Chandkheda, Ahmedabad
Project report on
(Collection and Disposal of Solid waste)
Solid waste management
Under subject of
B. E. Semester – VII
(Civil Branch)
Submitted by:
Sr. Name of the Student Enrolment no
1 Ajodiya Pooja151220106001
2 Badi Junej151220106002
3 Kadivar Harish 151220106008
4 Dabhee Divyesh161223106004
5 Jadvani Viren161223106008
Prof. Jinal Dhakan (Faculty Guide)

Jinal Dhakan (Head of the Department)

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Academic year 2018-2019
This is to certify that the dissertation entitled ” Collection and Disposal of Solid Waste ” has been carried out by under my guidance in fulfilment of the Bachelor of Engineering in Civil Engineering (7thSemester) of Gujarat Technological University, Ahmadabad during the academic year 2018-19.

We have taken efforts in this project. However, it would not have been possible without the kind support and help of many individuals and organizations. We would like to extend my sincere thanks to all of them.

We are highly indebted to Internal Faculty for their guidance and constant supervision as well as for providing necessary information regarding the Project Titled Collection and Disposal of Solid waste we would like to express our gratitude towards staff members of Aarya-Veer college of Engineering & Technology for their kind co-operation and encouragement which help us in completion of this project.

Our thanks and appreciations also go to my colleague in developing the project and people who have willingly helped us out with their abilities.

Now a days due to great progress in technology and science, life has become easy going and also the living standards of people have increased at large. But still there is a huge mass of people living in worse conditions due to economic problems. This project is all about thinking about the problems of usual life, criticising it, finding a solution, implementation, and modification of that product which was finally obtained. The basic idea of putting project in syllabus of GTU was to make the students of GTU think in a different aspect in which they might have not thought in their daily life.

After the research, hard work and perspiration the final product obtained will be of the patency of the students, a product made by students which might get helpful to solve the general problems but with the help of engineering.
First of all, we begin with the introduction of all the members of our group because of whom this CANVAS would have never been possible.

The first think that comes to our mind when we talk about design thinking is that design thinking is a formal method for practical, creative resolution of problems and creation of solutions, with the intent of an improved future result. In this regard it is a form of solution-based or solution-focused thinking – starting with a goal (a better future situation) instead of solving a specific problem. By considering both present and future conditions and parameters of the problem, alternative solutions may be explored simultaneously. Nigel cross asserted that this type of thinking most often happens in the built, or artificial, environment.

This approach differs from the analytical scientific method, which begins with thoroughly defining all the parameters of the problem in order to create a solution. Design thinking identifies and investigates with both known and ambiguous aspects of the current situation in order to discover hidden parameters and open alternative paths which may lead to the goal. Because design thinking is iterative, intermediate “solutions” are also potential starting points of alternative paths, including redefining of the initial problem.

When we went through all the research about our topic we came across two important aspects of design thinking. They have been explained and enlisted below.

Analysis and Synthesis
The term Analysis is defined as the procedure by which we break down an intellectual or substantial whole into parts or components. Synthesis is defined as the opposite procedure: to combine separate elements or components in order to form a coherent whole. However, analysis and synthesis, as scientific methods, always go hand in hand; they complement one another. Every synthesis is built upon the results of a preceding analysis, and every analysis requires a subsequent synthesis in order to verify and correct its results.
You will understand the basic by seeing this image given below,


Problem Introduction………………………………………………………………………….

Research Objective…………………………………………………………………………….

Research Questions and sub questions…………………………………………………

Overview of Waste management in Rajkot……………………………………………

AEIOU Summary…………………………………………………………………………………………

Empathy Canvas…………………………………………………………………………………………..

