Marks & Spencer is a British retailer with over 800 stores in more than 30 countries around the world. It is one of largest clothing retailers in the UK, as well as being one of the largest food retailers, competing with “Big brand names” such as ASDA, Tesco, Lidl and Aldi. Marks and Spencer’s is also the first British Retailer to make a “pre-tax profit of over £1 billion” (- BBC News online 1998), it is because of the businesses major success the company is able to stay in a position to compete with the big companies.
Political –
The government sets regulations for companies to abide by such as Health ; Safety British Standards such as, planning for hazard identification, risk assessment and risk control. If companies do not abide by these regulations they will be fined or even in some cases be forced to close down. Marks ; Spencer did not abide by the British Standards as they were charged for neglecting health ; safety regulations after a door fell on an employee. George Blair was allegedly injured after a warehouse door in their store at Braehead, near Glasgow was left hanging on loose fixtures. Marks ; Spencer are alleged to have ignored repair requests, allowing the door to fall into disrepair. Marks ; Spencer pled not guilty to this; there is still no outcome of this trial.
Environmental – With the current environmental climate as it stands, issues are being promoted daily on the television, in magazines and newspapers and on the radio. All companies, industries and organizations are being pressured to change their ways when it comes to the materials they use and how they manufacture. Marks ; Spencer have established their own Green Policy which they call “Plan A” The chief executive of Marks ; Spencer states that it is called this because there is no “Plan B”. Marks ; Spencer has today announced a 100-point five-year plan to re-engineer itself to become a carbon neutral, zero-waste-to-landfill, ethical-trading, sustainable-sourcing, health-promoting business. “BBC News January 2007”

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Plagiarism is “taking credit for work that is not yours”. So in this essay, I’ll be talking about plagiarism, the different types of plagiarism and the consequence if a person plagiarise and what will happen to them. I’ll be confessing why people plagiarise now and how easy it is to do in this century because it was harder to plagiarise before the computers. It’ll also include why people feel to do it. The essay will show the disadvantages and advantages. The assigner who will read this essay will realised the disadvantages are way greater than the advantages. This will clarify that plagiarism is wrong and not really worth to do because the consequences are very extreme.

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Main body 
There’s many reason why people will plagiarise. It’s just very easy to do. A student could be finishing a 1,000 words essay three days before the deadline. Last minute, another student could copy a full website and taking full credit for it. Sometimes they get away. It’s just very easy to do. 25 years ago, stealing work wasn’t so easy like now. The olden days, it will take hard work to plagiarise a piece of work. First, the person needs to go to the library, find any material to plagiarise, retype those sources and create it into a piece of work which an individual could call it its own. Now, in the 21st century. We got phones, laptops and computer to find information. With one click of a button, we can copy and paste a full 2,000 words essays.

There are many reason why a person will plagiarize and these are the reasons. 
Lack of self-esteem. As I previously said before, it’s very easy to do. The student wouldn’t be confident with his work, copy someone who they feel would be better and save 3hours of their time but then if the teachers finds out. It’s a life destroyer. It’s very strange to think people wouldn’t feel sure about their academic skill set and risk their future just to plagiarise. It’s the pressure. We ultimately hate it when a dead line date is coming closer.  
Don’t Care / Laziness The person isn’t really taking the assignment serious and think it’s pointless until the assignment deadline comes nearer and they feel to copy someone else’s work. Simply put, when the person sees the value in a work, their work ethic improves and they’re much less likely to plagiarize.  
However, sometimes the student doesn’t get enough time, the evil conscience gets into their head and convinced them to plagiarism. 
But the real reason why people do it, is because they know someone who plagiarise successfully and got away with it. The knowledge is pretty straightforward, why do hours of work when you can complete an assignment in 10mins just by copying and pasting.  Many people plagiarize simply because they can and that’s the end of it. 
 Disadvantage. 1) The student finish the assignment but his friend needed some work. If the teacher realises the assignment is the same or familiar. Both of the student will get the same consequences. 2) The students who don’t plagiarise will gain all the knowledge of the subject and the ones who do won’t make any progress. 
Advantages. The student copied a full essay off a website and the teacher didn’t pay attention on the marking and believe it’s their own work. So they got away with it and this happens often.

