Chapter 1


Literature is a weapon
to express our views on anything and everything . It is a medium of
communication and  expression of emotion
, feeling ,problem and also creativity . Indian literature is a product of
multilingual , multicultural and socio- historical mélange cannot be over
looked . Today Indian literature  reached  its zenithof creation with the contribution
of regional as well as national writers . Main developmentis form its root ,
that is in the development of writingin English and the genre novels . Indo-
Anglican literature contributed to the common pool of world writing in English.
Indian  English Literature refer to the
body of work by writers in India who writes in English and whose native or co-
native language could be one of the numerous language of India. Indian English Literature
has a relatively recent category . The first book written by an Indian in English
was by Sake Dean Mahomet , titled‘Travel of
 Dean Mahomet’ .

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Early Indian writers
used English unadulterated by Indian words essentially Indian . Indian writing
in English are a product  of the  historian encounter between the two cultures
Indian and western.Indian English literature originated as a necessary outcome
of the English  education in India ,
believing that social evils could be eliminated through hub   Christian missionaries and British rulers ,
especially in Bengal where the British had made their first in roads in the mid
19th century . Started girls schools and 1880s Indian women started to
graduate from universities . However vast mejority of girls did not attend
schools because  the education for
women  was mainly confined to the larges
towns and cities.

Later began to rise of
novels as a form of literature . Still it set to be the genre of novel existed
in India as a crude form of literature . The Early novels were the imitation of
westerns . It mainly  concerns  the realism and unfailing interest in man .
It represents the cultural perspective of people . So Indian English novelist
have given their expression to their hopes and aspiration. According to Paul Vergheese

“ A novelist , it may
ne said , is in search of a unity in diversity of life and civilization

He therefore cannot turn
his back on the social realities his time , but should crave man’s

Image in his art with
his social awareness and  insight into

The birth of English novel
in India is to some extent , result of historical , political , social ancient cultural
incidence. The main themes considered in the novels are humanity like romances,
tragedy, comedy. At first politics influenced very much in literature. Raja ram
Mohan Roy ‘s social reforms alsofavored the English language spreading the
wealth information and culture available in British publication .

             From the appearance of R. K.Narayan
, Mulk Rajanand , Raja Rao and host of others were trying their art fiction
writing with equal facility and felicity. That had unlimited and unrestricted
themes. They protest against feudalism and imperialism of the period. The
religious and mythical Indian traditions have been successfully presented their
novels. He portrayed village life ,study about family and variant family
relationship, conflict between tradition and modernityetc. His best works are Malgudy Days, The Guide, Swami and Friends etc.

The Indian English
novel originated from Indian regional language ,Bengali. It was in Bengal that
a literary renaissance first manifested . Later  it developed by R.K Narayan,  Mulk Rajanand etc.Until 1950s women have no
freedom to write in India. After1950s they moved frim private sphere  into public. Novelists like  Anita Desai, Kamala Markandaya , Nayanthara
Sehgal, changed through their works contain seeds of future development. The
novel after independence got the real momentum of its development and eminent
novelists contributed for it. M.K Naik states:

“ Independence Indian
English fiction retains the momentumwhich the novel hadgained during the Gandian
Age. The tradition of social realism established earlier on a sound footing by Mulk
Raj Ananda is contained by novelists like Bambini Bhattacharya, Manohar
Mangolkar, Kushwant Singh ,who made their appearance during fifties and the
early sixties.”

After gaining
independence had changes come over Indian life .The convention of social
realism in Indian fiction established by Mulk Rajanand was handled by Bhattacharya
, Malgaonkar  andKushwant Singh while , Ananta
Narayanan  enlivened the trend of the
experimental novel by Raja Rao in this 
Kanthapura. Theemergence of the first body of poetry by women in India could
be attributed to the advent of Buddhism. Like the women poets there also a
significant school  of women novelist .
The growth of Indian novelist is an important feature of this period . There
appearance on the literary scene added a new dimension to enrich India’s
freedom . The presented social realism in their novels. 

Many Indian women
novelists have explored female subjectivity in order to establish an identity that
is not imposed by a patriarchal society . Thus ,the theme of growing up from
childhood to womanhood , that isa recurrent strategy . The dominant women
novelists in thisperiod are Ruth PrewarHabvala, Kamala Markandaya ,Anitha Desai.

                    After 1960s Indian English
fiction is considerably changed in its themes and technique . The fiction  shifted its focus from the public life the
private sphere . The mass destruction was caused by nuclear weapons in the
World War Second and it bought unrest and anxiety all over the world . This
situation gave rise to psychological disorders and loss of moral values and it
profoundly disturbed man’s mentalpeace and harmony . The world literature
responded to the new era and started to deal with different gloomy focus on

    Manju Kapur another noted novelist understudy
. Her novelA Married Woman which is a
seductive story of a love at time of political and religious upheaval , told with
sympathy and intelligence . She emphasized on the issue of patriarchy ,
inter-religious marriage and family bond and male and female bond ,
co-existence of put and present . She has narrated her women protagonist as a
victim of biology , gender, domestic violence and uncircumstances.

There is a man with
every women and a women in every man . When mood is questioned                                   

And womanhood fragile”

Anitha Desai also a
feminist expressed the struggle of women in modern soceity . Her major themes
were loss of identity   Sara Joseph who
is a feminist influence by women’s writing she expressed her view as:

               “ If there is gender
discrimination in the soceity there will be language which denotes.     

, that discrimination.”

Indian writing in
English is now developed , gaining ground rapidly . Feminist used it as a
weapon to express their views against patriarchal system. A major development
in the modern fiction is the growth of feminist centered approach. As Patricia
Meyer Specks remarks:

           “ There seems to be something that
we call women’s point of view on

outlook sufficiently distinct
to be recognizable through countries. “


Many Indian novelist
have exploredfemale subjectivity in order to establish an identity which is
imposed as a patriarchal soceity . The there is from childhood to womanhood  developed soceity representing women in

     Shashi Deshpande’s novel represent the
contemporary modern woman’s struggle to define and attain an autonomous
selfhood.Her female protagonist at great pains to free themselves from stratifying
traditional constraints . The Independence has made women conscious of need to
define themselves , their place in soceity and their surrounding. The new
generation novelist’s are very popular in Indian English Literature . The novel
after 1980s and 1990s began the period so called “ new fiction” . In this
period a new novelists emerged . This period is also called “ third generation
of Indo English novels. John Mec once said:

The 1980s witnessed a
second coming for the Indian novel in English. Its mesial seems to have been Salman
Rushdie , the appearance of Midnight’s
Childrenin 1981brought about a renaissance in Indian writing in English
which out done that of the 1930s”

                    Women novelist seems to say
rights of women must be presented . It means that the Indian English women
writers say that women should be treated as a human being not as anal in family
. So like Shashidesh Pande and Rama Mehta contributed this field , Anitie Myle observed:

      “ The novelists , some established and
some others beginning of create powerful narratives , have provided a fresh
re-orientation to Indian Fiction in English.

Today Indian English
Literature has won for international acclaim and distinction . Fiction is the
most powerful form of  literary
expression and it has acquired a prestigious position in Indian English



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