Customer’s perspective on the adoption of solar PV technology
Dissertation submitted to the University of Leicester in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters in MSc Advanced Engineering with Management/ MSc Advanced Mechanical Engineering with Management/ MSc Advanced Electrical and Electronic Engineering with Management
Table of Contents
TOC o “1-3” h z u 1 INTRODUCTION PAGEREF _Toc524526661 h 61.1Research Background and Motivation PAGEREF _Toc524526662 h 81.2Research Question PAGEREF _Toc524526709 h 111.3Understanding the customers Perspective on solar adoption PAGEREF _Toc524526710 h 111.4 Methodology PAGEREF _Toc524526711 h 121.5Significance PAGEREF _Toc524526712 h 121.6 Structure of the relationship between chapters for the thesis PAGEREF _Toc524526713 h 122LITERATURE REVIEW PAGEREF _Toc524526720 h 132.1Introduction to Renewable Energy PAGEREF _Toc524526721 h 142.2Nigerian Energy Crisis PAGEREF _Toc524526726 h 192.3Energy Situation in Nigeria PAGEREF _Toc524526727 h 202.4 Energy consumption Pattern in Nigeria PAGEREF _Toc524526728 h 222.5Current Electricity Situation In Nigeria PAGEREF _Toc524526729 h 233Methodology PAGEREF _Toc524526730 h 283.1 Research design PAGEREF _Toc524526731 h 283.3Selection of Participants PAGEREF _Toc524526732 h 283.4Instrument for Data collection PAGEREF _Toc524526733 h 283.5 Validity and Reliability of the instrument. PAGEREF _Toc524526734 h 283.6Questionnaire Development and Administration PAGEREF _Toc524526735 h 283.7Analysis Method PAGEREF _Toc524526736 h 294RESULTS AND ANALYSIS PAGEREF _Toc524526737 h 314.1Questionnaire Results PAGEREF _Toc524526738 h 315
List of Tables
TOC h z c “Table” Table 1 – average energy and power consumption per capita (OECD/IEA, 2013). PAGEREF _Toc524527694 h 4Table 2 – Nigeria production capabilities per energy source (Energy Commission of Nigeria (ECN), 2003) PAGEREF _Toc524527695 h 7Table 3 – CLASSIFICATION OF PV CELLS PAGEREF _Toc524527696 h 16Table 4: Non – renewable Energy source in Nigeria (Oyedepo S, 2014) PAGEREF _Toc524527697 h 20Table 5 – Indicator of Nigerian electricity access (National bureau of statistics, 2016) PAGEREF _Toc524527698 h 24Table 6 –electricity generation and per capita consumption of few countries (International Energy Agency (IEA), 2009) PAGEREF _Toc524527699 h 24Table 7: questions and reasons behind them PAGEREF _Toc524527700 h 27Table 8 – Pearson correlation (1) PAGEREF _Toc524527701 h 39Table 9 – Pearson correlation (2) PAGEREF _Toc524527702 h 40Table 10 – Pearson correlation (3) PAGEREF _Toc524527703 h 40Table 11 – pearson Correlation (4) PAGEREF _Toc524527704 h 41Table 12 – pearson correlation (5) PAGEREF _Toc524527705 h 42
List of Figures
TOC h z c “Figure” fIGURE1 – Different Energy Sources PAGEREF _Toc524527653 h 6Figure 2 – solar radiation of the world (Federal Ministry of Power, 2016) PAGEREF _Toc524527654 h 8Figure 3 – DIRECT Normal Irradiance (DNI) solar- radiation Nigeria (Federal Ministry of Power, 2016) PAGEREF _Toc524527655 h 9Figure 4 – Solar radiation spectrum (Ranabhat et al., 2016) PAGEREF _Toc524527656 h 14Figure 5 – structure of solar cell (Solarenergybase.com, 2018) PAGEREF _Toc524527657 h 15Figure 6: How solar works (Creativeliving.tv, 2018) PAGEREF _Toc524527658 h 16Figure 7 – Total energy consumption from sources in Nigeria (Oyedepo S, 2014) PAGEREF _Toc524527659 h 21Figure 8 – Major energy consumption statistics of Nigeria by sector (Oyedepo S, 2014) PAGEREF _Toc524527660 h 21Figure 9 – Nigerian energy consumption source IN 2017 (Oyedepo S, 2014) PAGEREF _Toc524527661 h 23Figure 10 – Result of Question 1 PAGEREF _Toc524527662 h 30Figure 11 – result of Question 2 PAGEREF _Toc524527663 h 30Figure 12 – results of question 3 PAGEREF _Toc524527664 h 31Figure 13 – RESULTS OF QUESTION 4 PAGEREF _Toc524527665 h 31Figure 14 – result of question 5 PAGEREF _Toc524527666 h 32Figure 15 – result of Question 7 PAGEREF _Toc524527667 h 33Figure 16 – result of Question 8 PAGEREF _Toc524527668 h 33Figure 17– result Question 9 PAGEREF _Toc524527669 h 34Figure 18 – result of Question 10 PAGEREF _Toc524527670 h 34Figure 19 – RESULTS OF Question 11 PAGEREF _Toc524527671 h 35Figure 20 – result of Question 12 PAGEREF _Toc524527672 h 35Figure 21– result of Question 13 PAGEREF _Toc524527673 h 36Figure 22 – result of question 14 PAGEREF _Toc524527674 h 36Figure 23 – result of Question 15 PAGEREF _Toc524527675 h 37Figure 24 – results Question 16 PAGEREF _Toc524527676 h 37Figure 25 – result of Question 17 PAGEREF _Toc524527677 h 38Figure 26 – results Question 18 PAGEREF _Toc524527678 h 38Figure 27 – scatter plot of question 12 and 7 PAGEREF _Toc524527679 h 39Figure 28 – Scatter plot of question 7 and 10 PAGEREF _Toc524527680 h 40Figure 29 – scatter plot of question 11 and 12 PAGEREF _Toc524527681 h 41Figure 30 – scatter plot of question 12 and 10 PAGEREF _Toc524527682 h 42Figure 31 – Scatter plot for question 12 and 7 PAGEREF _Toc524527683 h 42