Academic Integrity in High School they did a survey about many people that plagiarize in their lifetime. “In a survey of 24,000 students at 70 high schools, Donald McCabe (Rutgers University) found that 64 percent of students admitted to cheating on a test, 58 percent admitted to plagiarism and 95 percent said they participated in some form of cheating, whether it was on a test, plagiarism or copying homework.”
These are the four different types of plagiarism:
Direct Plagiarism; is when someone copies word for word off another person’s piece of work, without quotation marks and without attribution. The deliberate plagiarism of someone else’s work is unethical, academically dishonest, and grounds for disciplinary actions, including expulsion Examples
Self-Plagiarism is when a student copies a piece of work of their own from a previous assignment to save time by not making a new one. They’ll need permission if they want to use it or it’ll be marked as self-plagiarism. They could mix parts of their previous work to save time. For example, it would be unacceptable to incorporate part of a term paper you wrote in secondary into a paper assigned in a college course.

Mosaic Plagiarism; when a person uses another students phrases from a source without applying quotation marks or finds a synonyms from a book while keeping the same original structure. People usually call it “patch writing,” this kind of paraphrasing, whether it’s on purpose or not, is academically dishonest and punishable – even if the student footnote the source Examples
Accidental plagiarism is when a student unintentionally gives in work without quotes or showing the assigner the reference or unintentionally paraphrases a source by using groups of words, similar words or sentence structure without attribution. Students should be careful the way they use their sources from books, or websites because accidental plagiarism is taken in serious and could get you kicked off the course.
The consequences for plagiarism are taken very seriously, the work could get destroyed, can get you expelled from the course, or even expulsion from the whole college/school. The worst plagiarism can results in legal action. of plagiarism consequences. “Britney Spears was also sued for plagiarism. This plagiarism scandal came to light in 2005, when songwriter Steve Wallace filed a lawsuit against Spears and Sony/BMG Music Publishing, Inc., by claiming that the song, ‘Sometimes’ was actually written by him and not Britney Spears.” This was a million dollar law suit. summarise my essay, I’ve explained the different types of plagiarism and why people plagiarism. My essay says people just plagiarise because it’s very easy to do and easy to access any type of source so it’ll save them time to make a new one. However, plagiarism is taking very serious and lead to legal action.

Imagine, when walking into a space which has single colored walls -grey, low technical ceiling, the same old type of desks and chairs, the long dark hallways, would you be able to stay in there and work? Would you be able to give your best in there? The answer is probably no. we behave situationally; we are social beings. We need an environment to create and bring out the best in us. Therefore, a physical or an architectural transformation of a workplace can serve as a catalyst to bring about changes that can foster employee efficiency and effectiveness. (Stegmeier, 2008)

Creative industries are mostly at the vanguard of workplace design. Despite such design innovations today born in the Silicon Valley workplaces where employees bike around the huge office premises or sit on a beanbag with a laptop and a customized headphone, innovative workplaces may be hindered and not foster their employees’ innovative, creative, cognitive abilities to flourish. It is easily skipped to consider while creating innovative workplaces that they are architectural expressions of broader social, cultural, economic and demographic stimulus. And simultaneously, the ambition to remain a vanguard of today’s competitive economic market, leaders of industry and their architects drive down the path of creative experimentation in design. In doing so, the last decade of design industry has illustrated a shift from the form of the space and more towards the character of the space embracing the core values aimed to help people flourish under new economic and demographic conditions.

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The last decade also assigned the architects and the designers to redesign spaces that do more than simply house innovative work-oriented activities. Their goals are also expanding to create communities, facilitate collaborations and create serendipitous encounters.

Importantly, not only employees are cuddling to these designs but the business world in various disciplines are also adopting and expanding these innovative workplaces.

The demand of spaces for creative, innovative thinking is increasing at a rapid pace. Every organization is willing to create the innovative workplace for their employees which fosters them to perform their best and benefit the organization’s economy and build an innovative corporate culture. To achieve this is not easy for any architect or designer as innovative workplaces are perceived as multiple dimensions integrated aiming to support innovative activities. 

