Management Communication channels
Implementations of action plans
Training and development
Travel and accommodations expenses
SPSS, Inferential and Descriptive statistics
Tribal affiliation and Ethnicity
Intimidation of opponents
Intimidation of match officials
Intimidation of fans SPSS, Inferential and Descriptive statistics
2.7 Chapter Summary
This chapter has put into account various literature on the subject under the study. Literature review intentions is to maximize the accuracy of determining that there is need to thoroughly and critically select the most appropriate past activities on the research area. The study has selected the past activities that fall within the objectives of the study; that will give a clear account of all past theoretic happenings that are related to the study. The works sets out to reconnoitre and scrutinise research variables in order to develop the basis of forming study methodology and analysis in order to gather the required information required for drawing conclusions on the study main objective.
CHAPTER THREERESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY3.0 Introduction
Research methodology offers, describes and gives an explanation into what type of research being carried out is all about. It gives and defines what are research design, target population, sample and sampling design methods to be used. This chapter also elaborate on data collections and data analysis and also data presentation. The chapter also include research instruments, pilot study, validity, reliability and ethical consideration.
3.1 Research Design
Orodho (2009) defines research design as general layout that is used to answer research questions. The research problem will be conducted using a descriptive research design that is cross sectional in nature. The study will seek to describe a situation through the study of variable relationships. The study describes and defines the subject matter by profiling issues under study (Cooper ; Schindler, 2008). According to Kombo and Tromp (2009) a research design that is descriptive is appropriate for studies that have specific issues where problems have been defined.
The descriptive research design enables description and observation of a subject without influencing it; it is used for obtain better understanding of the subject under the study. Descriptive research design are limited in geographic scope hence tend to be logically simpler and easy to conduct besides providing the basis upon which other research can be carried out ( Mugenda ; Mugenda, 2003). The researcher will adopt this method in obtaining the most relevant, recent and in-depth information on the study topic. This will also help the researcher to critically analyse the problem in question with a view of drawing more specific and detailed information that is useful to the research study and most often than not it is used as a precursor to statistical research that provide valuable pointers as to which study variables are test worthy quantitatively (Cooper ; Schindler, 2008).
3.2 Target Population
According to Kombo and Tromp (2009) target populations are units that have observable characteristics that the study uses to generalize the finding. Borg and Grall (2009) described target population as common set of study units which the researcher wishes to generalize results. The study target population will be composed of Staff at Football Kenya Federation, Coaches of Kenya Premier League clubs, Team Managers and Selected National Super League Managers. These are the people and institutions that are involved in football management in Kenya. The target population of the study is shown in table 3.1 below.
Table 3.1: Table showing target population
Category Target population Percentage
Football Kenya Federation Staff 30 33%
Kenya Premier League Coaches 18 20%
Kenya Premier League Team Managers 18 20%
National Super League Managers 24 27%
Total 90 100
3.3 Sample and sampling technique
A sample is defined as subject of a population that has been selected to reflect or represent characteristics of a population (Kothari, 2004). The researcher will employ census method for the study. A census is an attempt to gather information about every member of some group, called the population. It is called a census sample because data is gathered on every member of the population. A census study occurs if the entire population is very small or it is reasonable to include the entire population (for other reasons). This method is appropriate since it will give all the respondents from each of the four strata, equal chance to participate. Participants will be stratified into the following categories; Staff at Football Kenya Federation, Coaches of Kenya Premier League clubs, Team Managers and Selected National Super League Managers.
The researcher will use questionnaires as the main data collection instrument. Kombo and Tromp (2009) describe questionnaires as a list of standard questions prepared to fit certain inquiry. A questionnaire is an instrument of research that contains questions on the variables of the study (Kothari, 2004). The researcher will use questionnaires which are more efficient and economical tool for descriptive research for the sample size that is chosen. According to Orodho (2005) questionnaires measures likelihood of straight, blunt and even answers. Questionnaires will be adopted because they are superior to interviews because of social communication operates strongly in face to face situation that my hinder an individual from expressing what they feel. The researcher will use likert-type format of questionnaires and will further be divided into two sections, section A will capture demographic information while section B will be organized according to research questions and objectives.
3.5 Pilot study
The aim of a pilot study is to establishing the validity and reliability of instruments of research (Cooper ; Schindler, 2008). The researcher will adopt content validity to measure the degree to which data will be collected with the aid of questionnaires representing each variable. The pilot testing will be conducted using the questionnaire on 9 respondents from the target population on the ground. The pilot group will be done through random sampling. According to Cooper and Schindler (2008), a pilot study should be ten percent of the main study.
The pilot study in the study will be designed to test logistics and the process of collecting data prior to the final study (Kombo ; Tromp, 2009). Its main aim is also to improve the efficiency and quality of research process while at the same time it reveals deficiencies in the study design that is proposed to be used in the study.
