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Against the background that computer programs have in the past been held by South African court to constitute literary works and in an isolated instance a cinematograph film, under the act as amended computer programs are now specifically excluded from definitions of “literary work” and “cinematograph film”. This means that once work falls within the definition of “computer program” it ceases to be (in so far as it may have been) a literary work or a cinematograph film. I will revert to this problem below.

A “computer program” is defined to mean “a set of instruction that is fixed or stored in any manner and which, when used directly or indirectly in a computer, directs its operation to bring about a result”. From this definition is clear that only the final stage of the development process of a computer program constitutes a “computer program” for purposes of the act. However, the “works” produced in the earlier stages of the development of a computer program, for instance flow charts and other writings which are made along the way, are capable of being protected as literary works. This follows from the fact that computer programs as final works have in the past been considered to be species of literary works but now the end product, and only the end product, has been excluded by definition from being a species of literary work in the result that works comprised in the earlier development phases continue to constitute literary works. The term “adaption” for purposes of computer programs is defined to mean, inter alia, a version of the program in a programming language, code or notation different from that of the program, or a fixation of the program in or on medium different from medium of fixation of the original program. In the same way that translation of a literary work can be both a derivative of an existing work and an origin work in its own right, so too can an adaption of a computer program fall within the penumbra of the original program for its protection and in addition may qualify for protection as a substantive work in its own right.

A computer program is a set of statement or instruction to be used directly or indirectly in a computer to bring about a certain result. Copyright protection for computer program extends to all of the copyright table expression embodied in the program. The copyright law does not protect functional aspects of a computer program, such as the program’s algorithms, formatting, functions, logic, or system design.

Copyrights have several advantages over other IP types, including the following:
Significantly longer statutory life.

Copyrights will not generate economic activity for anywhere near statutory life.

The owner is entitled to actual damages and additional profits enjoyed by the infringer.

The calculation of damages can be easier for a copyrights litigation as opposed to a patent litigation.

Copyrights are relatively in expensive and simple to register.

Authors gain protection and ownership for copyrightable works.

Copyrights owners receive protection immediately after that point without any explicit.

Copyrights protect the expression of an idea, not the idea itself.

Patents and trades secrets typically protect ideas.

The difference maybe be subtle, but it is an important distinction.

It’s no secrets and no surprise that computers are now central to the business world, central to health care, central to finance world and central to everyday life. It’s staggering to think where we would be without computers and the programs that we use every single day, the following are the programs that we use most:
Microsoft Windows
While not strictly a computer program {it is what is known as operating systems},windows is likely to be the face that greet you every day as you turn on your PC without it many wouldn’t be able to access all of the programs that we need so its worthy of a place on our list.

Microsoft internet explorer
When we talking about computer programs we use every day, your instant thoughts may have been of Facebook, tweet or google. However this are all examples of websites without web browser, you wouldn’t be able to see them. While Firefox and google chrome have gained popularity over the years, Microsoft internet explorer still the market leader.

Microsoft office and outlook
Word, Excel, PowerPoint and publisher, how would we get anything done without them? Add outlook on top of that and you have the complete Microsoft office suite. While you may not produce many documents or spreadsheets at home, in education and especially in the work place, these programs are ubiquitous.

McAfee Antivirus
To keep your computer safe from rogue viruses that abound on the internet, you an antivirus on your of the most popular is McAfee antivirus program which operate in the background –so you use it every day without even knowing it. It appears on our list over antivirus software.

Adobe PDF
This PDF is one thing that can bring all of these programs together. Adobe PDF is viewable on all computers. PDF’s are easily distributed across the internet. Since 2007 it has been possible to create PDF’S from Microsoft office. The PDF’s remains the most popular way to distribute files via email and adobe has been recently announced to security update which make PDF’s the friend of the virus checker.