In todays ever so evolving business world ,the strength of a business lies in its ability to adhere to the law (Tyler, 2006),(Gonzalez-Perez & Leonard, 2015) also suggests that a business longevity and prosperity in the market is affected by environmental and social matters. I therefore introduce The United Nations (UN) global compact which embodies those very important aspects in the business world. In the year 2000 a gathering of 40 companies obligated themselves to a set of principles under four issues being human rights, labour, the environment and anti-corruption (Kelly, 2015) . According to (Gonzalez-Perez & Leonard, 2015) the global compact was put in solely to encourage the globalisation of social and environmental matters in business. I will be providing this written project so as to outline and critically analyse the benefits and challenges that are faced by businesses, whether international or national, in committing to the global compact under Labour issues. This project also seeks to provide solutions or recommendations to the challenges under labour issues.
Durkheim (2014) defines labour issues in relation to the labour problem as the fundamental injustices that occur in the work place as a result of neglecting human and employment rights within such spaces. The working force being Labour is a vital resource to the prosperity of any organisation because without it the day to day running of the organisations can not be met (Herod, 2017). There are several existing issues which occur in the workplace that are negligent of such rights at a global scale hence the need to add labour issues as a principle to the Global Compact Initiative. For the purpose of this assignment I will be discussing child labour, forced labour as well as workplace discrimination as crucial issues in the protection and assurance of employment rights.

As defined by (Nanjuda, 2008) child labour is an individual below the age of 14 years enrolled for work in an arranged setting. According to Javier (2007) the acceptable working age in China is 16 years whilst according to Arendt (2018) the legal age of work (which is contingent on working environment and working hours) is 14 years in the United States of America. This shows the varying gaps in the exact legal age for employment in different countries, however for the purpose of this assignment I will use the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (1990) which refers to child labour as the employment of anyone under the age of 18. There are certain advantages that can be related of child employment which include them having the ability to help provide not only for their immediate needs but for those of their families as well. Cockburn (2010) argues that child labour is seen as a norm in many developing countries due to the general expectation to contribute towards the local economy. Contrary to this, Burgan (2012) argues that child labour not only exposes children to risks such as human trafficking and child abuse, it also deprives them of access to basic education and the right to enjoy their childhood years.
There are several approaches that companies, society and individuals can take to curb child labour. These include purchasing goods from legitimate companies and avoiding those that actively participate in child labour e.g. avoiding sweatshops and companies that have been accused of recruiting children to do their industrial work. Another manner could be educating all stakeholders on the importance of children’s rights and allowing them access to enjoy their childhood. Hirsch (2016) argues that a lot of the irrational things human beings do are as a result of misinformation on the cause and effect and the consequences of the decisions we take, by educating ourselves and those around us we change the narrative and lead to a more informed and more responsible society.

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Chin (2009) refers to workplace discrimination as the prejudiced and unfair treatment of people in the workplace based on negative biases that could be caused by a variety of issues including religion, sex, disability and race. Some forms of discrimination can be explicit where people know that they are actively disengaging and depriving others of opportunity based on who they are e.g. In conservative societies women who do technical work are heavily discriminated against in the workplace. Benatar (2012) argues that gender discrimination is often a result of societal misperceptions of the role of women in business. There are however also instances where this discrimination is not done cautiously and where employers might not recognize that they are being discriminatory, this could happen through the implementation of laws that side-line certain groups or the lack thereof of laws that could protect such groups. According to the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (2017) The Hershey Company was sued for disability discrimination for suspending and later firing Kristina Williams after she was diagnosed with spinal stenosis, this is an example of direct discrimination in the workplace by an employer. Gregory (2003) argues that workplace discrimination is detrimental because it deprives those that are discriminated against of essential freedoms like speech, association and expression. Craig (2007) argues that due to the bias against some groups in the workplace, productivity is reduced which eventually leads to the corporation bearing the cost of a failing workforce.

In order to solve workplace discrimination, it is also important that we educate everyone in the workplace about the harms of this. Discrimination is often born of psychological and historical biases and requires unlearning in order for people to correct their behaviour (Benatar 2012). Another way could be by adopting minority friendly laws within businesses for example, the adoption of laws which are pro gender parity and pro disability protection. Whilst arguing for the introduction of gender equity laws in the workplace Tulshyan (2016) asserts that a balanced work environment and diverse opinions are vital for the success of any business.

