Health Care Models Analysis
Directions: Develop a hypothetical case requiring the treatment of a patient (for example, the patient has a virus, an allergy, or a chronic condition). Using this case, explain the process in which each model (medical, holistic, epidemiological triangle, and social) would provide treatment (considering underlying causes, symptoms, as well as personal, social, economic, and environmental factors). If a model can be explained using a labeled graphic, then that is acceptable as well.
Hypothetical Case (basic details only)
Mr. David is a 60-year-old black American male patient who has visited a healthcare facility due to some health issues present in his body. Some of the present symptoms include fatigue, constant headache, and dizziness. His wife who states that he has been suffering from these issues for a prolonged time brought the patient. Over the counter medications are only effective in providing a temporary solution. Information collected from a medical history assessment indicates a history of alcoholism as well as obesity. The patient is also suffering from type 2 diabetes, which he has been living with for the last 10 years. He has however had issues in properly managing this condition. The patient is a retired teacher who runs small businesses in his hometown. After diagnosis, the patient was found to have hypertension.
The medical model focuses on identifying the health issues affecting a patient with considerations of any medical history, which includes any diagnostic, or treatment procedures. This model will also focus on addressing any present signs and symptoms, which are attributed to hypertension (Combi, Pozzi, & Veltri, 2018). Procedures under this healthcare model include assessing medical complains, physical examination, diagnosis procedures, and prognosis which may include treatment. This medical model is important and has been indicated successful addressing various healthcare aspects (Combi, Pozzi, & Veltri, 2018). It has also been indicated as indispensable in addressing a majority of the healthcare issues. In treating hypertension, this model assumes that there are some deviations in the normal functioning of the body, which results in undesirable effects in the affected individuals (Combi, Pozzi, & Veltri, 2018). This model would focus on addressing the present symptoms, which include constant headaches, dizziness, and fatigue as well as other detected issues after a diagnostic procedure.
The model assumes that present signs and symptoms are responsible for underlying medical issues and should be treated to address the underlying health issue (Combi, Pozzi, & Veltri, 2018). This model provides a deeper insight into a disease and its effect on the normal body functioning with a focus on implementing effective diagnostic procedures using adequate medical resources. This will help a healthcare practitioner in performing a proper diagnosis, which is essential for determining other medical procedures (Combi, Pozzi, & Veltri, 2018). This model helps healthcare practitioners to have adequate information about the course of the illnesses over time. This will also help a healthcare practitioner in accurately determining underlying causes for the disorder, which may include the presence of diabetes. This is important in directing a healthcare practitioner in making accurate treatment decisions for the medical condition (Combi, Pozzi, & Veltri, 2018).
Holistic Health Model
A holistic healthcare model consists of the physical, spiritual, emotional, and social aspects of health, which are important and contribute to the whole being of an individual (Dossey & Keegan, 2013). This model focuses on these different dimensions of an individual instead of the traditional health approach, which involves focusing on the different parts of the body in determining the health status of an individual (Dossey & Keegan, 2013). A physical dimension includes taking care of the physical aspect, which includes exercising, eating healthy foods, adequate rest, and good health habits. This is important as it impacts the health outcome of individuals and should not be neglected by healthcare practitioners in addressing certain health conditions (Dossey & Keegan, 2013). The emotional dimension involves maintaining a positive attitude in addressing health issues, which is important as this determines the outcome of treatment procedures.
Hypertension has been attributed to high-stress levels, which the emotional dimension focuses on (Dossey & Keegan, 2013). The spiritual dimension is also important in influencing the outcome of treatment options. The spiritual aspect impacts the meaning of life for different individuals. Individuals have been indicated to rely on the spirituality aspect in finding hope and encouragement when undergoing through life’s challenges (Dossey ; Keegan, 2013). This aspect cannot be ignored in treating individuals suffering from certain chronic illnesses. The last aspect, which is important to consider when using a holistic health approach is the social dimension, which includes the relationships, which individuals have with other members of the society and their impact on the individuals’ health (Dossey & Keegan, 2013).
Unhealthy relationships may contribute to health issues like stress, which has been indicated to contribute to hypertension and other serious health issues. The holistic health care model focuses on maximizing the overall body well being by ensuring that individuals are functioning normally in different health dimensions (Hyer, 2014). A holistic healthcare model can be used to address the issues facing Mr. David by analyzing how these different dimensions affect the underlying health issues (Hyer, 2014). Hypertension has been attributed to a poor quality of life, which is impacted by a failure in one or more of the different dimensions of the body (Hyer, 2014). Other issues, which include emotional and spiritual issues, may negatively impact individuals in compliance with medications which are aimed at addressing other underlying health conditions.