In the late 1970’s and early 1980’s, technological development in the field of computers and the resulting increased the need for and use of computer software brought about a situation where protection of software against copying and other forms of exploitation became necessary. South Africa, like most countries in the developed world, saw copyright as the area of the law best suited for providing the required protection. The alternative of affording protection of computer programs by the law of patents was discounted and in fact it was provided in section 25(2) of the Patents Act that computer programs are not proper subject matter for the registration as a patent. While the common law provides some measure of protection for computer programs by giving developers of such works claims arising out of the misuse of confidential information and unlawful competition generally, computer software developers saw their main salvation in the law of copyright. The leading or trendsetting case in this regard was Northern Office Microcomputers (Pty) Ltd v Rosenstein. In this case the court adopt the approach that a computer program is a species of literary work, one of the categories of work eligible for protection under copyright, and it applied the law of copyright to a computer program as though it was a book, article, written compilation or any other species of literary work in pragmatic approach and it enabled the courts to confer much needed protection upon computer programs at a time when the legislatures throughout the world began to look at customizing the law of copyright to suit the nature and requirement of computer programs. In general this took the form of adapting the law of copyright as it applies to literary works to cater for the special and peculiar characteristics and requirements of computer programs.

Recent years have seen the booming development of computer programs, in particular applications in smart phones and tablet computers. At the same time, unauthorized copying and unlicensed use of proprietary computer programs has become a widespread phenomenon over the world. It now becomes increasingly the important for computer program developers, publishers, venture capital investors, etc., to seek propriety protection of computer programs, in order to safeguard their commercial interests. But under which regime would it be feasible for them to seek maximum protection? Copyright? Pate
Not? Before proceeding to discuss the intellectual property protection afforded to computer programs, it is important to understand the nature of computer programs. A computer program uses number algorithms to produce a certain results; but the given result can usually be obtained by more than one software program (and/or different algorithms). The question is which object intellectual property right should attach to: (i) algorithms; (ii) various software source codes implementing the algorithms; and/or (iii) the computer program as a method to implement the given result? Limited protection under Copyright Law while computer programs and adaptions of such programs 1 (e.g. converting the software source codes from one computer language into another computer language) are protected as literally works under copyright law,2the availability of the defense of fair use (in some jurisdictions like the United States)in cases of reverse engineering3has undermined the protection. In such cases, decompiling a software by reverse engineering in order to analyses the algorithms and results (for the purpose of copying the idea), may be a fair use and thus not copyright infringement. Further, copyright only seeks to protect expression of the work (e.g. the software sources code); ideas, algorithms, procedures and methods of operation underlying a computer program, which are of considerable commercial value, are not protected under copyright laws. Computer Program Patent Given the limited protection offered by copyright, many computer program developers and publishers have applied for proprietary protection under the patent system instead. It is worthy to note that algorithms per se are not patentable in many jurisdictions as they are considered purely abstract ideas. For example, Hong Kong, it is expressly provided in the patents Ordinance that “s scheme’, rule or method for performing a mental ac, playing a game or doing business, or a program for a computer’ shall not be regarded as an invention, and conventional meaning, actually refers to a computer program being a MLKethod to implement the algorithms.

The question then turns on whether such method is patentable. Recent decades have seen skyrocketing numbers of computer program patent applications amongst which often contain claims based on trivial or existing techniques. The increasing number of patent grant has also been considered to stifle innovation and competition. Against such background the policy aim of reducing the number pf patent applications with trivial technical contribution has gained an upper hand worldwide. As discussed in our article Business method Patents- Developed in the US and a Comparison with China in July 2009 4 in the United States, the scope of patent PJtability of computer program is now narrower with the adoption of “machine-or-transformation” test in place of the “useful, concrete and tangible” requirement. The European approach is even more restrictive. 5 It is now difficult to obtain a computer program patent even in New Zealand. New Zealand Patents Act 2013 on 27 August 2013, the New Zealand Parliament passed a third reading of the patents bill , which is due to replace its age-long patents act 1953. Apparently following approach taken by the European Patent Convention (EPC) (and specifically the United Kingdom) , the patents act 2013 precludes a computer program from falling within the definition of “invention” or “a manner of manufacture”, if the actual contribution it makes lies solely in it being a computer program. Hence computer programs “as such” are not patentable, that is, it will be denied of patentability if it is no more than an excluded matter (e.g. a business method or computer program). However, if there are something, more, e.g. if the computer program is combined with hardware machine to form a new machine, then it may be patentable. A leeway is given to embedded software. 6 Under the commentary to section 11 of the patents act 2013 of New Zealand, an example of embedded software Is given. The example patent claims provides for “a better method of washing clothes when using an existing washing machine”. “The computer program controls the operation of the washing machine. The washing machine is not materially altered in any way to perform the invention. The commissioner considers that the actual contribution is a new and improved way of operating a washing machine that gets clothes cleaner and uses less electricity
The computer program is the only the way in which that new method with its resulting contribution, is implemented. The actual contribution does not lie solely in it being a computer program. Hong Kong provided that Hong Kong’s patent ordinance is also modelled on the British patents act 1997( which in turn adopted the EPC), it is likely for Hong Kong to follow the restrictive British approach in assessing patent grant for computer-programs. In other words, patent would only be granted to computer programs and their actual or alleged contribution was more than technical in nature. This view would now be strengthened in light of the recent development In New Zealand. On the other hand, the New Zealand position on embedded software is commendable, as it now clarifies what computer-program-related inventions reach beyond the category of computer program “as such”. It is likely for Hong Kong to take this safe harbor into account when assessing patent applications: a green light is much more likely to be given for embedded software patent applications in Hong Kong.
While at the same time retaining the basic concept that a computer program is a species of literary work. The view was, however, voiced internationally that the best and appropriate way of adapting the law of copyright to deal properly with computer programs is to recognize computer programs as a sui generis category of work eligible for copyright and to provide specially for the peculiar characteristics and requirement of this type of work without necessarily being constrained by having to deal with third form of work as though it was a manifestation of the written word on paper. In short it was argued that while the clothing of a literary work could be worn by a computer program it was by no means of a comfortable of perfect fit.

