In addition, one influential method to such is a communications model has to take an example of regulation and legal argumentation. In such a scheme, policy analysts and decision makers each take on the assignment of preparing arguments for and against particular policy positions. As Rivlin (1973,25) suggested, they would “state their side of the argument, leaving to the brief writers of the other side the work of picking separately the case that has been offered and specifying the security evidence.” Nevertheless policy argumentation begins with the recognition that the participants do not have solid answers to the questions under discussion, or even a solid method for getting the answers. With this understanding the policy analysts and decision makers attempt to work out a meaningful synthesis of perspectives. Churchman and his followers have suggested that the procedure follow the form of a debate. They maintain that the problem presented by the absence of appropriate evaluative criteria can be mitigated by designing rational procedures to govern a formal communicative exchange among the various points of view that bear on the decision-making process.
Rivlin (1973) continue state that, in such a policy debate, each party would confront the others with counterproposals based on varying perceptions of the facts. The participants would organize the established data and fit them into the world views that underline their own arguments. The criteria for accepting or rejecting a proposal would be the same grounds as those for accepting or rejecting a counterproposal and must be based on precisely the same data. Operating at the intersection where government and science confront exercise and ethics, both policy experts and decision makers would discover and relate the underlying assumptions being working.
The structure of a policy argument, Majone (1989, 63) explains, is typically a complex mix of factual statements, interpretations, opinion, and evaluation. The argument supplies the links that connect the relevant data and information to the conclusions of an analysis. Majone’s conceptualization of the structures of a policy argument as an important aspect to contribute to the improvement of an argumentative policy analysis. But his efforts do not sufficiently account for or clarify the normative magnitudes that bring the interfering between the findings and conclusions. Majone add on that ”from the preceding discussion, we can formulate the task as a matter of establishing interconnections among the empirical data, normative assumptions that structure our understandings of the social world, the interpretive judgments inherent in the data collection process, the particular circumstances of a situational context and the specific conclusions”.


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