Blackmon (2012) defines forced labour as the use of intimidation or violence to get people to do work. This means the work is performed involuntarily and through coercion and can occur through the use of actual violence, threat of violence or intimidation of people based on their economic or social standing. Costa (2009) refers to modern day slavery, coercive recruitment and compulsory recruitment as some examples of forced labour. It is therefore important to note that forced labour does not necessarily mean the absence of pay and compensation. Lindley (2014) argues that after the economic crisis of 2008, people have grown increasingly vulnerable to the circumstances they find themselves under and are therefore increasingly susceptible to accepting and brushing off forced labour. Individuals at the bottom of the socio economic ladder find themselves most susceptible to this as they have minimal control over their tomorrow. According to Blackmon (2017) the exposure of our culture to such violations lead to breakdowns within societies which will eventually inhibit the social development of those concerned. This shows that the disadvantages extend beyond just the economic and financial opportunities that are lost but could lead to phenomena’s like injustice and corruption becoming norm.
As a solution to ending forced labour, individual countries have a responsibility to act in solving this crisis. The first way could be by consistently investigating and doing checks on all corporations trading within their boundaries and acting promptly where any instances of forced labour may be seen to be occurring. This can happen through the establishment of commission of enquiries and other independent bodies tasked with ensuring citizen and employee protection. Furthermore by establishing more sustainable economic and social policies, countries could be able to improve the living standards of their people and make them less prone to abuse by employers. Lastly it is important to sensitise employees and aspiring actors in the economy of their rights so that they are in a better position to protect themselves against employers who want to abuse their authority over them.

The human workforce is a crucial part of securing financial, social and political economies and establishing a solid economic standing for any country, it is therefore then an essential part in growing these economies. Beyond this it is also important to understand the correlation between employee rights and human rights and the need to protect them. Several countries experience the same labour issues which is why the pandemic constitutes as a global problem which requires immediate intervention and the need for all stakeholders that have taken up the Global Compact Initiative to act in curbing them. A lot of the principles under Initiative are intertwined and require an almost balanced approach to solving, there are some basic measures that can be used to curb labour issues along with human rights issues and corruption and they include the education ad sensitization of concerned parties, the adoption and implementation of necessary regulation and the upkeep of regular checks and balances to ensure that these problems are solved. However, all stakeholders must always go the extra mile to ensure that for whatever rising issue occurs especially those that are special to their line of work they are always ready and proactively work to resolve them.

Introduction : Tinnitus, the most common auditory disorder, affects about 40 million people in the United States alone, and its incidence is rising due to an aging population and increasing noise exposure. Although several approaches for the alleviation of tinnitus exist, there is as of yet no cure. The present article proposes a testable model for tinnitus that is grounded in recent findings from human imaging and focuses on brain areas in cortex, thalamus, and ventral striatum. Limbic and auditory brain areas are thought to interact at the thalamic level. While a tinnitus signal originates from lesion-induced plasticity of the auditory pathways, it can be tuned out by feedback connections from limbic regions, which block the tinnitus signal from reaching auditory cortex. If the limbic regions are compromised, this “noise-cancellation” mechanism breaks down, and chronic tinnitus results. Hopefully, this model will ultimately enable the development of effective treatment.
Body : The subcallosal area in its posterior portion overlaps with the nucleus accumbens (NAc), which is a major component of the ventral striatum , How do the limbic regions of the subcallosal area interact with the thalamo-cortical sensory/perceptual systems? In addition to corticofugal and transcortical glutamatergic projections from vmPFC, anatomical data indicate that serotonergic axons (from the dorsal raphe nucleus).
“Functional and structural abnormalities in limbic and auditory areas contributing to tinnitus,” Organization of Human Brain Mapping, areas contributing to tinnitus,” Organization of Human Brain Mapping, Barcelona, Spain). Why neurons in some individuals (i.e., those with SNHL but no tinnitus) are better protected from damage than in others (i.e., individuals with tinnitus) remains unclear. However, the use of neuroprotective drugs, such as NMDA antagonists, might aid with the prevention (or even reversal) of chronic tinnitus.
What Breaks the Noise-Cancellation System?
First, it could be a consequence of overload (and resulting excitotoxicity) from chronic firing of NAc neurons trying to compensate for the tinnitus signal.
Second, it is possible that tinnitus patients have an independent, systemic vulnerability in one or more limbic-relevant transmitter systems, such as serotonin (5-HT) (see below), making these individuals more susceptible to tinnitus as well as other disorders, like chronic pain or depression. In affected individuals, underlying transmitter levels may decline faster over time or with age than in unaffected individuals. Although mechanisms driving such “system dysfunctions” (e.g., dopaminergic cells in the basal ganglia are known to fail over time in Parkinsonism) are not yet characterized, they are likely to be multifactorial, with genetic vulnerability, developmental insults, and environmental stressors all considered important and synergistic contributors.