This is important since addressing hypertension involves taking lifetime medications, which may be impacted by the spiritual and emotional aspects (Hyer, 2014). Controlling blood pressure is a self-administration process, which involves patients controlling their blood pressure while at home. This may be affected by other issues, which surround the individuals, which include spiritual, emotional, or mental aspects (Hyer, 2014). In addition to the medications provided to address hypertension, a holistic approach is important in encouraging and guiding individuals in improving their overall well being in other important aspects, which influence the treatment process (Hyer, 2014).
Epidemiological Triangle Model
Agent (Addiction to alcohol, underlying health issues)
Environment (Inaccessibility to quality healthcare services)Host (Genetic susceptibility, poor nutritional habits, Unhealthy behavior)
The epidemiologic triangle model is important in helping healthcare practitioners in understanding the development of certain healthcare issues. This healthcare model is largely used in understanding how diseases develop and spread (Bhopal, 2016). The triangle has three corners which include an agent which is the cause of the disease, the host which is the organism harboring the disease, and the environment which are external factors which enable the disease to spread to individuals (Bhopal, 2016). This model provides the relationship between different aspects, which contribute to the development of the disease and effective processes to ensure positive changes in individuals suffering from certain diseases (Bhopal, 2016). The epidemiologic triangle model will be helpful in detecting, treating, and controlling hypertension as this model aims at helping health practitioners in understanding the development and magnitude of health conditions (Bhopal, 2016).
This can be applied to addressing some of the risk factors, which contribute to hypertension. The epidemiologic triangle model provides important information, which can be used in the implementation of effective treatment and control measures (Friis, 2018). Controlling the risk factors, which contribute to hypertension, is important in controlling hypertension and other health issues, which are associated with hypertension (Friis, 2018). This model will focus on identifying effective interventions to effectively treat and control hypertension based on different surrounding factors (Friis, 2018). This model also aims at creating awareness and what different interventions can be applied in addressing different aspects, which are associated with the disease. These interventions are based on research evidence, which is important in ensuring that healthcare providers implement effective strategies (Friis, 2018).
The social healthcare model focuses on addressing a healthcare concern based on the society’s perceptions and social relationships, which an individual has with other members of the community (Basu, 2018). These perceptions are determined by an individual’s social environment and the circumstances surrounding the individual. This model defines health as being affected by different aspects, which impact humans with the main focus on the social structures impacting humans (Basu, 2018). This approach is important as it provides a wider understanding of certain health issues and the total wellbeing of individuals. Some of these factors include organizational, economic, and interpersonal factors, which influence the understanding of individuals’ perceptions of health issues (Basu, 2018). This approach would focus on treating Mr. David by analyzing the socioeconomic and other social factors, which impact his health status. Some of the social factors, which may have contributed to the development of hypertension, which has affected Mr. David, include the income level, social support systems, gender, and community practices (Basu, 2018).
The interactions between these factors influence the health status of individuals, which has been indicated by the health disparities between different social groups across the world. By analyzing these factors, there is evidence of marginalization cases among certain black American groups, which may have negatively affected the health status of Mr. David (Information Resources Management Association, 2013). This model will also consider the relationship between the individual and the family structure, which is important in providing support to individuals (Information Resources Management Association, 2013). This will help healthcare practitioners in focusing on the social strengths, which an individual has which may help the individual in effectively implementing the treatment strategies (Information Resources Management Association, 2013). These factors also determine the health education strategies to be implemented as well as any preventive measures to be implemented to prevent any negative effects associated with hypertension (Information Resources Management Association, 2013).
Basu, S. (2018). Modeling public health and healthcare systems. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press.
Bhopal, R. S. (2016). Concepts of epidemiology: An integrated introduction to the ideas, theories, principles, and methods of epidemiology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Combi, C., Pozzi, G., ; Veltri, P. (2018). Process modeling and management for healthcare. Boca Raton: Taylor ; Francis.Dossey, B. M., ; Keegan, L. (2013). Holistic nursing: A handbook for practice. Burlington, MA: Jones ; Bartlett Learning.Friis, R. H. (2018). Epidemiology 101. Burlington, Massachusetts: Jones ; Bartlett Learning.Hyer, L. (2014). Psychological treatment of older adults: A holistic model. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company.
Information Resources Management Association. (2013). User-driven healthcare: Concepts, methodologies, tools, and applications. Hershey PA: Medical Information Science Reference.