PULMONARY DISEASE                                                          2

                       Chronic obstructive
pulmonary disease is a phrase used to discuss ongoing lung diseases including
chronic bronchitis, emphysema, refractory asthma, etc. (Kleinschmidt, P. 2014,
June 06)  This condition is distinguished
by increasing breathlessness. Some of  the warning of COPD can be  sputum making also immedicable cough,  and awful life threatening breathing situations.
in particular individuals, chronic cough an sputum production are the first
signs that they are at chance for developing the airflow obstruction and
shortness of breath that is trait of this disease. in others, shortness of
breath could be the main suggestion of this problem.  According to the World Health Organization,
COPD was the main cause of death worldwide in 2006. Also millions people pass
away from this condition in countries as diverse as different continentals in
the world. ( Jørgen Vestbo, J. (2013, February 15)

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               Cigarette smoking is, by far,
the most important risk factor for COPD. pipes, cigar, and other class of cigarette
use and indirect disclosure to smoke are also risk factors. further risk factors
for COPD that have been pinpointed include, vulnerability to industrial
pollutions and recurrent lung sickness, airway hyperresponsivenes, and
socioeconomic factors.

     COPD is distinctive by a chronic
inflammatory response throughout the airway, lung tissues, and pulmonary
vasculature. with this chronic inflammatory response, macrophages,
T-lymphocytes, and neutrophils are increased in various parts of the lung. The
inflammatory process of COPD lead to repeated cycles of injury and repair of
the airway wall. The repair



PULMONARY DISEASE                                                       

process results in
structural remodeling of the airway wall with increasing collagen content and
scar tissue formation, which narrows the lumen and produces fixed airway obstruction.

        Regardless of the lung disease
predominating in the patient with COPD, the end result is that progressive
airflow obstruction leads to a chronic ventilation perfusion mismatch with
blood flowing past the unaerated lung, resulting in hypoxia. Depending on the
lung disease present, various symptoms including barrel chest, cyanosis, and
clubbing may occur. (Mosenifar, Z. 2014, October 30)

           Several classes of medications are
used to decrease symptoms and complications of COPD, although they have not
been shown to modify the long-term decline in lung function of such patients.
Medications commonly used include beta-adrenergic agonists, anticholinergics,
corticosteroids, methylxanthines, and a combination of one or more of these drugs.
(NHLB,2017) Bronchodilators are the main pharmacotherapy for COPD. They relieve
bronchospasm, reduce airway obstruction, and improve alveolar ventilation.
Oxygen delivery is actually considered a prescription therapy and is to be
administered with great caution. In advanced COPD, oxygen therapy for more than
15 hours per day has been shown to improve the patient’s quality of life and

        the patient with COPD requires considerable
patient and family teaching. patients do well in a climate with low shifts in cold
or heat, and no extremes of any weather conditions. (Algusti, A. G. 2017,
April).  The patient and family can be
taught to avoid environmental and occupational irritants, how to use
respiratory devices, and how to correctly use oxygen delivery systems. In
addition, the patient can be instructed to have good nutrition and avoid excess
weight gain or loss and to avoid substances, such as nicotine, alcohol, and

PULMONARY DISEASE                                                           4

My patient has a history
of COPD, due to long term smoking, for many years. For treatment my patient is
taking albuterol 2.5 mg and ipratropium bromide. during discharge the patient
and family are educated on smoking cessation and management and treatments for


COPD may not be able to
completely reversible and it is increase in restrictions in breath intakes.  that is not fully reversible. The airflow
limitation is associated with an inflammatory response of the lungs to noxious
gases. There are many causes and smoking is the primary cause. As a health care
worker we should be able to teach the family and the patients on how to care a  patient with this condition, how to manage
and the importance of not smoking.


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