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Introduction:
“A culture is a way of life of a group of people–the behaviours, beliefs, values, and symbols that they accept, generally without thinking about them, and that are passed along by communication and imitation from one generation to the next” (Thill, 2018). Culture reflects the total way of life a society. According to the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), cultural competence is our willpower and ability to understand and respect the different cultures and communicate effectively with people from other cultures. Being culturally competent is important for nurses and midwives as it reduces the possible dangers due to the misinterpretation of the patient thereby contributing to their well-being. Besides briefly reflecting on my own culture and the different cultures of the world, this essay will also discuss the measures taken by nurses and midwives in order to be more culturally competent.
My culture and my values:
I come from Tamil Nadu, which is in the southern part of India. My parents are originally from a state called Kerala, but currently live in Tamil Nadu. I speak four languages including the regional languages of these two states. My Father is the only son of my grandparents and so we live as a nuclear family which consists of my grandmother, my parents and myself. I am emotionally every attached with my family and I cannot go even a day without talking to everybody at home. I come from a Christian family and even though I am a little confused about the concept of God, I believe and trust in the existence of God. We are generally superstitious about many things. One good example of this would be a case that came into notice (Drielsma,2013), where it was found that the parents of an Indian girl, who was born with four arms, refused a pro bono offer of a surgery, because they believed their child was the four-armed Hindu God (Laxmi) reborn. Respecting elders is a very important aspect of my culture and we do not question them or go against what they say or hurt them in any way. Even if I were to marry somebody, it would be decided by my parents and all the elders of my family, as that is a sign of respecting their life experiences. Religion and the society’s opinion are important parts of our lives. Indian parents prefer arranged marriage system as there is no unnecessary complication of their children falling in love with people of a different religion or caste or lower status. Friends and family are important in my life. I make friends very easily as I ca put people at ease. In India words like “thank you”, “welcome” or “please” among friends or family is considered as a violation of the closeness of the relationship and often considered sarcastic. We also avoid using the word “no”, instead we say something synonymous to “I will try my best”, so that we don’t sound rude or hurt people with words. Relatives and friends are considered family and we drop in on them when we feel like it, without any prior appointments, as they are considered “family” too. When it comes to food, we prefer it spicy and we use hands to eat food, as we see, smell, touch and taste the food we eat. Moreover, we consider it to be both a physical and spiritual contact with food, because as per our belief, each finger represents the five elements of nature (space, air, fire, water, earth). But we never use our left hand for eating, as, it is considered impure. This is because there are no tissue papers available in the toilets and people use water and their left hands! Also, footwear is considered unclean and we avoid wearing them inside our home or holy places. When greeting people, it is very rare that we shake hands, instead we acknowledge them with nods and smiles with a “hello”, as physical contact of the opposite sex is not encouraged in our society. Alcohol, smoking. Partying or clubbing are taboo subjects in in my family and, at a society level, it leads to negative stereotypes. I am a strong believer of “KARMA” (you get what you do to others) and this influences most of the decisions I make.
Compare and contrast:
There are so many different cultures in the world and every culture is different and unique in its own way. This is what makes the world a colourful place to live in.

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The use
of ginger as an ingredient in cooking and as a medicine has been practiced by
people for so many years. Turmeric, Cardamom and Galangal came from the family
of Zingiberaceae as well as ginger. Ginger is a plant which is perpendicular
and slick, its stem increases for about 3-4 feet tall with chunky and scented
rootstocks. The roots taste dissimilar due to the presence of zingerone and
shogaol substances which bring acidic properties to the plant. The knots of
pink and white flower buds which are produced by ginger bloom into yellow
flowers. They are frequently besotted in vinegar as light meal. They can
function as an ingredient or can be constructed as ginger tea by the means of
decoction added with honey. In Indian and South Asian dishes like vegetables,
meat and seafood, ginger is commonly used. Its root is commonly used in Indian
and South Asian dishes like vegetarian dishes, meats and seafood. Volatile oils
that cast 1-3% of its weight cause its scent and flavour. In addition, Ginger
is made up of 1% fat, 2% protein, 18% carbohydrates and 79% of water. A fresh
ginger contains nutrients like Riboflavin, Pantothenic acid, Vitamin B6
and Vitamin E and minerals such as Calcium, Iron, Magnesium, Manganese,
Phosphorus, Potassium, Sodium and Zinc. Ginger makes swallowing effortless due
to its sialagogue action that increases the saliva rate.

 

 

Aside
from using it as a cooking ingredient, Ginger can also be utilized as medicine
or remedy against several diseases. Ginger is usually used for cough or sore
throat remedy. Vomiting and nausea can be handled by using ginger. It is
additionally used in infections, while ginger oil has a powerful anti-bacterial
activity to stop the diseases caused by bacteria. In addition, ginger makes a
good treatment for diabetic sufferers. Ginger also has potential to
anti-inflammatory and has cancer preventive components. Ginger can treat people
who have constipation and gastrointestinal illnesses. It enables the food to
transport properly. Ginger consists of anti-blood-clotting ability which helps
on stopping heart cardiac infarction and seizures. Similar to Capsaicin, Ginger
can be also used to relieve pain. Besides, ginger adhesive applied in the
forehead on treating migraine, fever and headache. If it be used as a component
in cooking or medicine, what will happen if ginger is used in plants?

