Faculty of Engineering, Department of MAME
University of Windsor, Canada

Semester: Fall 2018

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06-91/92-590-34-2018F

Lean Manufacturing & Process improvement
Instructor
Prof. Sardar Asif Khan

Assignment 2

Submitted by:
Malay Mistry (104904064)

Abstract
A case study is based on improving process capability, product quality and productivity through Six sigma methodology to reduce the process cost and increase in net profit of company. Researcher took an Electronic manufacturing company name Elin Appliances which produce many electronic products. Company is suffering from higher product price in market. Company was using simple techniques to reduce the production cost. In Six sigma we can use DMAIC process and other tools to reduce the cost and achieve the goal of Cost reduction through operational excellence.
In this company researchers shown the current map. By analyzing we can see that company having problem of higher price of product and this was due to higher production cost of product mainly due to poor quality, poor process control and defects. After research they concluded some areas which need improvement and one of the main is Production waste. In year 2006-2007 they have loss of 100k Euros due to poor productivity and production wastes. They want to eliminating waste by improving productivity and reducing all type of waste. For that they had applied Six Sigma to achieve the result by using DMAIC method.
Company mainly focus on 3 major wastes which are Over Production, Over Processing and Defects and try to eliminates form roots.

Method and Tools used
Company has adopted six sigma methodologies at every stage and try to implement the possible improvements. Company was following DMAIC process for this project. First, they have defined the problem of poor productivity and defects in Define stage.
After that they following the M stage mean Measure. They start to collect the current data of every stage to find the root cause and opportunity of improvement. In measure stage they have done as below hierocracy.
1. The Flow through M-Phase-
2. Develop process measures
3. Collect Process data
4. Check data Quality
5. Understand Process behavior
6. Baseline Process Capability
They have also taken data from assembly line to identify the throughput rate by process mapping. Below chart shows the data of Throughput rate in steam iron and Juice mixer assembly line.

Researcher has identified many major point where they found opportunity of improvements. For doing 5-why analysis they have classified following non-value-added activities.
? In Toaster cooling stage
? In Sieve matching and jar matching
? In Iron cooling stage
? In Preheating stage
? In Packaging stage
? In Pop up testing
Researcher has done Why analysis on non-value-added activities and find root cause for each of the activities and that root cause need to take as goal and try to eliminating issue. The question ask for 5 times gives you main root cause. Table shown in below diagram.

In measure phase, Company has taken data of cycle time of every machine and stage of work. Which help to understand the problem in work cycle, also help to simplify the process as per TAKT time and find the possibility for line balancing. They have created chart Time vs Activity. Activities are divided in small part so minor waste can be seen.

In Analyze phase, Researcher has done analysis on data collected and plotted in graphs, first major non-confirming and variation are targeted and analyze. Pareto graph is plotted for period of Jan’07 to July’07 as the root cause analysis activity shown in fig.

In pareto chart is clearly shown the 2 factors have 80% effect on overall causes. Mainly component quality and component un-availability affect the efficiency of production. Other factors are as follow Component not available, breakdown of machine, Kit not issued, Manpower issue and utility problems.
Analyze phase contains following steps
1. Determine potential root cause to measure
2. Analyze data using process stratification
3. Verify root causes with test data
This stage, All the major and minor root cause studied and fleshes out the root cause or causes of the problem.

Each problem statement is identified and analyze by meeting and brain-storming activities.

Forth one is Implementation phase
The Flow through implement phase-
• Assess risk using FMEA
• Design implementation plan
• Communicate to People
• Pilot solution and track improved performance
In this phase, all people need to work together to find the optimum and feasible solution for each root cause and uncover the problems which are identified in analyze phase. In this phase people of company form all the level put their mind in it, this is brainstorming. Researchers has done some testing and experiment of new ideas and successful result is the sign of Kaizen.
Below image shows the elements of Implementation phase

Some of the pilot batch run as trail run and measure and analyze phase is done again to check the satisfactory result as per goal. Budget and return on investment is also key elements it be consider while doing kaizen.
Some of high risk for solution is implement through FMEA. Below table shows the FMEA for current case study.