The South African legislature has adopted the latter approach and in the Copyright Amendment Act which came into operation on 10 July 1992, provision is made for computer programs to enjoy copyright as a category of work in their own right. For the first time computer programs have now achieved specific recognition in the Copyright Act and they now wear their own tailor made clothing and no longer the borrowed clothing of their cousins, literary works. In this article the protection which computer programs enjoy under the amended Copyright Act will be described. All references to the Copyright Act are reference to the act as amended in 1992. Conferring copyright on works authored by foreign persons or first published in foreign countries as mentioned above is brought about South African ‘adherence to the Berne Convention for the protection of literary an artistic works(South Africa has signed the Brussels text).Membership of the Berne Convention has the effect that South African and the other signatories. Although the Berne Convention does not, of course, deal specifically with computer programs, the South African legislature has made provision for computer programs originating from abroad to be protected in South Africa exactly the same way as would have been the case if computer programs were included in the ambit of the Berne Convention, as indeed they are, if they are treated as a species of literary work.
Works protected by copyright
For the purpose of copyright protection, the term “literary and artistic works” includes every original work of authorship, irrespective of its literary or artistic merit. The ideas in the work do not need to be original, but the form of expression must be an original creation by the author. Article 2 of the Berne Convention states includes the following examples
Books, pamphlets and other writing
Lectures, addresses, sermons
Dramatic and musical works
Choreographic works and entrainments in dumb show
Musical composition with or without words
Cinematographic works to which re assimilated works expressed by process analogous to cinematography
Works of drawing, painting, architecture, sculpture, engraving and lithography
Photographic works to which are assimilated works expressed by a process analogous to photography
Works of applied art
Illustrations, maps, plans, sketches and three-dimensional works relative to geography, topography, architecture or science
There are several types of process for registering computer programs and related works with the Copyright Programs, it covers the following
Deposit and Trade Secrets
Derivative Computer Programs
Computer Screen Display
User Manuals
Video Games
Object Code
Computer Copyright in Software Auditing
It is sometimes recommended for a business to “audit “its software. This subsection explains briefly what this term means. In essence, a software used by business, examining the license terms for software and ensuring that business is in compliance.

If you have not previously had a compliance policy (or you policy has not been properly implemented) then it is necessary to carry out this procedure as a step towards introducing a well-functioning compliance policy. Software manufacturers’ trade associations sometimes ask businesses to audit their software. They may even send you a so called “Audit Form”, and ask you to return it to them, complete with information about your business’s software use. Such schemes are entirely voluntary.
Your business would be well advised not to participate in any schemes of this kind
Although you are, of course, obliged to obey the law, you are not obliged to give away potentially confidential information about your software, do it internally; if you find that you have been infringing copyright without realizing it, then either stop or acquire the license that you need.

One special sort of software audit that must be distinguished clearly from “audit form “schemes is the software audit that you may be asked to perform if your business has been caught infringing copyright. As part of a settlement, you may be asked to demonstrate that you are bringing your business into compliance with the law. If such a settlement is in question, you need to consult a lawyer.

