Information System:
1. Transaction Processing System
Based on my own research, transaction processing system is one of the most usually used for a business, they also called it as the real-time processing. Transaction processing system is the one who is providing a way that will display modify, collect, store, retrieve, process or cancel a transaction. Some of these systems also permit multiple transactions to take place synchronously. All of the data that the system gathered and collected is normally stored in the database. It is usually use on producing reports such as in inventory summaries, in billing, in wages, in check registers and in manufacturing schedules. Some of the characteristics of transaction processing system are it is reliable, its performance and we can say that it is consistent. And to achieve this, the data should be ready and accessible in the data warehouse.
Transaction processing systems are frequently compared in the batch processing and in batch process system, where there are so many requests that all are executed at the same time. Although each result of the transactions in batch processing is not that immediately available so you still have to wait for it. And it may also cost some delay especially when there are many requests that are needed to be stored, executed and eventually to be organized. While in transaction processing the results of each of them are available immediately and there are no delays. But some errors may take place if the time for batch processing is delay. Even though in transaction processing errors may occur, they are still tolerated and infrequent, and it doesn’t usually shut down your entire system.
2. Management Information System
Management information system is a type of information system which uses the data that collected in the transaction processing system and it eventually uses the data to create and make reports that in some way a manager can use this to make a pattern in making business decisions in responding to a problem. Most of the data that the information system did are ad hoc reports, exception and summary reports. All of this is done for increasing the productiveness of managerial doings.
In the historical reason, numerous of the different kind of information system is found in the commercial organizations that are mentioned to as a management information system. Management information system is built on the data that provided by the transaction processing system. Though within in the pyramid model, management information system is a management level system which is used by those middle managers for them to help to make sure the smooth running of the organizations in the small into medium form. The highly structured information provided by the systems permits the managers to estimate the organizations performance by the way of comparing present with the former outputs.
These are some of the benefits and advantages of MIS; companies will be able to classify their weakness and the strengths due to the existence of profits reports, the performance records of employee and etc. Classifying these features will help the company to improve the business operations and process. It is also acting as planning tool for communication. It is also giving the whole picture of the company.

3. Decision Support System
Decision support system or DSS that is organizational decision making or a supports business is also an information system. It is also about helping to make a good decision by analyzing and working on a data that will be able to generate statistical projections and data models. A decision support system also helps to solve a problem while using the eternal data. The system will be giving and contributes support instead of replacing a manager’s judgment while enriching the quality of the manager’s decision. Operations, planning the levels of an organization, management and help people to make their decision are some of the decision support system serve. It can be human powered, can be computerized too if you like, but you can also use it both at the same time.
Users of the decision support system see it as a tool that they use in the organizational processes because it will really help in decision making process. It is also easy to use for those people who are non-computer proficient because it only focuses on the features in the interactive mode. And in using decision support system the user’s decision making approach in the environment is adaptable and flexible when accommodating in changes. In the decision support system knowledge based system is also included. It helps the decision makers to compile that useful and meaningful information from the combinations of documents, files, personal knowledge, business models or raw data that will solve problems and identify and will make decisions.
4. Expert Systems and Neutral Networks
The expert systems and neutral network is also called as a knowledge-based system which represents rules and facts. It is a computer system which is designed to study and analyze the data and to produce a diagnosis, decisions and recommendations that are controlled. Neutral system uses a computer to develop and help the human brain a way to process knowledge, information, remember and to learn that data. For you to be able to solve complex problems by reasoning through bodies of knowledge, represented mainly as if-then rules instead of through conventional procedural code, expert system is designed for it.
Artificial intelligence’s first truly successful form is the expert system which is first created on 1970’s. There are two subsystems of expert system which is the knowledge base and the interference engine. Applying the rules to the known facts to deduce and discover new facts is what interference engine do. And it also includes the debugging and explanation abilities. While knowledge base, is representing the facts and the rules.
The objective of this knowledge based system is to make the critical information necessary for its system to work it explicit rather than implicit. Logic is embedded in code which can naturally only be reviewed by an IT specialist in the traditional computer program. With this expert system the objective was to list down the rules in a format which was easily to understand and intuitive, reviewed and should be edited by the domain experts rather than those IT experts. The profits of the explicit knowledge demonstration were rapid development and ease of maintenance.
5. Information Systems in Organizations
Information system in the organizations are what we define as organized system for the storage, collection, organization and the collection of the information. Specifically, we can say that it is a study of complementary networks that the organization and the people use it to filter, create, distribute, process and collect the data. Information system is more focus on the internal more than the external. The advantage of information system is because it is a special type of work system. Work system is kind of system that machines or human’s activities and processes using the resources or the data to produce specific services or products for the client.
