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Divorce, polygamy and extramarital affairs have long been been considered as social solutions to infertility just like adoption and fostering. In some cultures, having more than one wife for the sake of having children and also the birth of male heir has been seen in the context of infertility. In some cultures there also exists a custom that forces a sibling (usually an eldest son) to give one of his children to a younger, childless sibling for their inability to have a child. Woman has often been equated with motherhood, and man to fatherhood. The role or status of women is defined by their reproductive capacity and ability. A difficulty with this has been seen to have long lasting unwanted impacts repercussions leading to unstable marriages, domestic violence, stigmatization and in some severe cases, social isolation . Infertile women may often been subjected to forms of physical and psychological violence.
Infertile individuals are generally relegated to an inferior status, and face stigmatization. Hence, childlessness has varied consequences through its effects on societies and on the lifestyle of individuals. Parenthood is personal for some women, whereas by some as a duty.

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