In Europe, the Black Plague changed the way of life for pirate Jack Ward and changed religion today. The Black Plague, also known as the Black Death, started during the time period of 1347 until 1351 AD. The plague was one of the most heartbreaking pandemics in history. It resulted with an estimated 75 to 200 million deaths of people in Europe. Although the plague ended in 1351 there were multiple outbreaks of the disease until 1750. “Europe was also on the way to ‘the golden age of bacteria’, when there was a great increase in epidemic diseases caused by increases in population density”
The name for the plague was a mistranslation of the Latin word ‘atra’ meaning ‘black’. The Black Death was an epidemic of the bubonic plague, one of the many different types of plagues. The plague was spread by a type of rodent that went from colony to colony and made the disease impossible to escape. When the disease was spread people were quarantined in their own homes cutting out the outside world so they wouldn’t infect the other people.
Many had their opinions on how the plague was spread. Some thoughts included in volcanos, people reacting to the disease differently, and even Jews spooning the wells. However, the real reason for the spreading of the plague were fleas transported from country to country on rats. Also, “The disease can be transmitted by direct contact with infected tissue aor exposure from a cough of another person.” Furthermore, the spreading of the plague, the rats would release a bacterium caused Yersinia pestis. (
After learning what actually caused the plague there were many consequences that occurred almost right after. Some of the consequences included a series of religious, social, and economic upheavals. Later on in time, there have been similar diseases of the Black Plaque. For the past three centuries the plague continued. Most people question now if the plague is gone for good or if it will ever come back. (“Public health.” Britannica School, Encyclopaedia Britannica.) here
The Black Plague eradicated 30 to 50 percent of Europe’s population. “In total, the plague may have reduced the world population from an estimated 450 million down to 350–375 million in the 14th century.” The European community had people such as children, adults, and elders, etc…. However, due to the type of disease the plague was, elders were the main people from the whole community who would be affected by the plague. Just because most of the elders were already poor in health made them 10 times likely to get the disease before anyone else. (“Black Death.” Britannica School, Encyclopædia Britannica.)
After society had recovered from the plague the lands were cheaper and more food was available for few people. “The capital per head increased. Houses and fields of people who had fled, as well as those of the families that had died of the plague were deserted.” “Historians have also clashed over the plague’s economic effects. Usually, people focus on the plight of peasants during and after the plague. There was a massive decline in the supply of labour. And basic economic theory suggests that as worker numbers declined, their wages and conditions would increase.” Going from these two references, the plague actually helped in a way. It helped give food to the poor. (
Another effect from the Black Plague was people questioning religion. When the plague started, many people were tried to stay positive and honor their beliefs/religion. That was until they realized all their family, friends, neighbors, and strangers, etc.. were all dying around them. The plague made everyone question their faith. “The Church played a significant role during the Middle Ages because religion was an important aspect of daily life for European Christians. When the Black Death struck Europe in 1347, the Church struggled to cope with the plague’s damaging consequences and its reputation suffered as a result. This thesis concludes that the Black Death contributed to the decline in the confidence and faith of the Christian laity towards the institution of the Church and its leadership.” (
Everyone can agree that the plague was known as a great catastrophe; Killing a third of Europe’s population. Some people that were killed because of the Plague were Jack Ward, Gavin Douglas, and Giovanni Villani. John Ward, was an English pirate, who then later became a Barbary pirate operating out of Tunis during the early 17th century. He was born in the year of c.1553 and died in the year of 1622. Ward was an enigmatic figure, he and his men constantly raided the Mediterranean Sea. He was famous for his piracy days until retiring to Tunis to live a life of opulent comfort. In 1622, at the age of 70, he most likely did die from the Black Plague; as so researchers believe. (
Gawin Douglas, also spelled Gavin was a bishop and a member of a powerful family. Although he had an important political career, Gawin is distinctly remembered for his poetry. Gawin wrote many books, in fact, he wrote 12 about the ambitious history of Rome. “It was planned as a history of events from the fall of the Tower of Babel.” Although, Gawin wrote books and loved doing it, he has actually been “persecuted n embezzlement and went to jail for bankruptcy in Bardi.” In 1522 Douglas was one of the many people who managed to get the plague which rapidly raged in London.

Giovanni Villani was an Italian banker, official, diplomat and chronicler from Florence who wrote the New Chronicles: “The priest who confessed the sick and those who nursed them so generally caught the infection that the victims were abandoned and deprived confession, sacrament, medicine, and nursing … And many lands and cities were made desolate. And this plague lasted till ________”; Villani left the “_______” in order to record the time in which the plague was to end. Villani was unable to finish the line as he succumbed to the same plague.” (
Primarily, the plague has three different clinical forms known as: bubonic, pneumonic, and septicemic. The bubonic plague is the most common form of plague, which is the type of plague that corresponded with the Black Plague. The bubonic plague infects your lymphatic system which is a part of the immune system, that causes inflammation in your lymph nodes. Septicemic plagues When the bacteria enter the bloodstream directly and multiply there. Pneumonic plague s where bacteria spreads to your lungs and infects it. This is also the only league that is spread from a person to person. It’s rare for bubonic plague or septicemic plague to spread from one human to another. (
During the Middle Ages, people hoped there was a cure for the dreadful disease of the Plague. Unfortunately, there was no such thing. ” In the 1347-1350 outbreak, doctors were completely unable to prevent or cure the plague.” However, even though there was no cure for the plague, many did try ‘cures’ they beloved would work. Some be levied plague cures during the Middle Ages included: rubbing onions , herbs or a chopped up snake against the infected parts of your body, and drinking vinegar. Even today, the plague is now completely treatable. (
Although the plague happened years ago it’s very unlikely that the plague is still as dangerous and contagious as it was. “Today, there are only 1,000 to 2,000 cases reported worldwide each year, with the highest incidence in Africa.” In the United States during that time period, 56 people contracted the plague and seven died. Most of the cases relating to the plague occurred mainly because of the endemic that is in squirrels and wild rodents in the American West.
The Black Plague was a deadly disease that killed a third of Europe’s population, and which those who questioned the meaning of life and religion. While writing this essay I learned many key information about the plague that I never knew before. Writing this helped me have a better understanding of what type of disease people had to go through many years ago and knowing that it’s still happening today. In my opinion, I didn’t think the plague would still be around today. It’s still causing just as much problems as it was before; it never really went away.

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“Black Death.” Britannica School, Encyclopædia Britannica.
Gottfried, Robert S. The Black Death : Natural and Human Disaster in Medieval Europe.
Love, Ann, et al. Pandemic Survival : It’s Why You’re Alive.
“Plague.” Britannica School, Encyclopædia Britannica.
“Public health.” Britannica School, Encyclopædia Britannica.


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