Information system defined also as the mixture of software, business process, data, functions and hardware which said to be used to increase management and efficiency on the organization. Automated system is the expression that can be used to describe the information system and also referred to a computerized computer system. It is manual which covers machines, organized methods or people to process, disseminate, collect and transmit data that represents the information for the client or for the user.
The purpose of the information systems is for them to support management, decision making and the operations. It is the ICT or the information and communication technology that the organization uses. And it also allows the people to interact in this technology in some support of business process. An ICT component is typically include but not purely concerned with it. Instead it is focusing on the end use of the information technology. Information system can also help on controlling the performance of each business processes.

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System Development Life Cycle
We can say that system development life cycle is similar to the project life cycle. Many cases of system development life cycle is considered as the phase project model which defines the personnel, organizational, budgeting and organizational constraints of the large scale system. Project is the term where there would be a beginning and end to a cycle and that the methods are inherent in the SDLC strategy that will provide distinct, defined and a clear phase of work in the elements of testing, planning, maintaining, designing and deploying the information system.
Numerous system development life cycle methods are used by the project managers, execution, planning and often in an organization which each project has their own complexity level. The same methods are use even in an enterprise, techniques and different project tools can be differ dramatically. C-suite executives are also involved in system development life cycle, although it is the program/project managers, system engineers and software, the development team and the users who handle the multi-layered process.
System development life cycle is a guide which step by step through the phases of how are you going to implement both of the physical or the software based system. Many models are available to use and has an interactive structure that can be adapted for your own organization needs. For example adopting an agile method, the waterfall method or you can employ a hybrid of several of these methods.
8 Common Phases of System Development Life Cycle
Phase 1: Preliminary Analysis
In phase one of development life cycle is the preliminary analysis, it is a process where at the start of your project you will be determined whether your concept is acceptable and viable; the evaluation cost benefit; the proposal of any of alternative solutions; and finally the recommendation of the submission of the preliminary plan. Before you complete the said preliminary analysis, every of the developer performs a feasibility study for them to be able to determine whether they will fix the system that is already existing or if they are going to create a new system and replace the old one.
There are different components of feasibility study; the first one is the operational feasibility. This study measures the proposed system on how well it solves the problems. It also provides the required solution and also show if the system satisfies all of the requirements that are identified in the analysis phase requirements of the system development. It takes every advantage of the opportunities that determine during the scope definition. The second one is the economic feasibility, which determines the benefits of positive economic that a system will provide. Next is the technical feasibility that makes sure if the system will perform and it will verify if there are no production barriers. While human factors feasibility is determining if the system is relevant and if can be managed by those end users.
Phase 2: System analysis
System analysis is the phase two of system development life cycle, it defines the goals of the project broken down into defined operation and functions of an application. Facts are interpreted and gathered during the process, diagnosed problems, and some improvements are recommended. System analysis has several tools that we can use for it which are; computer aided systems/software engineering, requirements gathering and structured analysis and design technique.
Computer aide’s system/software engineering or CASE for short is controlling and organizing the development of the system of software through the use of the method computer assisted. It allows everyone to share their common view in the project using the CASE, and where it will be standing at each stage of the development.
In requirements gathering it provides some of the alternative means to explain, specify and illustrate precisely what must be shown and delivered to meet the goal of the business.
While in structured analysis and design technique or SADT is helping people to understand and describe each of the system using a diagrammatic notation. SADT can also be a tool of a given process using detail of successive level to be use on the functional analysis.
Phase 3: System design
System design is the phase three of the system development life cycle which is describing the desired design or features and operations for a system. After planning, identifying the system, the costs and the clients requirements, the detailed design system can start that includes the other documentation and the features. The goal of this phase design system is to show and transform all of the requirements into a fine detailed specification that will cover all of the aspects of a system. It must be also calculated and well planned for security risks to protect the system. If you are satisfied with your work you can now proceed to the next phase which is the development that will be granted to complete the systems design phase.
It is said that designing a system is the crucial part of the phase in development of the system. Your system design should be presentable and the requirements are all in there for you to be able to impress the users. In this phase many decisions are needed to be made. For example which programming language will be using and the software and hardware platform in which the system will run. Control process, limitation and workload of the system, the data structure, its equipment source, documentation, procedures of using a system, interface, stuffing requirements, training and taking backups are also decided in this phase.
For describing a system design of a system there are several techniques and tools that can be used. These are the data flow diagram, flowchart, structured English, data dictionary, decision tree and the decision table.