Previous theories of tinnitus have assumed a largely “reactive” role for limbic structures that reflects a mostly learned distress response (Jastreboff, 1990, Jastreboff, 2000). Tinnitus was thought to cause insomnia, depression, or anxiety; limbic activation found in prior PET imaging studies was seen largely as a reflection of these emotional effects of tinnitus and the suffering associated with this condition. The present model assigns a more central role to limbic and paralimbic structures in and around the subcallosal area, in that they participate in a self-regulating gating process that can actually prevent the tinnitus signal from being perceived. More generally, therefore, limbic activity does not only color our perception, it is even in a position to completely suppress or tune out the signal if it is deemed unpleasant and/or redundant. Such limbic influences on thalamo-cortical transmission may prove to be more fundamental in health and disease than hitherto thought and may be realized by a relatively simple feedback circuit.
the long-term reorganization of central auditory pathways following sensorineural hearing loss appears to consist of changes at the cortical as well as thalamic level. It is entirely possible that tinnitus, like many apparently heterogeneous neurological syndromes, may be the end result of various different causes. Different subtypes of tinnitus have indeed been described in cluster analyses, for instance cases in which tinnitus gets better with (i.e., is masked by) noise (a fundamental tenet for many treatment attempts; Okamoto et al., 2010, Roberts, 2007), but also cases in which tinnitus gets worse in noise (Tyler et al., 2008). Notably, tinnitus has been reported to occur in individuals with normal hearing (Heller and Bergman, 1953). In cases of tinnitus with intact hearing, a model of lesion-induced plasticity would not apply, as a lesion in the auditory periphery may not exist. On the other hand, “normal hearing” is often determined on the basis of standard audiological examination, which is performed in octave steps and only at frequencies below 8 kHz. Cases of mild notch-like hearing loss or hearing loss above 8 kHz could easily escape such testing. When audiological testing is performed at finer intervals and at frequencies above 8 kHz, cases of tinnitus with absolutely no hearing loss become more rare in our hands and in those of other investigators (Salvi et al., 2009). It is safe to say, therefore, that the great majority of tinnitus cases do involve SNHL, i.e., damage to the sensory periphery (Hoffman and Reed, 2004). Importantly, the reverse is not true, i.e., not everyone with SNHL develops tinnitus (see below). Thus, although universal models or treatments for tinnitus may not exist, we argue that central auditory system reorganization is a necessary prerequisite for chronic tinnitus.
In this context, analogies between tinnitus and chronic pain may be informative (Flor et al., 2006, King et al., 2009, Møller, 2007). Many forms of chronic pain are modulated by stress, emotions, and fatigue and are comorbid with anxiety and depression (Folmer et al., 2001). Chronic pain often results from previous bodily injury, which could lead to long-term central reorganization.
tinnitus most likely results from the following factors:
In most, if not all, cases, the process leading to tinnitus is triggered by a lesion to the auditory periphery, e.g., a loss of hair cells in the inner ear resulting from acoustic trauma or aging.

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Loss of input in the lesioned frequency range leads to an overrepresentation of lesion-edge frequencies, which causes hyperactivity and possible burst-firing in central auditory pathways, constituting the initial tinnitus signal.

Under normal circumstances, the tinnitus signal is cancelled out at the level of the thalamus by an inhibitory feedback loop originating in paralimbic structures: activity from these structures reaches the TRN, which in turn inhibits the MGN. If, however, paralimbic regions are compromised, inhibition of the tinnitus signal at the thalamic gate is lost, and the signal is relayed all the way to the auditory cortex, where it leads to permanent reorganizati.

Conclusions : Tinnitus should not be neglected and should be treated because it is very important and may lead to a complex psychological condition.


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