As seen in the first row, Conveyorisation has 2 failure mode breakdown and misalignment and they suggested recommended action such as proper design evaluation and release, Preventive maintenance plan and proper pilot. Such action leads to prevent failure and continuous workflow.
Last is Control Phase
Implement permanent control methods which are tested and verified
• Track and confirm improved long-term process capability
• Standardize control plan
• Identify leverage opportunities
• Validate final financial results
• Project handout
In this stage observations of improved method is taken and analyze as per plan and find the variation, this phase is long term till new implementation not come in use. In this case study the responsibility is given to respective member to observe and control the process.

KPI Dash board – The Process outputs to be monitored
Below chart shows the activity done in control chart. Productivity chart is Plotted
Manhour vs Time (Quarter) it’s clearly show the peak in curve with time, it’s the
proof of successful improvement in productivity and six sigma’s benefits.

Company has followed all phases of Six sigma and achieve their goal for productivity.

Result
During the DMAIC process, Researcher has understood the current map and find the solution every root cause for every single problem and furthermore company has implement and sustain their improvements which result in Higher productivity, Lower defect, effective utilization of manpower and machine.
X and R bar chart shows that the variation is reduced and the parts are more accurate to dimensions. Also, down time is reduced leads to high machine utilization.

Main three wastes overproduction, over-processing, and defects are successfully eliminated. Higher productivity help to lower the cost of the process. Minor cycle time study and its improved results into an improvement from the root, for instance, RTV application process is repetitive and done by manually. After DMIAC process and improvement company make it automatic which increase the efficiency of the RTV process.
It also impacts on inventory as shown in the graph. Inventory ratio was 4 in the year 2004-05 but after implementation of six sigma in 8 year reaches to the 15. Higher inventory ration help decrease lead time and expense of the company.

Finally, all over the elimination of waste leads to higher profit and fewer wastes. Company gain in its financial budget and expenditure. The company reaches 5 times turnover around 95 crores in 2012 from 21 crores in 2004-05, after implementing Six Sigma.

IF I was Project Lead
This case study shows that, Researcher has used DMAIC methodology under six sigma which gives the positive result. If I was project lean I used “Value Stream Mapping”. This technique helps to you in every aspect for improvement. The electronic company has assembly line and its work on TAKT time as per customer order. Value-stream mapping is a lean-management method for understanding the current state and designing a future state for the series of events that take a product or service from its beginning through to the customer with reduced lean wastes as compared to current map.
Mainly over-production and over-process can be minimized by VSM. The company have many assembly lines and work stations. It can be merge and balance the cycle time by doing single flow. Such things are easy to identify from VSM. Company have problem in Inventory an overabundance of inventory which results in greater lead times, increased difficulty identifying problems such issue is solved by VSM
? Here is an example of VSM

? There is scope of improvement by doing process mapping, over-processing can be minimized by using such technique.
? Also, there is 3rd waste is defects, I would prefer Process Capability. Process Capability analysis helps you how well your process meets specifications and provides insight into how you can improve a poor process. By lowering defect Company can achieve goal towards six sigma and net profit also increase.
? Here is sample of process capability charts.

? VSM, Process mapping and Process capability I would use to eliminate waste and defects. Other tools such as cause and effect diagram, 5’S, Kanban, QFD, SIPOC can be used to improve current scenario of company and achieve zero defect.