Ideation Canvas……………………………………………………………………………………………

Product development Canvas…………………………………………………………………………

Abbreviation Full form
RMC Rajkot municipal corporation
BCC Behavior change communication
CPCB Central Pollution Control Board
MSWM Municipal Solid Waste Management
MoEFMinistry of environment and Forest
PILs Public Interest Litigations
ULB Urban Local Body
PPP Urban Management Center
Waste to Energy
Public Private Partnership
India is the 10th largest economy in the world in terms of GDP and 3rd largest economy in the world in terms of Purchasing Power Parity (IMF, 2014). It is one of the fastest growing economies in the world. Rapid Urbanization, population growth and industrial growth have led to severe waste management issues in several cities of developing countries in not just India but also other countries like Nepal, Sri Lanka, Malaysia etc. This uncontrolled urbanization has left cities unable to cope with provision of basic utilities such as energy, water and sanitation. One of the major issues under sanitation is Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) since it requires huge expenditures and receives very low attention. (MSMW is normally disposed in open dump in many Indian cities and town including Rajkot where almost 90% of its waste is dumped in open dumpsites posing environmental and health issues for residents in vicinity.
Changing lifestyles and westernization has drastically increased the per capita waste generation from 0.44 kg/day in 2001 to 0.5 kg/day in 2011. This, along with population growth and urbanization has lead to almost 50% increase in quantum of waste generated in Indian cities in just one decade. The total waste generated in India amounts to 68.6 million tons of waste per year.
Hence, urban waste management is becoming a crisis in India. Even though the Indian metro cities produce less waste compared to their western counterparts, they also pay less attention to disposal of waste. The current practices of waste handling, collection and disposal are proving to be unsanitary and counterproductive. In addition, waste management, for many years has been a neglected field. This can be witnessed from the fact that the India did not have any policy till late 1999 concerning waste management for municipalities. In year 2000, MSW rules were made for regulating the management and handling of MSW which provided a framework for treatment and disposal of MSW. These rules and policy were a result of several ‘Public Interest Litigation’ (PILs) filed in Supreme Court of India (MoEF, 2010) and pneumonic plague that started in Surat in 1994. The Supreme Court of India demanded complete compliance to rules by 2003, but this could not achieved by the ULBs due to the lack of data, infrastructural, financial and human resources constraints. Even after a decade, some of the goals remain a distant dream.

Hence, focus area of the research is Municipal Solid Waste Management in the city of Rajkot in the state of Gujarat. Rajkot is the 4th largest city and centre of the Saurashtra region, Gujarat. It has a population of 1.7 million (Approx). It is the 35th largest city in India. Rajkot’s location owing to fact that it is one of the prime industrial centers in Gujarat. The government of Gujarat has started realizing the importance of Waste Management and many policy initiatives have already been taken to improve the MSWM system in Rajkot. which makes Rajkot city an interesting research study for waste management systems.
Section 1 of the report introduces the research problem, research objectives and questions as well as overview of the waste management in Rajkot city.

Rajkot generates roughly 450 TPD of waste (TOI, 2017). It is estimated that with the current trend of birth rate and lifestyles, the annual growth of waste will be roughly 1.33% (Rajput ; et al, 2009). In case of Rajkot, the collection rate is roughly 60% (UMC, 2011). This waste is collected by RMC contractor from residential units and commercial units in morning hours. Usually, tipper trucks (Hydraulic Euro 3 trucks) are used for this purpose. The waste from these vehicles is transferred to refuse compactors from each ward to treatment plants. RMC has identified 1100 locations of waste collection points and there are 725 MS community storage bins located on these sites (RMC, 2015).

At RMC Nakarwadi is disposal Site for solid waste and Lodhika is solid waste treatment plant. Hence, due to informal sector, certain percentage (not known yet) of waste is scavenged and this causes deficit in valuable waste that can be processed by the private companies in that city. In addition to the processing plants, there is also a scientific dumpsite located in Rajkot of 450 tons every day of capacity with liner and leachate collection well. However, the leachate is not being collected as the drain pipes are not in place (The forward foundation, 2014). It is estimated that at the current pace, the landfill will be filled to capacity in 4-5 years. In addition, the methane capture pipes are not installed due to excessive costs. In India and Rajkot, the municipal corporation is stretched thin. There is revenue recovery mechanism in place which is lax, which is evident from the fact that only 20% of revenue due to Municipal Corporation is actually collected (UMC, 2011). Hence, this increases the deficit between the expenditure and revenues.

The following overview of challenges and knowledge gaps are concluded from the literature research:
According to the planning commission’s WTE report (Planning Commission, 2014), energy from waste does not get sufficient incentives like other forms of renewable energy. In addition, there is no pricing mechanism or subsidy mechanism in place for WTE technologies. In addition, according to a report from forward foundation (The forward foundation, 2014), the following challenges remain despite the best efforts of RMC:
Marketing compost has been a big challenge as there are not many takers for compost made from MSW.
RDF is usually used by Cement factories, which are located at a large distance from city. Hence, transporting RDF to end users involves huge cost.
Signing up of agreements with distribution companies for power purchase has been a challenge
In addition,
70% methane emissions released during the windrow composting are not accounted for or captured.
The major problem in selling RDF in India is that the plants that consume RDF are reluctant to set up the needed Air Pollution Control Systems to contain dioxins and furans.
RDF plant also do not seem to have a safe working environment due to large open spaces and open garbage sorting and dumping.

Based on the above sections, a research problem and objective becomes clear. With increasing population and increasing urbanization, the per capita generation of waste will increase. The current infrastructure is clearly not sufficient to handle the increasing waste. In addition, the municipal corporations operate on a limited budget. Hence, it is clear that new policy measures are required to reduce the waste and increase the current capacity for waste management in a manner which is more sustainable in terms of economy, environment and man power.


