In an ideal world, there would always be a harmonious learning environment. However, this is not always possible. It is important to try to build good teacher-student relationships as this can lead to a more manageable classroom. If the lecturer builds good rapport and establishes a mutual respect with the learners then it will encourage good behaviour and positivity from the outset.

Gordon Thomas’ Teacher Effectiveness Training (TET) Theory is based on building a good quality teacher-student relationship. This theory states that to promote good behaviour, it is not about the learner being taught or the subject being delivered, but more the relationship between the lecturer and the learner. If this is good then there will be more effective learning taking place and less conflict.

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I aim to instil this the TET theory within my classroom environment from the outset of the programme. I find that it takes around 6 weeks for the learners to settle in and for the lecturer to have built a good relationship with the learner. Part of building this relationship means finding out what interests the learner has and what makes them tick. When the learner realises you are taking a keen interest of them as an individual, it works well to break down barriers and build relationships.

It is highly likely a lecturer may be confronted with challenging behaviour from time to time with particular individuals. The lecturer can approach and try to contain challenging behaviour by using a range of different methods.

A way to try and encourage a safe and inclusive environment for all is to instigate a set of rules and guidelines from the start of the programme. The rules and regulations should be clearly stated and explained to the learners so they are aware of procedures and boundaries they must adhere to.

In my own teaching practice, I put together a set of class rules in addition to the learning provider’s main rules and regulations. The learners put forward their own ideas of what rules they think will be important to implement within their class. This gives them the responsibility of choosing rules they believe are important and because they have this authority, it is likely they will stick to these guidelines as they now have even further added value. It also creates a record to refer back to when unfavourable behaviour does approach and must be dealt with.

This method takes on a more democratic approach enabling each learner in the group to add their own ideas and opinions. The promotion of this inclusive environment is effective in itself as it strengthens relationships between different learners from the outset of the course. All of these points can promote a safe and inclusive environment for all with promising behaviour from the start.

‘Inappropriate behaviour soon spreads unless it is dealt with promptly.’ Geoff Petty, Teaching Today. Page 10

Depending on the type of behavioural issue, I choose different methods to tackle it. This is all part of managing a classroom effectively. I will go on to discuss some of the methods that I use within my own teaching practice and what I have found to be beneficial to address behaviour concerns.

One of the main tactics I try first is to talk to the learner on a one on one basis. I follow a four step process within this conversation. Firstly, I ask the learner what they think the problem is and I will listen well to the answer they give. Next it is important to agree a solution. I will ask a question such as, ‘What do you think will resolve this situation?’ This encourages the learner to put forward a relevant and manageable solution that they have thought up on their own. If the learner is unable to provide a clear solution, I put one forward and then ask if they can think of anything else that could be better. Again this is giving the learner responsibility of their actions. From here a target can be set to work towards this solution and I aim to summarise the conversation so the learner is clear on what has been discussed and agreed moving forward.

For example, I had a learner (learner 1) who was presenting challenging behaviour towards another learner (learner 2), making sarcastic remarks and showing unwillingness to cooperate. I requested learner 1 to step outside and here I asked what the problem was. She went on to explain that the two of them had not been speaking for the past week and presumed that it was because learner 2 had got jealous that learner 1 had made another friend and started spending more time them.

Next, it was time to come up with a solution so I asked how she thought the situation could be resolved. She put forward the idea that she should talk to learner 2 to assure her that she still wants to be friends and maybe the 3 individuals could come together and make friends as a group. A target was set for Learner 1 to speak to Learner 2 before the next session and feedback to myself on the update. The learner came back from break and said the discussion went very well and it was just a misunderstanding. Learner 1 also apologised to me for being rude in the previous session.

I find that taking this sort of approach works effectively in unmasking the real problem. When you pin point a particular individuals actions and draw attention to them in the middle of the session it makes the wider audience aware of the situation and there could flare up, encouraging further challenging behaviour.