Reference
1)A Case Study on Improving Productivity by Reducing Operation Cost as Six Sigma Process Improvement by Elin Appliances
2) Class notes of Lean manufacturing / Process improvement by sardar asif khan (fall 2018)
3) https://www.isixsigma.com
4) https://www.smartdraw.com
5) https://en.wikipedia.org
6) https://www.google.com

Faculty of Engineering, Architecture and Science

Program: Mechanical Engineering/Industrial Engineering

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Course ID: CMN432 Section: 07 Instructor: Dr. Guang Ying Mo, Dr. Glen Farrelly
Course Title: Communication in the Engineering Profession

ASSIGNMENT: Research Report

Submission Date Monday, October 16, 2018
Due Date Monday, October 16, 2018

Student Name Jeremiah Lumbantobing
Student ID xxxx26233
Signature* J.L.
(Note: Remove the first 4 digits from your student ID)

Memo

To:
Toronto City Council
From:
Jeremiah Lumbantobing
CC:

Date:
October 16, 2018
Subject: Research on the Cultural Impact of a SuDS Implementation
Message: Introduction

Dear Toronto City Council,

My name is Jeremiah Lumbantobing. I understand that your committee has had the chance to review my company’s proposal to addressing flash flooding in the City of Toronto with a sustainable urban drainage system (SuDS). My role in this assessment is to examine the cultural impact of implementing a SuDS in the city. The research presented will explore how cultural objectives can be integrated into key stages of the development plan of the SuDS from proposed locations, to ongoing monitoring and evaluation to bringing lasting cultural benefits.
Often when a new urban redevelopment plan is proposed, it can be quick to dismiss the cultural dimension in favour of focusing on the financing of the redevelopment or the economic benefits it can yield. However, research done by van der Borg and Russo (2005) show that culture itself can be considered a full-fledged economic sector that – as any other – enables access to jobs and various other social benefits.
By integrating SuDS solutions such as permeable concrete and green roofs in already existing urban developments, flooding can be mitigated whilst still working within the limited space available in the city (Fraser, 2002). This would however require heavy changes to be made to the current infrastructure. Toronto itself is an eclectic composition of buildings from the 19th century to 21st century with ranging architectural styles. Special considerations need to be made to whether these changes are possible to buildings in historic neighbourhoods and if made, how they would affect their respective communities. The Standards and Guidelines for the Conservation of Historic Places from Parks Canada (2010) will be used as guiding principles for the project regarding the SuDS and historic buildings.

The relationship between historic buildings and development in Toronto
Pelley reports that as of 2017, the City of Toronto claims to have approximately 9000 buildings on the list waiting to be evaluated for a potential heritage designation. The amount of buildings slated for demolition is unable to keep up with the backlogged heritage designation process. In the case of the historic Mimico factory built back in 1917, it was just weeks away from potentially getting a heritage designation but was demolished in September 2016. The loss of historic Toronto buildings can cause public outcry and create tension between developers, city council and community members.

The use of a SuDS for historic buildings
The proposed SuDS aims to add green roofs to as many buildings needed to effectively mitigate flooding throughout Toronto as possible. This can serve as a middle ground between the heritage designation and the demolition of historic buildings. In the example of the University of Toronto’s McLaughlin Planetarium, the vice-president of university operations Scott Mabury noted that building was “not reusable” despite the university’s efforts to find a purpose for it (Pelley, 2017). A SuDS expands the range of possibilities for the reuse of buildings in the city and can limit controversies such as the demolition of the McLaughlin Planetarium.
Visual appeal
The U.S. National Park Service (n.d.) states it must first be assessed if the building can accommodate the addition of a green roof without altering its historic character since the visual appeal of a historic building is of primary importance. The importance of visual appeal can be seen in the case of a house at 2 St. James Ct in historic Cabbagetown which is the subject of a decade-long battle amongst neighbours and between the neighbourhood and the city McKeen, 2017). It’s box-like exterior make it seem out of place amongst Victorian Revival styles of homes. A green roof, its plantings and any other ancillary features such as outdoor furnishings, on a historic building should not be visible from the public right of way (U.S. National Park Service, n.d.). Thus, the same guidance should be used for determining the compatibility of a green roof addition to historic buildings for the SuDS.
Physical challenges for developers
Developers face challenges when working with historic buildings, which can be totally dilapidated or technologically archaic. The 5 St. Joseph Street project from ERA Architects integrated 10 buildings into a new condo and retail development. One of the buildings was on the brink of collapse, displaying signs of catastrophic structural failure such as physically dropping two-and-a-half inches (Pelley, 2017). It must be considered that if not proceeded carefully, a project such as the SuDS could result in damages to a historic building or its surrounding buildings ultimately leading to further loss of historic and cultural significance in Toronto. A structural engineer should first investigate whether the building in its current state is able to support the additional weight that comes with a green roof. If a structural upgrade will be necessary and if it cannot be introduced into the building without damaging historic features or altering its historic character, then a green roof would likely not be appropriate and should not be installed.
The U.S. National Park Service (n.d.) also notes that a flat or slightly-sloped roof is most suitable for a green roof location. Ideally there should be a substantial parapet to help shield the green roof from public view to not throw off the aforementioned historical significance. This could prove particularly difficult to work with in the cases of gable roofs in Victorian Revival styles of buildings common throughout many older parts of Toronto such as Cabbagetown and Little Italy (Fournier Gersovitz Moss Drolet and Associates Architects, Archaeological Services Inc., & Bousfields Inc., n.d.). Gable roofs have several intersecting pitches meaning that if a green roof is even possible on the structure, it would be nearly impossible to shield it from public view.