The average human body temperature is about 37°C, this means that it the human body has thermal energy. The human body is constantly cooled down by the environment, and thermal energy is lost to the outside. When our body moves it consumes energy, this energy is supplied externally in the form of food. An average grown up body requires about 10 000 Kilojoule every day. This consumption corresponds to an average power of the human body of 115.7 W (Solar energy conversion, 1959). In current society, people consume energy for variety of applications ranging from production of good/foods, transportation to general well-being and improved standard of living etc. Energy is never created but constantly transformed from one form to another. The form of energy might alter in time, but the quantity remains constant. Current society is based on the ability to convert energy from one form to another. The most advanced and technologically developed countries are likewise the ones that consume the most energy per capital as seen in Table 1.
Table 1. shows the average energy per capita and average power per capita of a few countries most of which are technologically advanced(OECD/IEA, 2013). The average person in United States utilizes 1,377 watts which is 11 times what the body needs, compared to the average Nigerian that uses just 14 watts, which is significantly small compared to other countries on this list. It is a common belief between people that resolving energy crisis is amongst the biggest challenge in the world today. However, achieving this is a challenge because of the following: first of all, there is an issue of supply and demand, the demand continues to grow, and the supply is not sufficient enough. The population of the world continues to expand rapidly, presently there are approximately 7.7 billion people in the world. All these people require energy, although some have, most do not. This increases energy demand globally. Further, with developing countries with a huge population such as Nigeria, India and South Africa. The increase in the standard of living, industrialization and the use of technology leads to the increase in energy demand. The increase in the demand of energy also affects the economy. (Aluwiye, 2011)
Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 1 – average energy and power consumption per capita (OECD/IEA, 2013).Country Average energy per capita
(Kwh per person per year) Average power per capita
(watts per person)
China 4,475 510
United States 12,071 1,377
Germany 6,602 753
United Kingdom 4,795 547
Italy 4,692 535
Russia 7,481 854
Japan 7,371 841
Australia 9,742 1,112
Netherlands 6,346 724
France 6,448 736
India 1,122 128
Nigeria 128 14
Energy in this case can be referred to as electricity. The modern world hinges on the use of electronics, which in turn requires some sort of energy to function. More businesses and industries alike need electrical power to function and this also includes the use of electronic devices. Secondly, the energy/ electrical infrastructure heavily depends on the use of fossil fuels such as oil, gas and coal. Fossil fuel is a general term covers burnable geologic deposits of natural materials, gotten from decomposed plants and animals that have changed over time to crude oil, coal, flammable gas, or substantial oils by pressure and heat in the earth’s crust over billions of years. The issue now is that the fossil fuels are utilized much more than they are produced from the natural process. This means that fossil fuels can be considered finite and is not a sustainable source of energy, the more fossil fuel we use the more it reduces and becomes less available. Finally, by burning fossil fuels we produce greenhouse gases such as CO2 and this is responsible for climate change and global warming. Since the industrial revolution, the world has mostly relied on the use of fossil fuels. Before industrialization, the main source of energy was biomass and wood. The energy sources were replenished just as they were consumed. However, before industrialization energy consumption was not sustainable, an example being the use of woods leading to deforestation. Energy is never created but converted from one form to another. (Oyedepo, S.O., 2014)
fIGURE SEQ Figure * ARABIC 1 – Different Energy SourcesFigure 1 shows the different energy sources. It can be seen that the fossil fuels can be transformed to other forms of energy via burning, heat engines are used to convert thermal into mechanical energy. Mechanical energy is converted into electricity using electric generators powered by fossil fuels. These carriers noted above are fossil fuels. They are not sustainable because they are finite, giving how they are currently being used, with not enough time to be replenished. Energy consumption has become an worrying issue because of the increase in population and energy demand. However, environmental issues due to the conventional methods of energy sources such as global warming and change in climate constantly pushes the world towards