If any inappropriate behaviour arises in a classroom, I will always put a stop to it as quickly as possible. For example, if a learner is continually trying to engage others in conversation that is irrelevant to the session, or talking when they should not, I try the firefighting approach. I will drop their name in to what I am saying as this makes them aware that I am aware they misbehaving. This is extremely effective in itself and mostly always deters away from the negative behaviour.

If learners feel motivated to achieve in their learning environment then they are more likely to behave in a more positive manner. Overall I think it is most important to get to know your learners and what makes them tick in both good and bad ways. Whatever you know motivates them and ignites passion, focus on that as this will encourage a fun and exciting learning environment.

If learners chose to present challenging behaviour then deal with in in a way that you know works for that individual. For example for some of my younger learners a good way to discipline them is to take time off of their break, ask them to wait behind at the end of the session or to move seat in the class, depending on the situation. However, this would not be a good approach to some of the more mature learners in the group.

Another theory I inherit within my teaching practice is B.F. Skinner’s Contribution to Learning Theory which states that ‘Changes in behaviour are a result of individuals’ responses to events, or stimuli that occur in their environment.’ This means that if a learner is rewarded for something positive they have done, then they are more likely to continue actions and behaviour such as this in the future.

The most effective way of encouraging positive behaviour is by the use of praise. I find praising learners to be a very powerful tool. If you praise good behaviour, then learners are more likely to continue in this manner as they want to be praised more so. This motivates them to do better, but can also build on core skills such as self-esteem and communication. All in all, focus less on the bad and more on the good.

In an ideal world, communication forms an essential part of human interaction. Within the healthcare industry, it is essential that healthcare professionals have the ability to develop a trusting relationship within the multidisciplinary team and the service users. One way in which this relationship can be gained especially with service users is through communication and empathy. This case study will define the importance and barriers of effective communication joined with the various available methods of communication used in relation to this case study of Mr Adrian Jones and other prospective service users.

The aim and importance of effective communication
Communication involves a two way process where meaning is infused in the minds of others. Nordquist (2018) further expresses that communication are processes of sending and receiving nonverbal and verbal messages including speech , writing and signs and signals. Within. Healthcare industry, communication can takes place on several levels, including interpersonal communication such as face to face, written and body language, small group communication such as interaction of three or more individual, organizational communication such as formal/informal communication either being from top-down or bottom-top flow of information being passed such as subordinate to superior authority
These methods allow the flow of understanding and interpretation of what is needed to be discussed, delivered and practiced within the healthcare system. The benefits of effective communication are numerous as they help all aspects of our professional and personal lives. Misunderstood or ineffective communication in both our professional and personal lives may lead to unwarranted problems with severe consequences especially at our place of work when a third party which are service users is involved. Communication within health and social care is a key building block for any relationship being formed. Good communication skills in a one to one setting, enables the sender to gain the trust and understanding from recipient.

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The Nmc code (2015) from 7.1 to 7.5 expresses how a nurse should clearly communicate with the patients and colleagues to show clear understanding on what is being done. (Kourkou and Papthanasiou (2014) elaborates further saying “good communication between patient and nurses is essential for the successful outcome of individualized nursing care of each patient.” to achieve this a healthcare professional should demonstrate the following skills, such as, kindness and sincerity, they must demonstrate courtesy and have patience by devoting time to patients who require or prefer to communicate due to difficulty in speech and expression or having the preference to communicate in private.
The communication between a health care professional and a healthcare user involves more than one style, it involves feelings, empathy, and understanding. These feature not only builds but also binds the relationship. From a professional view, if good communication skills are practiced whether from a horizontal/lateral formation such as three carers looking after one patient, then the success of information being exchange would not have a negative impact on the service user receiving service. A phrase from some British propaganda during the WWII precisely sums up the dangers of ineffective communications: ‘Careless talk costs lives”( Nguyen, 2016).