1. Risk management- refers to a process and other structures that are in place to identify and address risks that impact certain objectives on a micro level. Example it only focus on business units such as the human resources department or a business process such as production it could be limited operational level objectives.

2. Enterprise risk management-refers to the extension of risk management across the organization on macro level by integrating all risk management initiative including strategies and operational levelsholistic view goals with such framework include inter alia the:
Assessment of risk management capabilities including the elimination of duplication
Development of common understanding of risk across multiple units and processes
Provision of assurance to the board that strategic objectives will be met and
Allocation of capital in a more efficient manner
3. Risk management framework-refers to the implementation of risk management strategy for example all the structures, processes, systems, methodology and individuals involved, that an organization uses to manage its risks.

4. Risk management process-refers to the process that is used by management to manage identity, assess, mitigate or treat, monitor and report risks. This is usually a structure and systematic set of tasks.

The concept of risk
Risk is a hazard of uncertain negative events such as financial loss, fraud or theft, damage to reputation, injury or death.

Three characteristics of risks
Uncertainty- risks are uncertain future events that could influence the achievement of the organization strategic, operational and financial objectives.

Loss of opportunity good things do not happen-risk embody the possibility that an opportunity to achieve something positive could be lost.

Hazards/threat bad things do happen-risks embody the possibility that an action was potentially negative outcome.

The concept of risk management
The development of formal risk management process and the evolution of a comprehensive risk management framework highlighted the fact that risk can be managed by using a structured and systematic approach and by adopting certain structures, methodologies and policies within the organization.

Analyzing various definition of risk
Risk management is a systematic, consistent and structured framework with a set of actions undertaken, including a risk management process.

It should be applied continuously as new risks emerge on a daily basis. The risk management framework should thus be reviewed on a regular basis.

It cuts across the whole organization also referred to ERM including strategic as well as operational activities and should be embedded in a day to day activities of the organization.

Various parties are involved but it is a management function, making management responsible for establishing the most appropriate risk management framework and process for the organization.

The objectives of risk management include:
Providing reasonable assurance that the organizations objectives will be achieved
Enhancing a competitive advantage
Protecting all the stakeholders against risks and
Maximizing shareholders value
Risk maturity table
Advantages of risk management
The risk management process will enhance management’s chance to:
Manage risks proactively instead of reactively
Align risk appetite, strategy and objectives by deciding on the level of risk that is acceptable, then evaluating different strategies and lastly aligning the objectives with strategy selected
Link growth, risk and return
Have a positive effect on investors and business performance
Decide on the risk response to choose namely, avoid, reduce, share or accept
Minimize operational surprises and losses by identifying potential events, risk and responses
Provide integrated responses to multiple risks
Possible disadvantages and other problems
These circumstances includes
Different perceptions of processes, systems and measuring of value exist
Immediate crisis management /short term strategy is necessary
The outcome of a specific action, instead of risks is focused –serious risk which could destroy the organization prevent management from addressing other less serious risks even though these occur more frequently
Risk management exist for individual divisions/ departments instead of the whole organization holistic
Management experiences the following risk management
Identification and assessment of risks take place by seeing risk as the final product instead of part of the process to solve risk
Once off or sporadic identification of risk instead of ongoing assessment of activities
Putting emphasis on risk instead of on opportunities each organization must take risk in order to survive
Intangible assets are ignored for example, speed of service, use of knowledge the advantage of the organization, creativity
Risk management is an art and not a science, since organizational aspect possibly do not exist future events must be assessed.

Sources of risk
All risks comes either from within the organization internal or from an external origin.

External and internal risks –they are usually very difficult and sometimes impossible to control. This categories includes risks like economic factor inflation or petrol prices the financial markets exchange rates and share prices, regulating factors legislations and import control and regulations and the actions of competitors.

Changes – change encircles and influences organizations on a daily basis, it has become the norm these days it has often been said that change is the only constant of which organization can be sure of common changes affecting organizations include new technology, the legislative environment, political changes, new personnel who are appointed by management, new product and activities. Peoples fear and resistance to change are the greatest obstacles to successfully managing change in an organization.

Types of risk categories
1 process risk –arises when business processes do not achieve the objectives for which they were designed.