the adoption of renewable sources of energy. As per statistics released by the world health Organisation (WHO), the effects of climate change have indirectly/directly leads to the death of 150,000 people every year. Certain climate and environmental changes create catalytic events such as floods, droughts and changes to the atmospheric temperature. Upon discovering the negative effects, the use of fossil, the urgent need to find alternative methods were slowly hindered upon the discovery of nuclear energy in the mid-20th century. This energy source has 10 to 20 times the capacity than fossil fuels. However, there are certain drawbacks to the use of nuclear energy such as how dangerous the nuclear components are. In addition, the space required for a nuclear power plant and how it is mainly used for large scale operations and cannot be used for small scale applications like cooking and heating. This very reason makes the use of renewable energy sources more reliable for mankind without the dependence of fossil fuels. Renewable energy sources such as hydro, biomass, solar, wind are alternatives to fossil fuels. Gradually the use of renewable energy sources has been implemented to take the load of fossil fuels in terms of generating power, it is seen as the energy solution for the future based on economic sustainability and environmental considerations (Oyedepo, S.O., 2014)
1.1Research Background and Motivation
At this moment, no technologically advanced country can significantly reduce poverty in the absence of immense energy usage. Most countries with high income and human development index tend to consume the most energy (Afr J Phys, 2009). In Nigeria, whilst energy is meant to be the backbone of development and growth, it is has not reached the desired level. This is down to fact that available energy in the adequate quantity serves as a tradable service for earning national income to serve government program/projects (Isesco, 2005). Due to the increase in population, unavoidable industrialization, increase in agricultural production and the improvement in the standard of living, the demand for energy in Nigeria is definitely increasing. Having been blessed with plenty resources for energy to achieve the goals set out for future and present development, in terms of energy infrastructure in Nigeria, what comes to mind is the electric power systems (Akuru UB, 2009). Hence energy in this case means electricity. Electricity can be simply defined as “the flow of electric charge “. It is also a form of energy that has limitless and diverse applications due to its flexibility and the simplicity of distribution and transmission. The availability of electricity plays an important role in every aspect pf our socio-economic life. Nigeria as a country is very blessed with abundant energy resources. These include non-renewable energy such as natural gas, crude oil, coal and tar; and renewable energy sources such as hydro, biomass, solar and wind. However, solar is the main focus of this project. Despite the numerous energy resources, the country solely depends on oil, gas and firewood for energy. With an estimated population of 190,000,000 the country has only been able to provide little above 4500 MW of electricity (Ejiofor C, 2013). The inadequate supply of electricity in Nigeria hampers the economic growth, socio-political development and ultimately affects the life of the citizens in all areas both rural and urban. Due to the lack of electricity, many if not all Nigerians depend on the use of private generators for power. This means people spend a lot of money on petrol and diesel despite the fact the average Nigerian survives on less than a Dollar a day. This doesn’t mean that the government doesn’t invest in the power sector, recently billions of dollars have been pumped into the power sector but without significant impact. The current source of Nigeria’s energy can clearly be seen from Table 2 below.
Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 2 – Nigeria production capabilities per energy source (Energy Commission of Nigeria (ECN), 2003)Energy source Total in Nigeria (kwh)Percentage in Nigeria
(%)Percentage in Europe(%)Per capita in Nigeria(kwh)per capita in Europe
(kwh)Fossil fuels 73.72 bn80.349.8396.367,994.86Nuclear power0.00 0.000.007.21,185.87Water power17.90 bn 19.523.496.253,829.91Renewable energy 183.61 m0.216.20.992,655.34Other energy sources 0.000.04.30.00696.17Total production capacity 91.8 bn100100493.6016,362.15Table 2 shows that most of the investment in the power sector has focused more on non-renewable energy / fossil fuels. The renewable energy sources such as hydro, wind and solar account for just 0.2% for energy generation. The current investments cannot be held accountable for nation’s poor power sector, considering the fact that Africa as a whole utilizes only 1 percent of renewable energy (Mike finidi, 2014). Despite the fact that Africa has the highest amount of solar radiation.
