HIV/AIDS affects a large group of people including the pregnant women. start a paragraph with a topic sentence, for instance, in this case, we can start this paragraph as: There is a high prevalence of HIV among pregnant women, this causes adverse neonatal and obstetrical outcomes including when treatment of other conditions related to HIV is administered. Support the topic sentence with discussions such as; the risk of the child getting infected with the condition, (NOTE: HIV does not get into the placenta unless pregnancy complications occur or there is an amniocentesis procedure), discuss issues such as low birth weight of the child when born and the risk of the child dying after birth. Discuss how this can be treated/avoided, the interventions. These sources will help in your discussion: http://americanpregnancy.org/pregnancy-complications/hiv-aids-during-pregnancy/, https://aidsinfo.nih.gov/understanding-hiv-aids/fact-sheets/24/70/hiv-medicines-during-pregnancy-and-childbirth, https://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Fulltext/1998/06000/Effect_of_HIV_1_infection_on_pregnancy_outcome_in.14.aspx, Children and mothers are at the highest risk of dying with the widespread pandemic, HIV or the HIV-related diseases. Mothers are at a high risk of passing the disease to their children in different ways these may include, during the pregnancy period, during the childbirth this occurs mainly if it’s a vaginal childbirth but in some cases doctors may appeal for a caesarean section to help lower the chances of being infected during birth. Lastly, the spread of HIV from mother to child can be through breastfeeding. Other than maternal HIV, the infection may result to other adverse pregnancy for instance stillbirth, low birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation and prematurity these are known factors for perinatal and neonatal mortality this is regardless of the HIV transmission to the foetus.
Mental health can be described as a state of overall wellbeing in which an individual has the ability to work productively, deal with normal life stresses and make a contribution to himself and the community while realizing his/her own potential. Avoid this definition: Start with a topic sentence, (Show how mental health affects people with HIV) People with HIV often have difficulties coping with life stresses, their general productivity and even contribution in community affairs. These difficulties may result from guilt, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, self-pity, depression due to the state of health and stigma from their family and even the community at large. This has driven many HIV victims into making rush decisions like suicide, drug abuse and total isolation from the community. The HIV virus itself can also contribute to mental health problems due to presence of opportunistic diseases which may affect the nervous system and even neuropsychological disorders in mild or even severe cases causing dementia.
For mental health here are some of the aspects that you can discuss: Societal stigma, changing relationships and the effects of the antiretroviral drugs on mental health.
Use these three sources: https://www.avert.org/living-with-hiv/health-wellbeing/mental-health, https://aidsinfo.nih.gov/understanding-hiv-aids/fact-sheets/27/92/hiv-and-mental-health, https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/hiv-aids/index.shtml discuss the effects on mental health and how they can be treated and other therapies. The interventions that have been put in place.