The research objective formulated is shown below:
To provide a set of policy packages for long term sustainable and integrated waste management based on shared vision of decision makers and key actors
To aid this research objective, sub objectives are formulated which can serve as a useful guideline. These sub objectives are:
1. Identify the key Factors involved in the decision making process and other influential stakeholders.

2. Identify and analyze the attitudes and power position of the actors involved.

3. Create shared visions for sustainable waste management of future which can be agreed upon by all the identified factors.

4. Design policy measures which can achieve the shared vision and goals set in previous point.
5. Analyze the policy measures identified and create feasible and complementary policy packages for the scenarios.
6. Define a follow up agenda of activities which can help and realize the implementation of these policy packages.
From research objective, it is clear what the research question and sub questions should answer:
Hence, the research question has been phrased, “What policy measures are required to develop an integrated and sustainable solid waste management in city of Rajkot?”
To answer this question a list of sub-questions are necessary to analyze and answer:
1.”What is the current situation in Rajkot regarding Waste management?”
This question will be answered primarily by two means:
Firstly, literature research will be conducted on popular research sites such as Scopus, Science Direct. Based on this research, a meta data on waste management in India and best practices will be analyzed. Secondly, since there is lack of research papers or articles on Rajkot regarding waste management, one round of expert interviews will be held. This will be done in Rajkot city. It has been decided that 8-12 interviews will be conducted. Of these 8 interviewees, 4 will be experts in waste management in developing countries like India, while the other will be government officers in offices of Rajkot Municipal Corporation, Rajkot Urban Development Corporation, Urban Management Centre and Gujarat Environmental Management Institute. Based on this data gathered, the data will be analyzed qualitatively using the concepts of system analysis such as Means End Diagram, Goal trees etc.

2. “What are the interests and attitudes of the stakeholders involved?”
This question will be answered using stakeholder interviews much like the first sub question. Based on the stakeholder interviews, stakeholder analysis will be conducted. For this there are many tools and techniques available such as Power Interest Grids, Ethical Analysis Grids, DANA, MAMCA, Stakeholder Influence charts etc.

Rajkot generated 0.42 kg/c/day of waste according to a survey conducted in 2004-05 by Central pollution control board and National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (CPCB, 2005). This per capita generation is more or less similar to the national average of 0.4 kg/c/day of waste generated. However, India is experiencing annual growth rate of 1.3% in waste quantum per capita and along with rising urbanization and population explosion, per capita waste generated is also expected to grow. This is primarily due to change in lifestyles, westernization and urbanization of major cities.

What is Solid waste?
“Solid waste” refers to the refuse , the solid and semi solid waste matters of a community except the night soil .
What is Solid waste management?
“Solid waste management” includes the entire process of dealing with solid waste ,starting from the collection from the primary source to ultimately disposing off it hygienically, so that it may not be a nuisance or create any harmful effect on nearby community .The solid waste management involves , management at waste generation level, storage at the source of
generation , primary collection ,street cleansing , temporary storage at locality level , regular and periodic transportation of this temporarily collected waste to disposing sites and treatment plants.

Waste Generation in Class 1 Cities with Population above 100,000

The information of which activities we include in our project is as under :Description of gathering data from Activities Observation :-
In General impression / Observations :Type of Disposal site
Type of collection method
Perception of solid waste
Co-operation of people

In Elements, Features and Special notes :Local municipalities
Collection method
Disposal plants
Disposal site

The generation of solid waste is an integral consequence of human existence as we utilize natural and manufactured (processed) materials from our environment. Solid waste is material produced from human activity (both domestically and in industrial settings) that has no economic value or demand, and therefore must be disposed of in ways that do not risk the health of communities. Most waste production and management studies have focused on urban areas for good reason: humans, in most developed nations, live in urban centers. However, in the developing world, even with the increased rural- urban migration of young people in search of political, social and economic opportunities; the majority of people still have a rural – based existence. As a result, and with the relatively low human density in rural areas and subsequent low waste generation, studies on solid waste have not attracted much scientific attention.