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 2 – solar radiation of the world (Federal Ministry of Power, 2016)There are a lot of reasons for Africa’s poor power sector performance, especially when the world currently uses over 20% of renewable energy. However, the dependence of fossil fuelled energy has a higher landed cost in most African countries especially Nigeria. The fuel used in power generation for Nigeria in general is around $200 per MWh, which in most cases is more expensive than most renewable energy sources such as solar and wind. Taking a look, a solar radiation in Nigeria it is difficult to understand why the use of solar energy for electricity generation is not used to its potential
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 3 – DIRECT Normal Irradiance (DNI) solar- radiation Nigeria (Federal Ministry of Power, 2016)Fig 3 shows the daily average DNI in Nigeria. The challenges facing electricity production in Nigeria are down to the following government monopoly, unprofessionalism, lack of maintenance, and project abandonment (Federal Ministry of Power, 2016). The impact has resulted into an increase in gap between demand and supply, change in location of industries leading to a high rise in unemployment, negative signal to possible investors, inflation, and regular power outages leading to hardships amidst psychological trauma, among many others. Policies have been created to reform the power sector. However, no change has been noted. For this reason, doing something differently, so as not to end up with the same result is important. The need to give attention to solar energy is important as it is more environmental friendly and becoming cost effective with greater delivery efficiency. Why Nigeria? The fact that only 50% of a population have access to electricity, and only 10% of this number is the rural populace (Federal Ministry of Power, 2016); and the relationship is non-linear bearing in mind that more than half of the overall populations are rural residents. Another interesting fact is Nigeria location and exposure to solar radiation as shown in Figure 3. Nigeria, having a land mass of 923,768sq.km, is located in the West African region. The sunshine duration averages 6.5 hours daily with an average flux of 5.55 kWh per square meter per day, this implies that Nigeria receives 4.851x 1012 KWh of energy per day from the sun. The sun-oriented radiation forces go from 3.5-7.0 kWh per square meter every day expanding from the South toward the North. This vitality source could be accessible for 26% of the day (9.00am-4.00pm). These statistical data points with respect to Nigeria’s geological area obviously show that the possibility to create noteworthy measure of electrical vitality from sun powered vitality is high for Nigeria. however, almost nothing has been done toward this path as the administration is yet to make down to business strides towards creating and actualizing strategies and plans that will fill in as a standard on which sun-oriented vitality usage in Nigeria can flourish (Ikponmwosa, O, 2014)
The purpose of this dissertation is to find out from a customer’s perspective their main concerns and issues for the adoption of solar energy in comparison to the conventional method of electricity in Nigeria. The main question of this research is if solar Photovoltaics (PV) can be beneficial for residential homes in Nigeria. Related questions that arise from this are: comparing the current state of electricity generation (conventional method) in terms of cost and environmental friendliness to solar PV energy. Also finding out if individuals/customers are willing to adopt solar PV technology and their reasons for choosing solar energy, as this is directly linked to the main goal of this project.
1.3Understanding the customers Perspective on solar adoption
Prior to the interest of solar energy in Nigeria, a study on the UK regarding the reasons for the adoption of renewable energy and energy efficiency processes. was conducted. This exploration gathered past quantitative reviews of buyers from the UK, USA and Australia, on demeanours to renewables and hindrances to its adoption. These reviews uncovered that, the fundamental drivers to establishment were natural concern and saving money, while the primary hindrances were capital cost and absence of dependable data or solid brands (Sommerfeld et al, 2017). It was presumed that examination tended to centre around money related, administrative and data obstructions, and drivers. A large number of the past examinations of sun powered PV approach have been founded on statistical information that recognised customers issues, for example, monetary limit, home possession status and education (Byrnes et al., 2013; MacIntosh et al, 2011). In any case, there gives an impression of being limited examination concerning customers motivation for adopting solar PV energy that may give understanding into how consumer behaviour may affect the economy. The information on residential solar adoption, though developing, is still in its beginning periods (Rai, Reeves et al, 2016). There is minimal study from a quantitative aspect on the knowledge and understanding of solar PV and renewable energy products in Nigeria. The examination of past research on customers attitude to solar PV recognized that customer motivation for the adoption of solar PV were for the most part in light of monetary contemplations more than social or natural issues. For this project, in order to understand it from a Nigerians perspective, a comparison would be done between the conventional method of electricity in terms of price and how it affects the environment to solar PV energy(electricity).
This project would mainly include questionnaires to identify the perspective of customers on the use of solar energy and its products. The data would be analysed, and a conclusion would be made in regard to solar PV energy use in Nigeria. This method is the most suitable as it enables to
Interact with individuals (by the use of questionnaires)
Identify the individuals preference in product selection
Developed nations have adopted the use of solar energy in both residential and industrial areas to reduce greenhouse gases as it is important and has a long term economic, social and environmental benefits. To reduce the environmental hazards, the customers have a huge role to play as they influence the use of fossil fuels to feed their energy needs. The research into customer’s perspective is indeed important to find out if solar PV energy would be beneficial to the individual, government and environment. The major significance of this project is the combination of quantitative and qualitative method on the factors that could influence a customer’s take on solar PV energy to examine issues which have not been previously done in research
1.6 Structure of the relationship between chapters for the thesis
This provides a breakdown of how the chapters are written.