Phase 4: Development
Phase four of the development life cycle is where codes are written for the operation and the desired features. A lot of programming tools are needed for this like interpreters, the compiler, and language are commonly used for the coding. The goal and the objective of development phase is to test, the technical environment for the system should be prepared, to build the system and integrate the units onto larger components, and to go to the next phase which is the integration and testing.
This phase is also called the programming phase which the developer converts the program qualifications into computer commands, which we mention to as a program. This stage is important because this is where we build the system and compose its structure. In this phase by the help of the computer language commands will be made of and the system will be controlled. The codes will coordinate the data movements and it will control the whole process in the system. Your code should be clean and written well to reduce errors and to lessen the effort of maintenance and testing. This will help you to save time and to fasten the maintenance, development and the future changes, if it is required in the system. The right and correct programming language should be use and chosen based on the application.
Phase 5: Interrogation and testing
In the phase five of the system development life cycle, the programmer needed the system to tests for the errors and the bugs to make it accurate and complaint. Usually the interrogation and testing should be done by a professional for quality assurance. Testing can be done several times especially if there are a lot of errors that needed to be fixing in the program. There are types of testing for a system including; path testing, data set testing, unit testing, system testing, interrogation testing, black box testing, white box testing, regression testing, automation testing user acceptance testing and software testing.
Path testing guarantees that every of the path through the problem is executed. In data set testing it separates the system into testing set and the training set. Unit testing takes distinct units of the software source code and it will be test to determine if it will fit. The system testing is conducting an examination on a complete and integrated system to assess the systems compliance. Interrogation system is testing and combining separate software modules as a group. Black box testing examines the applications functionality without looking into its internal workings. In white box testing it tests the internal working or the structures of the application giving an internal perception of the system. Regression testing, confirms that the software was developed previously and was tested still performs properly after it was modified. Automation testing, programs some monotonous tasks in formalized testing process. User acceptance testing was also known as the beta testing, it tests the software in the real realm by the intended spectators. Although the software performance testing, describes how the system will be able to perform by means of stability and responsiveness under a specific workload.
Phase 6: Acceptance, Installation, and Deployment
In phase six of system development life cycle the initial progress state puts the software into production and runs as it needed. If the system performs the tasks properly and characterizes the system, the programmer will move on the next phase on maintenance. Through deployment of the system there are two types of processes of changeover; the direct changeover, pilot run and the parallel run.
Direct changeover, is a one to one replacement of the new and the old systems. This approach is kind of risky and it also requires comprehensive system training and testing. In parallel run, the both systems are executed at once. But if the data is alike amongst the system and the manual process, then the system is deployed. This technique is less risky but it is more expensive because, the operational work is doubled, manual results will be compared to the outcomes of computerized system. While the pilot run, the new system is run with the data from one or more of the earlier periods for the part or whole of a system. Old system results are compared to the new one. This strategy is less expensive and risky than the first strategy which is the parallel run. This technique is building the confidence and the errors are easily traced without disturbing the processes.
Phase 7: Maintenance
Maintenance is the phase seven of the system development life cycle that makes sure that the system isn’t becoming an outdated to cope up with the latest features. The objective in this stage is to manage every single change that will happen in to the system and to monitor all of the performances of the system, to support every end users requirements, and if the security activities are performing accurately and correctly. In this phase the process of upgrading and change are continuous. The replacement of outdated software or hardware should be done, same as with the security system upgrading and the continuous development on a regular basis.
Maintenance of a system is necessary and should be done to remove every error on it during its functioning life and for it to be able to cope at its working environments. It is done to meet with the possibility of any future functionality, enhancement in the future and several added useful features that needed to cope up with the latest future that needed. In maintenance there are always seen an error that found on the system that should be corrected and noted to be fix. So in doing this you need to review and study the system more every time to see what’s wrong and what is needed to be fix on it. For reviewing the system first you should know what is the full capabilities of your system, also you needed to know the additional changes or the required changes and study its performance.
Phase 8: Disposition
System development life cycles phase nine is disposal, disposition or end-of-life, it is when the plans are began to discard system information, software and the hardware in the evolution to the new system. It is the end of the stage of a system development life cycle. The disposal of the system information securely and discreetly is so important, such as the information may be of a personal nature. Included in this stage is the secure retrieval of the information and the data for the preservation, as well as its physical disposition of the asset.
Disposition stage is making sure that all of the information systems are terminated in the orderly manner and which the vital data about the whole system are preserved based to the applicable records management policies and regulations for the future access. The decision will proceed to disposition stage according to the approval and the recommendations from the in process review while the maintenance and operations phase.
