Grasshopper® which is
integrated with Rhino’s 3-D modeling tools is a graphical algorithm editor for
designers exploring various shapes by using generative algorithms (Grasshopper® software
2007). with its algorithmic capabilities, Grasshopper
enables the creation of utilities that go beyond the common palette of commands
of Rhino. In this research, in order to explore the energy usage and daylight,
the Ladybug and Honeybee were utilized which

are an open source environmental plug-in for
Grasshopper-3D. These plug-ins import standard Energy Plus Weather files (EPW),
Radiance, Daysim and Open Studio into Grasshopper and provides a variety of 3D
interactive graphics to support the decision-making process during the initial
stages of design (Ladybug plugin 2012). The optimization
process was carried out by Octopus which is a plug-in for applying evolutionary
principles to

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parametric design and
problem solving (Octopus plugin 2012).

Pre-settings for simulations

Geographic location, climate

Tabriz has a semi-arid climate with regular seasons (Köppen BSk). The annual precipitation is around 280 millimeters, a good
deal of which falls as snow during the winter months and rain in spring and autumn. Tabriz City is located at
(38°04’48” N, 46°17’30” E). averaged value of sunshine is 2616.9 hrs
2000- December 2016)
and averaged value of frost days (Every day in a year with the lowest temperature below
freezing level (0°C / 32 °F) is 81.8 days (Weather
online 2016).

2.3.2 Building geometry

In this paper in order to explore the capabilities of the proposed approach, Tabriz
municipality office building was selected, which
is set at a north-south orientation, and it is a rectangle-shaped office
building including 6 floors plus a
dome which was not evaluated in the process of this research. The three-dimensional view and plan of the building
model are shown in Fig. 1. each floor is divided into 18 perimeter zones and
one core zone. The typical floors (from 1 to 5) are simulated with one
representative floor and is multiplied to represent other typical floors. The
approach for performing the simulations includes the fenestration analysis in
order to determine the optimal fenestration due to the energy efficiency of the
building. In this process, the
evaluation of fenestration was performed separately for each zone. Each modeled
zone is adjacent to the facade to assess the annual
thermal and lighting conditions produced by the facade region. The plan of
zones N2 and N3 at floor 5th are resized, so simulations for these
two zones have done separately.

The first phase of the process consists of modeling
the building and the zone/s that will be simulated. This phase is subdivided in
two different parts: modeling the geometry of the building, modeling the
fenestration patterns. For the case study, the basic floor plate of the
building was modeled in the form of a polyline and was extruded in order to
obtain the 3D model of the building. The parameters that were used to model the
building and its zones were the orientation,
number of floors, floor-to-floor height, thickness of the roof structure, and
rooms (zones). The parameters for simulating windows were window to wall ratio, window
height, number of windows and sill height which were modeled by honeybee
glazing components.


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