396440026469Understanding the customers view on the use of solar PV energy
00Understanding the customers view on the use of solar PV energy
208229777395Energy situation in Nigeria
Energy situation in Nigeria
208168143180Result and analysis of questionnaires
Result and analysis of questionnaires
Results ; Analysis
Results ; Analysis
2081530100965Discussion and future reference
Discussion and future reference
2LITERATURE REVIEW This section gives a brief introduction to renewable energy, the different sources and the review of current energy situation in Nigeria
2.1Introduction to Renewable Energy
Today we principally utilize non-renewable energy sources in our homes for different purposes. It’s easy to utilize coal, oil, and natural gases to meet our daily needs. However, we have a restricted amount of these fossil fuels on earth and the downside is that we are utilising them considerably more quickly than they are being made. This means that eventually they will run out. Even if there was a limitless source of fossil fuels, the negative impacts on the environment will be too severe thus, it would be better to use renewable energy as it is environmentally friendly. Renewable energy is referred to as “clean” because they generate few if any toxins. Burning fossil fuels harms the environment by releasing greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, this reduces the heat from the sun and in turn contributes to climate change and global warming. Scientists prove that the earth’s temperature has increased over the previous century and if this development continues, sea levels will rise, and they predict that floods, heatwaves, droughts and dangerous weather conditions could occur more often. Other pollutants are released into the atmosphere, soil and water when fossil fuels are burned, the pollution as a result from burning causes air pollution which cause asthma, acid rain from nitrogen oxides cause harm for animals and plants. The adoption of renewable energy will aid in energy independence and security. Many countries in the world imports oil, thus as energy demand increases the need for more oil also increase however, replacing oil and other fossil fuel sources example, replacing fuels from oil to fuel from plants could save money. The best part of renewable energy is that it is abundant and the technology for utilizing these sources are improving exponentially. (Sambo, 2008)
The various forms of renewable energy are described below:
A) Hydropower In the United States hydropower is the biggest source of renewable power accounting for 10% of the nation’s electricity. Hydropower plants transform the energy in streaming water into electricity. The most widely recognized type of hydropower utilizes a dam on a river to hold a huge supply of water.
Bioenergy is referred to as the energy resulting from organic matter (biomass) such as plants. Burning wood for a fireplace or for an oven is an example of using biomass energy. Biomass energy is not only derived from trees and plants. Large industries involved in agriculture and construction can use the waste or residual biomass to serve as an energy source.
Biomass can directly be transformed into fuel. This is called biofuels, they contain high energy density. Biofuels can be used to power vehicles and generate electricity. Ethanol is the most common biofuel. It is gotten from the fermentation of carbohydrates such as corn and sugar cane. Biodiesel is another form of biofuels. It can be gotten from vegetable and animal fat. And this can be used as an additive to reduce carbon emissions
D) Geothermal Electricity Production
Geothermal power plants makes use of underground steam from wells bored into the earth for more than a mile. The vapour or boiling water is collected up from the well to power a traditional steam turbine, which controls an electric generator. Typically, the water is then channelled back into ground to revive the repository and complete the sustainable energy cycle. E) Wind Energy
For a long time, individuals have utilized windmills to harness energy from the wind. The present wind turbines, which work differently from windmills, are a significantly more effective innovation. Wind turbine innovation may look straightforward: the wind turns turbine blades around a focal centre point; the centre is associated with a pole, which controls a generator to make electricity.
Solar energy is the energy derived from the sun. it is the cleanest source of energy. Technology exists to convert the radiation from the sun into electricity. There are various systems in which solar energy is utilized for producing electricity. The most effective and common is the solar Photovoltaics.G)Solar Thermal Electricity
Solar thermal systems covert the heat from the sun into electricity. It is mostly utilised in large scale plants that power communities and cities, especially in areas where the sunlight is greater than others. An example of a solar thermal system is concentrating solar power (CSP) to covert solar energy into electricity by using mirrors to reflect the sunlight on a receiver. The receiver transfers the heat into a turbine that generates electricity.
H)SOLAR ELECTRICITY (Solar PV)
Solar electricity or photovoltaic (PV) refers to technology that directly converts daylight into electricity. Solar electricity(PV) has been a major source of power for many applications ranging from residential to industrial use, such as to power electronic devices, space vehicles and agricultural applications. In 1839 Becquerel discovered the impact of Photovoltaics, ever since the influence and potential in terms of generating power in the world today is limitless. Amid the most recent decade, a solid solar electric market has risen for powering urban grid-connected homes and structures because of advances in solar technology alongside worldwide changes in electric industry rebuilding. On a daily basis the suns energy is absorbed by the earth’s atmosphere, the solar spectrum can be seen in Figure 4. The energy absorbed every hour is more than enough to satisfy the high demand in energy globally for a year. Thus, research in the last few years have increased to find the most efficient and cost-effective solar cells to end the high dependency on fossil fuels (Ranabhat et al., 2016)
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 4 – Solar radiation spectrum (Ranabhat et al., 2016) First patented in 1954 (Peters et al, 2012), the solar cell has, in the past decade, developed as a major alternate source of electricity production. Photovoltaics offer consumers the capability to produce electricity in a clean, calm and reliable manner. Photovoltaic systems are made up of photovoltaic cells shown in Figure 5 below, devices that directly converts sunlight into electricity. Since the source of light is the sun, they are called solar cells. The word photovoltaic is derived from “photo, “meaning light, and “voltaic,” which alludes to creating power. Subsequently, the photovoltaic procedure is “producing power from sunlight.” Photovoltaics are frequently mentioned as PV.