The goal of this phase is to be able to shut down the operational information system in the controlled manner. And the objective is the end users notification, to shut down the system, notification to the systems team with the reference to the interfacing system, the disposal of residual assets from the retirement and by archiving the data and the system components.

Agile Methodology
An agile method is a detailed approach that will plan management that will utilized on the software development. This strategy is to assists every teams in reacting to the changeability of creating the software. It is using an incremental, iterative work sequence which is commonly known as the sprints. Sprint is the period of the time assigned for a particular stage of the project. When the time period expires, sprints are considered to be completed.
Here are some principles of agile method; it is able to satisfy the client and continually develop software. For the user’s competitive benefit changing the requirements are included. It concentrates on delivering working software regularly. Delivery preference will be able to locate on the shortest possible allotted time span. Both developers and the business people should work together all over the whole project. The project should be based on the people who are motivated. Provide them the appropriate environment and the support that they needed. They should be trusted too to get every job done.
Agile method has been acknowledged by the industry as the better way solution to the project development. Practically every software developer is using the agile method in some form. The benefits of using the agile methods are it offers light framework for assisting the teams. It will help them to maintain their focus and function on rapid delivery. This focus supports capable organizations in reducing the whole threats associated with the software development. It also guarantees that the value is improved throughout the development process and helps the companies to build their right product.

4 Roles of System Analyst
System Analyst as a Consultant
Being a system analyst is usually you acted as a system consultant to the users, client and to their business, and they are usually hired precisely to address the information systems problems or issues within the business. For a company it can be an advantage in hiring a consultant outside because it will bring you fresh and new ideas or features that other people around you do not have. But it also has its disadvantage because an outsider consultant can never be familiar and accustomed with the true organizational culture.
Being an outsider consultant, you need to depend heavily on the systematic technique that discuss throughout the text to design and analyze a suitable information system for the users working on the specific business. For additional, you need to study and depend on the information systems users that will help you to understand the organizational culture from the others point of view.
One of the basic steps for the entire system analyst is that they needed to understand all of the requirements of the users that needed to be done. This will be achieved by the numerous fact finding strategy like in observing, interviewing, questionnaire and etc. All of the information should be gathered and collected in such a way that it will be all useful and helpful to develop a system that can offer additional features to the users apart from the desired design.
System Analyst as a Support Expert
One more role of a system analyst that you can be essential to perform is the supporting expert inside the business for which you will be frequently employ in some of systems capability. In this kind of role the system analyst appeals to be on the professional expertise concerning about the computer software and hardware and their other uses in the business. This job is regularly not a full-blown system project, but somewhat it is also involves a small decision or a modification that may affect a single department.
Being as a supporting expert, you are not going to manage the project; you are just simply serving as the resource for those who are. If you are one of the system analysts that who are employed by a service organization or a manufacturing, a lot of your daily activities may possibly be an incorporated by this role.
System Analyst as Agent of Change
System analyst is also viewed as a change agent. This should be the most responsible and comprehensive role that a system analyst takes on, whether it is external or internal to a business. A candidate system is to be designed to introduce the reorientation and the change. The system analyst may possibly select a number of styles to introduce the change to the user organization, in the role of a change agent. No matter what style will be using is, on the other hand, the objective is the same and it is to achieve approval of the candidate system with its minimum of resistance.
As a system analyst, you are an change agent whether you carry out any of the activities that has in the system development life cycle and are interacting and present with the business and the users for an lengthen period like for a week or more than a year. A change of agent may be distinct as a person who will serves as a catalyst for change, works with the other in facilitating the change, and to develop plan for the change.
Being a system analyst, you should also recognize this fact and use it as the starting point of your analysis. Therefore, you should interact with the users and management from the very beginning of the project. Without the help of them you will not understand what will they needed to support their work in the organization, and real change will be not taking its place.
System Analyst as Investigator
System analyst as an investigator or monitor is one of its role. An investigator is going to investigate or look for the current system to find a reason why it fails. The part of an investigator is for them to extract all of the problems from the existing system and for them to create the information structure that can uncover earlier unidentified trends that can have a direct impact on the organization. In describing a problem, an analyst pieces together the collected and gathered information for them to be able to determine why is the present system will not work well and what should be the changes to correct and fix the problem.
An analyst also plays the role of being a monitor. The role of a monitor is for them to undertake and for them to successfully finished and complete the project that assigned. In this part, an analyst should monitor the programs or the system in the relation to the quality, time, and the cost. The most important in these resources is the time because if you wasted a lot of time the project that you are working on is going to suffer from increasing its cost and you will waste all of the human resources you have. Execution of delays can also means that the system or the project will be able to not get ready on time, which can frustrates the users and costumers that are waiting for the system to finish.



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