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Irrigation
has been practiced throughout the planet. The world’s 70% fresh water pull-outs
go in irrigation usage. Almost 18% of farmlands in the world were irrigated. Irrigation
is very necessary to the plant life. Flooding the whole field, channelling
water between the rows of plants and by the use of sprinkler are the different
techniques in using irrigation. It helps prevent leaf diseases that make it
more essential. Flooding, soaking and sprinkling water into plants can save
time. It also helps in keeping nutrients and lowers soil compression. It helps
on conserving water. It boosts plants to grow faster. Irrigation helps on weed
loss .Due to the increasing amount of the world’s population; we need
additional source of food like plants. Farmers depend on irrigation in order to
increase agriculture productivity. Water used in irrigation may come from   wells, springs, rivers and lakes. Although
water has been used as ingredient or medicine, it can be also utilized as an
alternative irrigation for the growth of plants. Since then, water is overused
as irrigation for plants. Making ginger as irrigation may help on the growth of
crops. Its usual fruit quality may be boosted by the components of ginger. With
the use of ginger as irrigation may cause bigger size of the fruit. But, the
result depends in the quantity of ginger brew used in the vegetable.

 

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Introduction:
Cells named hybridomas are able to make monoclonal antibodies in a colossal sum which is desirable. The cells of mouse spleen are fused with mouse myeloma cells. At that point the secreted antibodies which demonstrate specificity are controlled by parent spleen cell and the characteristics are directed by myeloma. Two scientist kohler and milstein revealed this innovation in 1975. This innovation makes monoclonal antibodies in distinct cells. Monoclonal antibodies are utilized in hindering, examination and treating infection. They are additionally utilized in sparing organ transplantation where dismissal of organ can happen (Tokunaga, Chiba and Ohnishi, 2010)

Technique involved in hybridoma technology:
1. Necessary to initiating a hybridoma project:
– Sterility is important in cabinet where hybridoma generation is presented.
– An incubator is required in which temperature is controlled, moistness is kept up and gas concentration is kept up. Fluid nitrogen storage ought to be faciliated as it is basic for hybridomas keeping up in a low temperature store for cryopreservation.
– Ease of animal holding, aseptic careful surgical for mouse dissection, water showers of temperature at 37 and 56 degree Celsius, centrifugation machine, tissue culture product are additionally required (Hurrell, 2018)

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Introduction:
Cells named hybridomas are able to make monoclonal antibodies in a colossal sum which is desirable. The fusion of cells of mice spleen with cells of mice myeloma happen. At that point the secreted antibodies which demonstrate specificity are controlled by parent spleen cell and the characteristics are controlled by myeloma. Two scientist kohler and milstein revealed this innovation in 1975. This innovation manufactures monoclonal antibodies in distinct cells. This antibodies are utilized in hindering, examination and treating infection. They are additionally utilized in sparing organ transplantation where dismissal of organ can happen (Tokunaga, Chiba and Ohnishi, 2010)

Technique involved in hybridoma technology:
1. Necessary to initiating a hybridoma project:
– Sterility is important in cabinet where hybridoma generation is presented.
– An incubator is required in which temperature is controlled, moistness is kept up and gas concentration is kept up. Fluid nitrogen storage ought to be faciliated as it is basic for hybridomas keeping up in a low temperature store for cryopreservation.
– Ease of animal holding, aseptic careful surgical for mouse dissection, water showers of temperature at 37 and 56 degree Celsius, centrifugation machine, tissue culture product are additionally required (Hurrell, 2018)

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2. Materials and media:
– Cell development medium is utilized. RPMI 1640 is utilized. Notwithstanding it, FCS 10%, Glutamine 2mM, Penicillin 100 International Units/ml and streptomycin 100 microgram/ml are utilized.
– HAT particular medium is utilized.
– Polyethylene glycol is used.(Hurrell, 2018)

3. Determination of antigens and vaccination plans:
– Highly distinct antibodies against polluted antigens are engaged with purifying the antigens.
– Spleen cells are used in the abtibody producing hybrids.
– BALB/c mice strain are used.(Hurrell, 2018)

4. Decision of parent myeloma lines:
– It`s development ought to be better and high concentrations of immunoglobulin must be discharged from it.
– The fundamental biosynthesis pathway which does nucleic acid synthesis is restrained by an aminopterin. Cell`s duplications are proceeded by utilizing salvage pathway within the sight of hypoxanthine and thymidine. In the event that a compound required in the salvage pathway that is missing in a mutant cell, development of cell is not possible. Myeloma cells lacking hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase catalyst (HGPRT) are applied. (Hurrell, 2018)

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