INCLUDEPICTURE “https://www.solarenergybase.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/solar-panel-silicon.jpg” * MERGEFORMATINET
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 5 – structure of solar cell (Solarenergybase.com, 2018)PV systems are already being used by people who have access to electricity but yet need to start to live more autonomously or who are concerned about the environment For a couple of applications where little measures of power are required, PV systems are regularly cost justified even when the grid is not located close by. Right when applications require bigger measures of power and are found far from existing electrical cables, photovoltaic systems can much of the time offer the minimum costly, most suitable option. currently used on road lights, entryway openers and other low power errands, factories and homes. photovoltaics is picking up ubiquity around the globe as their cost decays and effectiveness increases
PV technology has a lot of benefits to offer, they are small and highly flexible. Unlike other methods of electricity generation, it can be used anywhere. Also, in comparison to conventional power plants that utilize, nuclear, coal, oil and gas, solar PV technologies have no fuel cost, low maintenance and operations cost. As long as the sun keeps shinning PV will produce electricity indefinitely, PV are environmentally friendly and a sustainable way of generating electricity. Solar cells work by permitting photons or light particles to collide with atoms are release electrons which generate electricity. The PV cells are made up of two semiconductor layer, one positive and the other negative. When the light is absorbed by the semiconductor, this causes a reaction and release electrons to flow from the negative to positive layer thus producing current. To increase the utility a lot of individual soar cells are interconnected together as shown in figure 6 below.
INCLUDEPICTURE “https://creativeliving.tv/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/how-solar-works-diagram.jpg” * MERGEFORMATINET
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 6: How solar works (Creativeliving.tv, 2018)When the sun hits the solar PV panel, the sunlight is converted into DC current. An inverter is introduced to convert the DC current into AC which is then channelled into the desired home or area. Solar PV can be situated both on and off the grid. Various PV cell technologies made up of different materials exist in the world today, using different materials. PV cell technologies are categorized into three groups (generations) as shown in Table 3, contingent on the materials used and level of marketable exposure.
Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 3 – CLASSIFICATION OF PV CELLS FIRST GENERATION MONOCRYSTALLINE ( Mono -c-Si)
POLYCRYSTALLINE ( Poly-c-Si)
AMORPHOUS SILICON CELLS
SECOND GENERATION AMOORPHOUS SILICON ( a- si)
CADIUM TELLURIDE (Cd – Te)
COPPER – INDIUM – SELENIDE (CIS)
COPPER – INDIUM – GALLIUM – DISELENIDE (CIGD)
THIRD GENERATION DYE SENSILISED (DSSC)
The most established solar cell innovation and currently the most famous and effective are solar based cells produced using thin wafers of silicon. These are called mono-crystalline solar based cells. profitable production of c-Si modules started in 1963 when Sharp Corporation of Japan began delivering business/commercial PV modules and introduced a 242-Watt(W) PV . Compared with alternate types of Solar PV, they have a greater competence rating (up to 26%) (Ranabhat et al., 2016) which means you will get more electricity from a given zone of board/panel.
Amongst all the renewable energy sources, solar energy attracted the most interest because of a number of reasons, solar energy is abundant, free and clean compared to other sources, it doesn’t cause noise, or any kind of pollution to the environment (no carbon emission or any other gaseous emission), it does not diminish natural resources or create waste. Solar energy has mainstream advantages such as
Recuperation of degraded land
Reduced transmission lines from electric grids
Increase in national energy independence
Modification and security of energy supply
Hastening of rural electrification in developing countries
Hard to monopolize
Development of quality water resources
No release of greenhouse gases such as CO2, NO2, SO2
it is also easy to integrate with public and private structures without external environmental consequences (Rai GD, 2004). According to the international Energy Agency solar energy could be the largest source of energy by 2050 (International Energy Agency (IEA), 2009). Solar energy is an essential element to achieving sustainable energy supply for the world.
Gradually the use of renewable energy sources has been implemented to take the load of fossil fuels in terms of generating power, it is seen as the energy solution for the future based on economic sustainability and environmental considerations (Okoro, O. and Madueme, T, 2006). The best renewable energy source is the sun (solar energy) due to a number of reasons; first of all, the energy supply is infinite in term of the sun, it also does not require fossil fuels and it is therefore less independent on the limited and expensive natural resource and it doesn’t not cause a negative impact on the environment as much as other forms of electricity production. Solar energy is just energy provided by the sun. The energy is in form of solar radiation, which in turn make generation of solar electricity possible.
Solar energy is the cleanest and most sustainable energy source available. It has the potential to contribute a major proportion of the renewable energy sources such as (hydropower, wind energy, geothermal energy) in the future. it doesn’t have excessive maintenance and management cost; neither does the mechanism involved produce dangerous emissions and it is also easy to integrate with public and private structures without external environmental consequences (Ekwue, A, 1989).