2.2 Approaches used when promoting effective communication
Communication can be accomplished once the intended information has been received processed and a new message is sent back. Arglye (1972) theory demonstrates this by explaining the communication cycle in 6 steps: where the sender has an idea, cncoding, choice of medium and channel, transmission, reception, decoding and response from recipient (Hussain, 2016). Within a healthcare setting, communication can take a number of different forms these includes linguistic communication, paralinguistic, verbal and nonverbal. Linguistic refers to any spoken or written language that is used to relay messages between one or more persons. This type of communication is made effective only if both the sender and the receiver show a degree of social co-ordination, willingness to actively listen and the language used mirrors the language of the receiver (Psychneuro, 2016).
For instance, Mr Jones is incapable of keeping awake due to his condition therefore depending on the sensitivity of the information he would possible allow his wife or children to help him receive and deliver the message.

2.3 Resource and services to accessed to promote effective communication

High quality care requires time and commitment, therefore patient centred care would be more beneficial than just ticking boxes (Sor, 2018). As a healthcare professional consistent training by keeping up to date with services, health programmes and opportunities would enable the carer to educate and guide the service user on their ability to cope. There are more personal day to day methods of resources and services that can be used for effective communication between the healthcare professional and service user, such as; lip reading, sign language and Makaton for the hearing impaired and Braille for the visually impaired. Other methods that aid in the help of communication can be Human Aids such as language interpreters and technological aids to help with visual, hearing and voice assistance (Sense, 2018). These method would enable the service users to still feel a part of society and involved in any decision making of care and treatment.

3.1 Barriers in effective comms
There are many possible reason why it can be difficult to communicate effectively, especially in an environment where communication is most imperative. Weather it being a health care user to healthcare professional or professional to professional, it is important to have the capability to adapt. There are many barriers that could affect the communication between Mr Jones and his care worker, such as, the use of Jargon – where some words or terminology could be complicated or quite technical for Mr Jones to understand especially once mentally exhausted and tired. Emotional barriers, where Mr jones is a middle aged man and not being physically fit he could feel inadequate and find it difficult to express emotions and consider certain topics to be off limits, Such as mental and physical disabilities, sex/relationships, finances, fatherly duties and husband duties . This can cause depression and suicidal thoughts due to him feeing guilty and alone. Lack of attention and distractions, he falls asleep quite easily aslo the sound of oxygen tank would muffle the sounds he hears as well as busy background noises within his household. From a professional aspect, lack of transparency and trust where information can seem to be kept back and not shared, slowly disconnecting the bond of trust. Key information could be missed due to distractions or active listening leading to assumption or incorrect diagnoses. Displaying negative body language characteristic expressing boredom. Words can be misconstrued due to differences in perception translation, false assumptions, expectation and viewpoints and even language barriers, possibly due to Cultural differences, beliefs and social geographic. Sterotypes and labelling, such as saying what he wants to hear other than what is actually supposed to be said assuming the service user would jump to conclusion which could be a barrier. Physical barriers and nonverbal communication. Due to him falling asleep or the oxygen mask muffling his voice or deafening his hearing can make communication less effective writing something down can be a better form but the tone of the txt would be less effective than face to face communication.

3.2
There are several steps in meaningful communication, identifying the desired outcome, choosing the best mode of communication that suits the level of the listener, considering pitch tone and volume, identifying barriers, checking for understanding by allowing room for interjection and studying body language and reflecting. In The case of Mr Jones, the healthcare professional should be patient, frank and honest leaving no suspicion and doubts in their mind, clear speech so there is no misunderstanding and being conscious of surrounding and appropriate timing and proximity.

identify the desired method of how they can communicate successfully with Mr Jones and his Wife. They should consider asking closed questions which can be answered with words or body gestures.
Alternatively, communication aids such as, Lip reading, the use of flash cards and writing on paper or devices would enable him to communicate effectively due to his shortness of breathing and low attention span. Written communication methods in text, email or written letter format will enable Mr Jones to read in his own time most convenient to him and his family and with the correct wording, be able to understand what is being said.

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