The process is not in accordance with the overall strategy of the business
The process does not succeed in satisfying the needs of the users
The process does not work effectively
The process does not contribute to the well-being of the organization
The process does not succeed in protecting the organizations of assets financial, intellectual and physical against unacceptable losses, risk misuse.

2 Management of people/intellectual capital
Suitable personnel should be appointed for each position, this could refer to inter alia the over or under qualification of a person for a specific task, the lack of expertise, competence and compensation requirement.

Health and safety risks will apply more in certain organization than others for example in mine(physical safety)or in a hospital(infection).that being said most employers are risks of some health and safety issues, for example a cafeteria on a premises may expose workers to possible risks such as food poisoning.

Labor legislation: Stipulates the working condition of employees, how employees must be treated, what their specific working hours are and to what benefits they are entitled.

There should be considered of the loss of expertise and talent when key personnel resign and join competitors or begging to work for themselves.

3 Fraud
Is an increasing social problem affecting organization world-wide?
Pressure-refers to financial pressure, expensive habits like gambling, pressure to achieve something big.

Rationalization-is when employees convince themselves that the employer owes it to them and that everyone does it, or that the money will never be missed.

Opportunity-is when employees believe that they will not be caught since the internal controls are not very good.

4 Information Technology
It forms a critical part of all organization activities and the risks which arise from the use of themselves are in a supervisory role.

Computer cannot be ignored to comply with (pressure changes are often also made within the organization) for example: new system are implemented business processes are adapted –IT processes and equipment are adapted as well.

5 Poor management
Refers to poor management and poor decisions taken but management could naturally also cause other risks in the organization.

6 Natural Disasters
Management must concentrate on the risks of the continuity of business if such a natural disasters should take place for example: data processing and the loss of information.

7 Environmental Risks
This risk has led to greater regulations which is applied particularly in the form of self-regulation.

Legislation and guidance
King Report 2009-State that the board of directors must take full responsibility for the formal risk management which should form part of the organization strategy and business processes.

Companies act 2008-according to section 947 of companies Act 71 of 2008,duties of the audit committee includes performing any other tasks as stipulated by the board of directors including an approach to evaluate and improve the effectiveness of the risk management process.

Public finance management Act 1999-the accounting officer for the department, trading entity or constitutional institution must ensure that the department, trading entity or constitutional has and maintains effective, efficient and transport systems of financial and risk management and control.

Municipal finance management Act 2003-according to the section the internal audit unit of a municipal must prepare audit a risk based plan and internal audit programs for financial year.

A risk management process refers to the management (identification, measurement and mitigation or treatment of risk when risk is managed most organization give attention to the results of the result of the risk rather than the cause.

Elements underlying the risks management process
Aspects that affects any risk management process namely:
Process-risk management is not one event but a series of action that infiltrates an organization activities.

People-the main role players are the board of directors various levels of management and other personnel of the organization including chief risk officer, risk department and risk committee.

Strategy Setting-an organization sets out its mission and vision and establishes strategic objectives based on the mission and vision.

Risk appetite and risk tolerance-risk appetite is the amount of risk an entity is willing to accept in a pursuit of value.

ERM aims to measure an institution’s achievement of four primary objectives:
1. Strategic – High level goals that are aligned with and support the institution’s mission
2. Operational – Ongoing management process and daily activities of the organization
3. Financial Reporting- Protection of institution’s assets and quality of financial reporting
4. Compliance – The institution’s adherence to applicable laws and regulations
Within each of these four objectives, there are eight interrelated components:
1. Internal Environment – The general culture, values, and environment in which an institution operates. (e.g. – Tone at the top)
2. Objective Setting – The process management uses to set its strategic goals and objectives. Established the organization’s risk appetite and risk tolerance
3. Event Identification – Identifying events that influence strategy and objectives, or could affect an institution’s ability to achieve its objectives
4. Risk Assessment – Assessment of the impact and likelihood of events, and a prioritization of related risks
5. Risk Response – Determining how management will respond to the risks an institution faces. Will they avoid the risk, share the risk, or mitigate the risk through updated practices and policies?
6. Control Activities – Represent policies and procedures that an institution implements to address these risks
7. Information and Communication – Practices that ensure that the right information is communicated at the right time to the right people
8.Monitoring – Consists of ongoing evaluations to ensure controls are functioning as designed, and taking corrective action to enhance control activities if needed
What are the five steps in risk management process?
Step 1: Identify the Risk.