Cultural Associations
Historic districts of Toronto such as the St. Lawrence Neighbourhood have buildings that serve as identifiable city landmarks and add to the cultural heritage value. Examples of buildings that reinforce and sustain social and cultural activities to the communities it serves include St. Lawrence north and south markets, which have since their inception been focal points for civic activities. St. James Cathedral, as the home of the Diocese of Toronto and the Anglican Church of Canada, is a historic religious anchor located within the St. Lawrence Neighbourhood (Fournier Gersovitz Moss Drolet and Associates Architects et.al., n.d.). The viability of implementing elements of the SuDS into cultural landmarks such as these in Toronto which have remained relatively unchanged since their conception must be considered.

Conclusion
In conclusion, the proposed SuDS will need to factor in the cultural challenges of developing infrastructure in historical districts of Toronto. The benefits of building the SuDS include finding a use for many ageing buildings however that is if they are able to sustain the added weight of roof gardens. Many historical buildings continue to serve their surrounding communities and it must be considered how the added SuDS elements will affect the perception of those buildings.

I hope the research presented was to your satisfaction. Thank you for your time.

Best regards,

Jeremiah

References

Fraser, E. D. G. (2002). Urban ecology in bangkok, thailand: Community participation, urban agriculture and forestry. Environments, 30(1), 37. https://search-proquest-com.ezproxy.lib.ryerson.ca/docview/207672083?pq-origsite=summon

van der Borg, J., & Russo, A. P. (2005). THE IMPACTS OF CULTURE ON THE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF CITIES. A research into the cultural economies and policies of Amsterdam, Bolzano, Edinburgh, Eindhoven, Klaipeda, Manchester, Rotterdam, Tampere, The Hague and Vienna, 7. https://www.wien.gv.at/meu/fdb/pdf/intern-vergleichsstudie-ci-959-ma27.pdf

National Park Service. (n.d.). Green Roofs. U.S. Department of the Interior. https://www.nps.gov/tps/sustainability/new-technology/green-roofs/visual-impacts.htm

Fournier Gersovitz Moss Drolet and Associates Architects, Archaeological Services Inc., & Bousfields Inc.(n.d.). ST. LAWRENCE NEIGHBOURHOOD HERITAGE CONSERVATION DISTRICT PLAN. https://www.toronto.ca/legdocs/mmis/2015/te/bgrd/backgroundfile-84943.pdf

Pelley, Lauren. (2017, Jan 29). Why are beloved Toronto buildings torn down — even when people fight to save them?. CBC News. https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/toronto/why-are-beloved-toronto-buildings-torn-down-even-when-people-fight-to-save-them-1.3956744

McKeen, Alex. (2017, Aug 10). Cabbagetown house is the subject of a decade-long neighbourhood battle. Toronto Star. https://www.thestar.com/news/gta/2017/08/10/his-house-is-the-subject-of-a-decade-long-neighbourhood-battle.html

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