The information of which environment we include in our project is as under :Description of gathering data from Environment Observation :-
In General impression / Observations :Polluted Environment
Basic Collection and Disposal method
Health problem due to waste
In Elements, Features and Special notes :Waste generation

The information of which Interactions we include in our project is as under :Description of gathering data from Interactions Observation :-
In General impression / Observations : Here to collection & disposal of solid waste the Interaction between :House holder to sweeper
Sweeper to collector
Collector to disposer
Procedure :-
First collect the solid waste from the houses interact between people & municipal labour
To store the solid waste, labour interact with the collection vehicle
Transportation of solid waste to the disposal site
In Elements, Features and Special notes :The solid waste collection at home can be done by the use of dustbin
Then the solid wastes can be collected by Collection vehicle
Due to the proper collection & disposal it can be reduce the pollution
In Scene of Interaction :

Collection and Disposal of Solid waste has the following objectives:
Reduce the volume of the solid waste stream through the implementation of waste reduction and recycling programs.
Maintain a balanced which benefits the community while following regulatory requirements.
Provide efficient and economical refuse collection, recycling, and disposal services.
Provide facilities for the sanitary, efficient and economical reception and transportation of solid waste generated in
Provide for the operation of sanitary waste disposal facilities, utilizing the most economically viable and environmentally acceptable methods available.
Provide regulatory oversight of the county’s ordinances regarding solid waste.
The information of which Objects we include in our project is as under :Description of gathering data from Objects Observation :-
In General impression / Observations :Use the dustbin for the collection of solid waste at home
For the collection of solid waste at street use containers
For the transportation of solid waste use vehicle
Use reduce equipments for reduce the pollution
In Elements, Features and Special notes:
The solid wastes are collected by the people at home by the use of dustbin
The municipal laoubers sre collect the solid wastes from the houses
The solid wastes are transport to the disposal site
In Inventory of key objects:
To prepare lay out plan for the collection of solid wastes
Decide the waste generation of solids
To collect the solid wastes
Transportation of solid waste
Recycling process on solid waste
Disposal of solid waste

The information of which Users we include in our project is as under :Description of gathering data from Users Observation:-
Though municipal authorities have held the responsibility of managing solid waste from their inception over three centuries ago, the issue seldom got the attention it deserved. Elected representatives as well as the municipal authorities generally relegate the responsibility of managing municipal solid waste (MSW) to junior officials such as sanitary inspectors. Systems and practices continue to be outdated and inefficient. No serious efforts are made to adapt latest methods and technologies of waste management, treatment and disposal. Though a large portion of the municipal budget is allotted for solid waste management, most of it is spent on the wages of sanitation workers whose productivity is very low. There are no clear plans to enhance their efficiency or improve working conditions through the provision of modern equipment and protective gear. Unionization of the workers, politicization of labor unions and the consequent indiscipline among the workforce are all results of bad working conditions and inept handling of labor issues.

In General impression / Observations:
(Who is present roles and responsibilities?)
The Collection ; disposal of solid waste can be benefited to its users. Its users are as under:
Municipal labour
Owner of industry
Municipal corporation

In Elements, Features and Special notes:
(List of identified people involved)
There are many people involved in collection ; disposal of solid waste:
Peoples as residential
Municipal corporation as commercial
Companies as industrial
In Scene:

Municipal corporation
Private contractor
In India, the government is planning the use of waste audits to push for sustainable waste management practise. A new mandate took effect this year which requires some businesses to report their waste and recycling activities. About 150 shopping malls and hotels have to provide data on their thrash such as metals. Papers and organic waste go, including the weight of waste discarded and the amount sent for reuse and recycling.

I am very happy for this action take by government.

In Surat, The rapid urbanization and rise in population in Surat led to growth of slums. Increase in garbage and overflowing drains. In 1994, Surat was struck by an outbreak of a virulent disease somewhat like the plague. The disease caused panic countrywide and while the citizens blamed the municipality, the civic authorities in turn blamed the citizens for their lack of civic sense. It was a harsh reminder of what negligence in area of solid waste management can lead to.

But what was amazing was within a span of 18 months the city made a complete reversal from dirty garbage-stream city to become of the cleanest city in the country. Community participation played a key role in the rapid implementation of decisions taken by the corporation.

Huge quantities of garbage produced by people in Rajkot. Disposal site is too small for this quantity. Due to garbage, its smell overwhelming in village which around disposal sites.
The ground water is contaminated and it’s not suits to any use.

People connected to this activity are at below:-
Residential people
Private contractor
Government officer
Vehicle Driver
Problems due to situation & location are at below:-
At monsoon, sometimes collection vehicle is not come due to heavy raining
No proper timing for collection of garbage
Lack of consistency
Safety required for hazardous waste
Management of corporation are weak.

Props/Possible solution:-
Management is very important for the proper work for remove the solid waste from the public area. For proper management corporation should appoint a supervisor for this work.

During work sweeper should wear a mask and the gloves for the safety from the dangerous gases and cuts.

Old technology creates more pollution and low percentage of dispose so corporation should use latest technology for the disposal of solid waste and also recycle some parts of garbage.

If disposal work is give to private contractor, so it is their responsibility to do work as per requirement and at a proper time and efficient. Government officer’s duty is to report the work detail at office some periodic time.


Solid waste management: An Indian perspective by M.S. Bhatt
Management of municipal solid waste by T.V. RamachandraWEBSITES:-


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