Forensic science also known as Forensics, is the application of science being applied to law. It uses highly advanced technology to uncover evidence in a variety of cases. Modern forensic science has a broaden the range of applications. Forensics also have many subspecialties which can aid in the investigation process.
The most common use of forensic science is to investigate criminal cases involving a victim, such as: assault, robbery, kidnapping, rape, or murder. Forensic science is also used in monitoring the compliance of various countries with such international agreements as the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Chemical Weapons Convention and to learn whether a country is developing a secret nuclear weapons program. It can help law enforcement officials determine whether any laws or regulations have been violated in the marketing of foods and drinks, the manufacture of medicines, or the use of pesticides on crops. It can also determine whether drinking water meets legal purity requirements.
The medical examiner is a vital individual in an investigation. It is the responsibility of the medical examiner to come on the crime scene, conduct an autopsy (examination of the body) in cases of death, examine the medical evidence and lab reports, study the victims history, and put all the information together in an official report to be turned in to the district attorney. Medical examiners are usually physicians specializing in forensic pathology, (the study of structural and functional changes in the body as a result of injury). Their training and qualifications most often include a medical degree and a apprenticeship in a medical examiner’s office.
In the forensic science field, there are many subspecialties. They include odontology (the study of teeth), anthropology(the study of the human body ), psychiatry, biology, chemistry, physics, toxicology (the study of poisons), and pathology (the examination of body tissues and fluids). The medical examiner may call upon forensic scientists who are specialized in these fields for help in a crime investigation.
Toxicology is a branch of forensic science that deals with the adverse effects of drugs and poisonous chemicals found in the home, at work or in the environment. Forensic toxicologists study toxins, drugs, poisons, alcohol, and other things found in the blood or tissues of crime victims or perpetrators.