I’m going to compare Kosovo, Ukraine, The Kurds and Catalonia by their similarities and differences but also explain their fight for freedom.
Catalonia had a great autonomy before the Spanish civil war in the 20th century until the military dictator Franco Bahamonde ruled over Spain given by the victory of the Spanish civil war. However, when Bahamonde died in 1975 Catalonia regained some of their freedom. In 2006 Catalonia boosted their financial power which was later reversed by the Constitutional Court in Spain. And the feeling of more money being taken from Catalonia by the taxes than what the government give back was creeping in. In 2015, separatists won the regional election. The leaders of those who wanted independence went to the court to suggest a full referendum, but it was declared illegal. However, in the Catalonian Parliament the parties who wanted independence got 47,5% of the votes. But the Ciudadanos party got majority of the votes; and their wish was for Catalonia to continue being a part of Spain.
Kosovo: Serbia had a long period as a unified state territory with Kosovo-Metochia as the center, before their independence was lost 1459. The Albanians settled in Kosovo-M after 1690. Serbia was recognized as an independent state again 1878. The borders of Kosovo-M today were fixed by the Yugoslav Communist authorities in 1945 and during the Second World War it was forbidden for about 100 000 expelled Serbs to return to Kosovo-M and it also led to a migration of Serbs from Kosovo-M to the Central Serbia. Many Albanians migrated from Albania to Kosovo-M. First it was an internal conflict within Serbia between the Muslim Albanians from Kosovo and the Serbs as Orthodox Christians. After June 1999 it was internationalized after many Serbs had to leave Kosovo because of the Albanian Kosovo Liberation Army and NATO sent their peace-keeping troops to occupie the province 1999. In February 2008 Kosovo, with US diplomatic support, declared independence from Serbia. But Serbia and the powerful ally Russia refused to recognise this. Experts said the recognition of Kosovo as an independent state could create a domino effect in international relations. Serbia is fighting against the separation of one part, Kosovo, of the motherland. But the Kosovo Albanians don´t accept other solutions than separation.
There were similar separatist cases following, f e the Eastern Ukrain and Catalonia.
Ukrain was a part of the Soviet Union but 1991 the Soviet Union broke up and Ukraine became its own country.
In November 2013 President Yanukovych didn’t want to sign a partnership deal with EU and as a result of this protests started in Kiev about Ukraine´s position in Europe. Many of the demonstrators wanted Ukraine to be part of the EU but in eastern Ukraine many people supported Russia instead of EU. As the protests became more violent many people were injured and also died. There were accusations about corruption in the government and in February 2014 the President was forced to leave the country. After this Ukraine got a new temporary president and a president election planned in May.
There was much fighting over the eastern Ukraine and warnings of Ukraine close to a civil war. When Pro-Russian protestors took over government buildings in eastern Ukrain in April 2014 the Government sent in troops to try and remove them, as they were afraid that Ukraine could lose eastern Ukraine to Russia.
After the presidential election in May 2014 people in eastern Ukraine voted if they wanted to stay as a part of Ukraine or be independent. Most of them wanted to be independent but the voting was called incorrect and illegal by the government. But the Russian President Putin supported the result.
In September 2014 the Ukrainian government, the Pro-Russian rebels and Russia met to agree on a deal to stop the conflict, but the agreement has not been followed.