Step 2: Analyze the risk.
Step 3: Evaluate or Rank the Risk.

Step 4: Treat the Risk.
Step 5: Monitor and Review the risk.

The role of internal auditor in risk management

Core internal audit roles in regard to ERM Legitimate internal audit roles with safeguard Roles internal audit should not undertake
Giving assurance on the risk management processes Facilitating identification evaluating of risks Setting the risk appetite
Giving assurance that risks are correctly evaluated Coaching management in reporting to risk Imposing risk management processes
Evaluating risk management processes Coordinating ERM activities Management assurance on risks
Evaluating the reporting of risks Consolidated reporting on risks Taking decisions on risk responses
Reviewing the management of key risks Maintaining and developing the ERM framework Implementing risk responses on managements behalf
Maintaining and developing the ERM framework Accountability for risk management
In most organizations the responsibility to risks management is distributed amongst different functions, such as human resources, finance, the legal department and administration
Internal auditor should make sure that the following key objectives are addressed:
Risks arising from business strategies and activities are identified and prioritized
Management and the board of directors have determined the level of risks acceptable to the organization
Risk mitigation activities are design and implemented to reduce or management risk
Ongoing monitoring activities are conducted periodically to assess risk and the effectiveness of controls to manage risks
The board of director and management receive periodic reports of the results of the various risk management processes
Elements of the Enterprise Risk Management Framework (ERMF)

The role of internal audit
With an overall view of the procurement cycle, internal audit can assess the relative importance of the potential weak points in the control framework and place its focus on those area. The levels of inherent and residual risk at various points in the cycle will determine the areas in which need audit attention. This cycle can thereof be used as the basis for audit planning, and should be fully explained and justified to senior executives and the audit committee .When a service is copyright in computer internal audit can get involved in the following ways:
Strategic intent and feasibility: A key area is to provide assurance that managers are using to recognized process to complete a feasibility study, to show that there is clear business case aligned to the strategic objectives of the organization. Where this absent, internal audit can work in an advisory capacity to help establish an effective framework.

Implementation and management: Internal audit can review the supplier selection process and assess whether the organization has adequate and effective policies and procedures for tendering

Contract management arrangements: Internal audit can examine the performance management arrangements in places when contract is in flight
Developing an appropriate IT Strategy: We work clients to develop a clear IT Strategy that fully supports their business objectives
Regulatory and Compliance: We are well placed to assist organizations with regulatory and compliance needs. We are experienced in identifying and controlling financial and operational risks embedded in business systems
IT risk management and controls: We help clients optimize their risk management and controls architecture, specific to IT.

Sourcing: We offer guidance on appropriate strategies for copyright in computer program and help to ensure that effective controls are implemented.

Cost optimization: We work with clients to help identify the most effective ways to take costs out of a business.

Logistics and supply chain issues: We examine various aspects of processes and technology, and make recommendations for helping to optimize efficiency. This is one of the areas where IT can have the greatest impact.

It is felt that computer programs, having been fitted out in tailor-made clothing under the copyright Act, are now adequately protected by South African law and that the basis has been laid for this form of intellectual product to develop and thrive in South Africa. Sufficient measures are provided by the law to ward off the unwelcome attention of software pirates who by their parasitical activities could bleed their victims dry. It is up to computer program developers and owners to use the means at their disposal provided by the law to nature and cultivate their valuable products.

Computer security attempts to ensure the confidentiality, integrity and availability of computing systems and their components. Three principles parts of a computing system are subject to attacks: hardware, software and data. These three and the communication among them are susceptible to computer security vulnerabilities. In turn those people and system interested in compromising a system can devise attacks that exploit vulnerabilities.
Http://Knowledgeleader.comHttp://KPMG.CO.ZASmidt LA 2018,Information System Auditing Workbook
Mrs Coetzee P,Mr du Bruyn R.2015 Advanced Internal Audit topics
Copyright Amendment Act No.56 of 1980
Copyright Amendment Act No 39 of 1986
Intellectual Property Laws Amendment Act No.38 of 1997
Copyright protection of computer programs in Australia Article by (Rod Evenden,B.Sc LLB Hons)
Protection of Computer Programs by Copyright in South Africa Article by (OH Dean Attorney Pretoria)


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