To ensure validity of the research instrument to be used in collecting data the researcher will ensure that the questionnaires are thoroughly checked for validity and assessed the relevance of the questions and content of the study. The researcher will use both content and face visibility to ascertain validity of the questionnaire. Kombo and Tromp (2009) describe validity as the correctness, capacity of interpretations founded on study finding. The research will conduct the pilot study to validate the study questionnaire. Content validity draws an extrapolation from assessment scores to large domain of similar to those on the test. Gillham (2008) explains that understanding and expertise protected by items tested in large area dynamics. This is important in finding out any deficiencies in the questionnaire and rectifying them before the actual questionnaire are issued out.
3.5.2 Reliability test
Reliability of the questionnaire will be tested through a pilot study in which the questionnaires are pre-tested to a sample group similar to the actual sample. According to Arodho (2005) a reliability test of research instruments is one that consistently produces the expected results. Kothari (2004) points out that instrument reliability refer to the level of internal consistency or the stability of the measuring devices. According to Cooper and Schindler (2008) a questionnaire has the same expectation-that is reliably does what it is designed to do every time is used. If the questionnaire is consistent over time and yields similar results each time it is used, it is reliable. They say that because of economy in time and labour, the procedure for extracting an estimate of reliability should be obtained from the administration of a single test. This is important in finding out any deficiencies in the questionnaire and rectifying them before the actual questionnaire are issued out.
3.6 Data collection procedure
According to Kombo and Tromp (2009) Data collection is important in the research process because it allows dissemination of accurate information. The researcher will use questionnaires to collect data especially primary data as outlined by Kothari (2004). A questionnaire is an instrument of research that contains questions on the variables of the study. The researcher will use questionnaires which are more efficient and economical tool for descriptive research for the sample size that is chosen. This way it was easier to identify the level by which the respondent agreed or disagreed (Kothari, 2004). The study will use secondary data for literature review; these materials used included books, journals, reports, and magazine. The researcher will collect primary data for this study report and use secondary data for literature review.
The researcher will inform the respondents that the instrument being administered is for research purposes and all the responses will be treated as confidential. The researcher will obtain an introduction letter from the dean school of management and leadership in order to collect data from the participating institutions and will personally deliver the questionnaires to the respondents and will collected them after few days.
3.7 Data Analysis and Presentation
The data will be analysed by use of descriptive statistics. Specifically, means, averages and percentages were employed by the researcher. The data analysis tools will be simple tabulations and presentations of the report using spreadsheets. The data will be presented using tables, charts and graphs. Data will be analysed using both qualitative and quantitative methods. The tools for data analysis will be package for social sciences version 24.0 and simple tabulations and presentations of the report using spread sheets. The data was presented using tables, charts and graphs. Data will be first coded and organized into concepts from which generalization will be made of entire population. Data will then be tabulated and frequencies calculated on each variable under study and interpretations made from the field findings. Percentages will then be calculated and interpretation made.
This study will also use inferential statistics to show the relationship that exists between the study variables. This will include correlations and regression analysis. The study will use Pearson correlation matrix which will be used to indicate the direction, strength and significance of the relationships. Pearson correlation will help in predicting and describing the association between the variables in terms of magnitude and direction. The correlation test will be conducted at the 5% level of significance with a 2-tailed test. Thus, the significance critical value is 0.025 above which the association is deemed to be insignificant and vice versa. The strength of the correlation is measured based on the Pearson correlation scale. The correlation coefficient ranges from -1.0 to +1.0 and the closer the coefficient is to +1 or -1, the more closely the two variables are related.
3.8 Ethical Consideration
The research will be guided by the following ethics during the period of the study; Research authorization permit will be obtained from the participating institutions, the researcher will strive for honesty in all communications. Participants will be asked to sign the consent forms in order to participate in the research. The researcher will accord the respondents their due respect while at the same time ensuring questions were answered as per expectations of the research, interjecting questions, intelligibly. The researcher will picked respondents without any discrimination.
3.8.1 Informed consent
Participants will be asked to sign the consent forms in order to participate in the research. The researcher ensured that through the principle of informed consent, complex as it is, and the respondents will be devoid of hang-ups that come with lack of clear expectations of the research.
3.8.2. Voluntary participation
The researcher will seek consent from the FKF before administering the questionnaires. Participants will be asked to consent to participate in the research, for which they are free to participate or not to. The researcher will explain to the respondents that the information that they give will be used only for the study. The researcher also will explain that meaningful data for this study will be achieved if they contribute their views about research topic.
The researcher will explain to the respondents that the data that is being gathered in this study will be treated in confidence and that the findings are meant for a project of Management University of Africa. The researcher will explained to the respondents that the data will be coded and no one, whatsoever, related the data to the respondents for both external and internal audiences of the project.
The potential respondents will not identified by name. Confidentiality of respondents will be treated as a matter of priority. Further, the researcher will engage the respondents before agreeing to answer the questions of this study.
The researcher will accord the respondents their due respect while at the same time ensuring that they answer the questions to the expectations of the study, interjecting questions, intelligibly. The researcher picked respondents without any discrimination. This helped the researcher to receive truly anonymized respondents even to the researcher himself. This will be achieved through self-administered questionnaires with an anonymous method of return.