2.2Nigerian Energy CrisisEnergy has dependably been one of the indispensable necessities of human society, and the demand is significantly more prominent than any time in recent memory in both developed and developing nations. Uninterrupted energy supply is very vital in modern society, yet it is also a very big issue. This is supported by the fact that the improvement in the standard of living, and advancement in technology hinges upon the long-term availability of Energy from sources that are cheap, easily accessible and environmentally friendly (Ramchandra P et al, 2011). Today, Energy is generated at central power stations which use coal, oil, water, Gas or fossil nuclear materials as essential fuel sources and also the use of renewable energy sources (Okoro, O et al 2006). Energy is an important factor in every sector of a nation’s economy. The standard of living in any nation can be precisely recognized with the energy per capita consumption (Oyedepo S, 2012).
Energy is very important for the economic, social and political development of any country. Its benefits cannot be overemphasised as it supports, Transportation, Industrial activities, healthcare, communication, education and general well-being of individuals (Oseni, M, 2011). Contrariwise, the shortage of access to energy can add to the level poverty and the lack of energy can aid in the downfall of an economy. Energy is an important tool for the accomplishment of huge numbers of the Millennium Development Objectives, including annihilating extreme hunger and poverty, accomplishing education, fighting diseases and guaranteeing ecological sustainability for adults and children, accessing dependable electricity upgrades their personal satisfaction and increases income. Modern cooking and warming arrangements can change the lives of billions—a lot of whom invest hours gathering and transporting kindling and different types of biomass or spending money on fuel for generators, and every one of whom are presented to air contamination from fuels and C02 emissions, which killed an expected 3.5 million and caused numerous more instances of respiratory, cardiovascular, and different diseases in 2010(Oyedepo S, 2012). The Energy crisis, which has immersed Nigeria for about 3 decades, has been colossal and has generally added to the occurrence of poverty and low standard of living by incapacitating industries and business during this period. The Renewable energy council of Nigeria assesses that power blackouts achieved a total loss of 126 billion Naira (US$ 984.38 million) yearly (Okoro, O et al 2006). Aside from the gigantic loss, it has additionally brought about wellbeing dangers because of the presentation to carbon emanations caused by steady utilisation of ‘fuel generators’ in various family homes and business ventures, joblessness, and high cost of living prompting to deteriorating living conditions. According to the central bank estimate in 2017, Nigeria consumed 316,000 barrels of oil daily, compared to the estimate of May 2018 which is 820,000 (Adekoya LO, et al 1992), it is clear that there is a dramatic increase in oil consumption. The impact of this increase on the economy depending entirely on income from oil is enormous. Additionally, the Department for Petroleum Resources revealed a measure of petroleum of over 78% of the total energy utilization in Nigeria (Department of Petroleum Resources , 2007). A lot of scholars have viewed the availability of renewable energy sources, for the purpose of establishing their potential in the country. Akinbami revealed that the total hydroelectric power capability of the country was assessed to be around 8,824 MW with a yearly electricity generation potential of more than 36,000 GW h. This comprises of 8,000 MW of expansive hydropower innovation, while the staying 824 MW is still little scale hydropower innovation. currently only, 24% and 4% of both substantial and little hydropower potential, respectively, in the country have been exploited (Akinbami JFK, 2001).
Onyebuchi (Onyebuchi EI, 1989) evaluated the possible capability of solar energy in Nigeria with a 5% device conversion proficiency put at 15.0 × 1014 kJ of useful energy yearly. This likens to around 258.62 million barrels of oil comparable every year, which relates to the present national annual petroleum product generation in the nation. This will likewise add up to around 4.2 × 105 GW/h of power production yearly, which is around 26 times the ongoing yearly power generation of 13,000 GW/h in the nation. In their work, Chineke and Igwiro demonstrate that Nigeria gets ample solar energy that can be conveniently exploited with a yearly average daily solar radiation of around 5.25 kW h/m2/day. This fluctuates between 3.5 kW h/m2/day at the coastal zones and 7 kW h/m2/day at the northern regions. The normal measure of daylight hours everywhere throughout the nation is assessed to be around 6.5 h. This gives a normal yearly solar energy of 1,934.5 kW h/m2/year; in this manner, through the span of a year, an average of 6,372,613 PJ/year (roughly 1,770 TW h/year) of solar radiation falls on the whole land territory of Nigeria (Chineke T, et al 2008).