3.9 Chapter Summary
The chapter outlines methodology adopted in the study it offers and explanation into what type of research this study is all about. It also defines the population of the study and the specific sampling techniques to be used, data analysis and collection methods, study design, pilot study, validity, reliability and ethical consideration. Research procedure offers an explanation into what type of research is all about.
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APPENDICESAPPENDIX I: LETTER OF INTRODUCTIONDear Respondent
I study at Management University of Africa in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the award of the degree of master in management and leadership of the Management University of Africa I am conducting a study title : LEADERSHIP STYLES, FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT, FOOTBALL HOOLIGANISM AND PERFORMANCE OF PREMIER LEAGUE FOOTBALL CLUBS IN KENYA. For this reason I humble request you to assist in filling the attached questionnaire to the best of your knowledge. The information that you will provide is strictly for academic and shall not be used for any other purpose and your names shall not appear in this study. Your input will go a long way to facilitate this research study.
Thank you in advance, I look forward to your assistance.
The Management University of Africa
APPENDIX II: RESEARCH STUDY QUESTIONNAIRESSECTION A: BASIC INFORMATIONS
1. Indicated your gender? Female Male
2. What is your age bracket 18years – 23years 24years – 29years 30years – 35years 36years -41years above 42 years
3. Indicate your education level
Primary ( ) Secondary College Undergraduate Post Graduate Doctorate
4. Your current position held in the firm ………………………………………
SECTION B: MAIN STUDY QUESTIONS
6. Leadership Styles and Performance
Use the Likert scale to respond to the following questions
Where 1 – Not at all, 2- little extent, 3-moderate, 4-great extent, 5-very great extent
Question Not at all Little extent Moderate Great extent Very great extend
To what extent do leadership styles affect performance Do agree that footballs clubs in Kenya are managed by qualified board members or officials Supervisor provides supportive supervision to individuals while maintaining a harmonious working relationship The supervisor/manager provides timely feedback that is correctional in nature on matters affecting performance Is FKF doing enough to promote performance of football clubs in Kenya 7. Financial Management and Performance
Use the Likert scale to respond to the following questions
Where 1 – Not at all, 2- little extent, 3-moderate, 4-great extent, 5-very great extent
Question Not at all Little extent Moderate Great extent Very great extend
Does financial management affect performance of Kenyan football clubs How important is the generation of revenue to the performance of the football clubs How has the availability of finances affected the performance of football clubs in Kenya 8. How have the following financial reports helped in performance improvement of football clubs in Kenya?
Use the Likert scale to respond to the following questions
Where 1 – Very significant, 2- Significant, 3-moderate, 4- Very little
Questions Very significant Significant Moderate Very little
Use of annual budgets to manage cost Timely payments of Staff and officials Complying with prescribe regulations by the governing bodies Frequently Auditing financial statements by external Auditor Out sourcing of none core activities 9. Hooliganism and Performance
Use the Likert scale to respond to the following questions
Where 1 – Not at all, 2- little extent, 3-moderate, 4-great extent, 5-very great extent
Question Not at all Little extent Moderate Great extent Very great extend
Does hooliganism affects performance of Kenyan football clubs How has hooliganism affected performance of football club in regardless to the ability to generate revenue How has hooliganism affected performance of football club in regardless to popularity of the sport.Thank You for Participation
APPENDIX III: INFORMED CONSENT FORMI ……………………………………………… of …………………………………….. Do hereby consent to participate in the research study being conducted by RONALD NAMAI In relation to the research study topic on LEADERSHIP STYLES, FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT, FOOTBALL HOOLIGANISM AND PERFORMANCE OF PREMIER LEAGUE FOOTBALL CLUBS IN KENYA and I understand the purpose of this research and I will give views.
I acknowledge that
Upon submission of my filled questionnaire and interview the information shall be coded
Any information that I will provide and give will not be made public in any form that could reveal my identity to other party and it shall remain anonymous.
The result of this study will be used for academic purpose and maybe reported in academic and management journals.
Results obtain after the study shall not be given to any person or body without my request.
That I am free to withdraw my consent any time during the study in which my participation in the research study will cease immediately and any information that I had provided will not be used.
Date………………………………………… Signature ……………………………………
Witness Signature ……………………………….. Data ……………………………………
APPENDIX IV: RESEARCH STUDY WORK PLANActions to be undertaken March to April 2018 May to June 2018 July 2018
Writing and submitting the draft proposal to the supervisor for guidance, reading and corrections. X X Questionnaire pretesting and the necessary correction made to the research instrument. The defence of the proposal before the University panel Data Collection process Data interpretation and analysis and presentation of the final report to the supervisor The final Project Defence APPENDIX V: RESEARCH STUDY BUDGET Activity Inputs Total
Proposal preparation Stationary
Printing services 3,000.00
Transport and Communication 2,000.00
Actual research organization and data collection and analysis and binding Printing services
Traveling to gather information
Others expenses unforeseen 3,000.00