This is around 120,000 times the total yearly average electricity produced by the Power Holding Organization of Nigeria (PHCN). Nigeria gets around 4909.212 kWh of energy from the sun which is equal to around 1.082 million tons of oil; this is around 4000 times the present crude oil generation every day, and furthermore put at around 13 thousand times of daily flammable gas production based on energy unit. With a 10% moderate change proficiency, the solar energy source available is around 23 times more than the expected total energy demand for Nigeria by 2030(). (Energy Commission of Nigeria, 2005). Nigeria’s irregularity of supply and weakening in conventional energy sources, joined with very extreme ecological issues and continuous unpredicted financial and people growth makes it urgent to explore and adopt alternate forms of energy. Although continuing to increase the production, transmission and supply capacity of the present conventional sources through the development of energy systems and programs that improve social, economic and eco-friendly performance; it is also important to focus on alternatives to non – renewable energy sources which among other things is capital intensive, and the technology winds up out of date within a short period of time subsequently requiring serious repairing of the machineries or better still a total overhaul of the present technology with a current innovation prompting to a misuse of funds. Be that as it may, the response to the present complication might be discovered in renewable and sustainable energy forms both for rural and urban zones of the country. To improve the formative pattern in the country, there is urgent need to help the current inconsistent energy division with a maintainable source of electricity supply through solar energy.
2.3Energy Situation in Nigeria
Nigeria is the Giant of Africa in terms of energy. It is the continent’s most productive oil-producing country, which, alongside Libya, represents 66% of Africa’s unrefined petroleum holds. It is second to Algeria in the production of gaseous petrol (Sambo AS, 2008). A large portion of Africa’s bitumen and lignite reserves are found in Nigeria. In its blend of non-renewable energy resources, Nigeria is just unparalleled by some other countries in the world. It isn’t astounding; in this manner, that energy exported is the backbone of the Nigerian economy. Also, essential energy resources overwhelm the country’s industrial raw materials endowment Nigeria has several energy resources in abundant quantity. The country has the world’s 6th biggest crude oil reserves (Fagbenle RO, et al 1994). Nigeria has an assessed oil reserve of approximately 36.2 billion barrels. It is progressively an imperative gas area with demonstrated stores of about 5,000 billion m3. Coal and lignite reserves are assessed to be about 2.7 billion tons, while tar sand reserves represent about 31 billion barrels of oil equal. The distinguished hydroelectricity locales have an expected limit of around 14,250 MW. Nigeria has huge biomass assets to meet both customary and present-day energy use, including electricity generation (Okafor ECN, et al 2010) There has been a free market activity as a result of the inadequate development and inefficient management of the energy sector. The supply of electricity, the country’s most used energy resource, has been sporadic (National Bureau of Statistics, 2007) Table 4 below shows the energy conventional energy sources of Nigeria.
Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 4: Non – renewable Energy source in Nigeria (Oyedepo S, 2014)Resource type
Natural units Energy units. Production Domestic utilization
1 Crude oil 36 million barrels 4.76 2.5 million barrels/day 820,000 barrels/day
2 Natural gas 187 trillion SCF 4.32 7.5 billion SCF/day 3.4 billion SCF/day
3 Coal and lignite 2.73 billion tonnes 1.92 Insignificant Insignificant
4 Tar sands 31 billion barrels equal to oil 4.22 — —
5 Hydropower 11,250 MW 1.11 (every 31 days) 1500 MW daily 1500 MW daily
The circumstance in the rural sectors of the nation is that most end people rely upon fuel wood. Fuel wood is utilized by more than 70% of Nigerians living in the rural territories (Oyedepo S, 2014). Nigeria consumes more than 50 million tons of firewood yearly, which surpasses the recharging rate through different afforestation programs. Obtaining firewood for household and business use is a noteworthy reason for desertification in the parched zone states and erosion in the southern piece of the nation. The rate of deforestation is around 350,000 ha/year, which is equal to 3.6% of the present region of backwoods and forests, though reforestation is just at around 10% of the deforestation rate (Ighodaro CAU (2010) The rural territories, which are for the most part not accessible due to terrible road conditions, have restricted access to customary energy for example, electricity and oil-based commodities. Oil based products, such as, fuel and gas are obtained in rural areas at an inflated price of about 150% of the official pump costs. The daily needs of the rural areas are satisfied by the use of wood for cooking and heating. The sale of fuel, electricity and gas is basically impacted and organized by the Federal Government or private organizations – The Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) on account of fuel and cooking gas, and the PHCN on account of electricity (Famuyide OO, et al 2011). With the rebuilding of the power segment and the impending privatisation of the electricity industry, clearly for calculated and financial reasons particularly in the privatised power sector, rural areas that do not have access to the grid as well as have low consumption or low power buy potential won’t be appealing to private power investors. Such regions may remain unserved into the far-off future (Sambo AS, 2009)
In the interim, electricity is required for basic human needs and development such as borehole water, human services, media communications, and learning. Electricity is needed to reduce poverty and improve the standard of education, healthcare, security and living conditions. The deficiency of dependable electricity supply has not just rendered the rural people socially and technologically back-ward, it also contributes to the untapped economic opportunity. Nigeria is honoured with ample sustainable power source assets, for example, solar, wind, biomass, and little hydropower possibilities. The most suitable answer would be to implement renewable energy into the electricity supply mix (Williams CE, 1998)
2.4 Energy consumption Pattern in Nigeria
Energy consumption pattern in the world today demonstrates that Nigeria is amongst the lowest rating countries in terms of energy consumption. Nigeria is experiencing a lack of energy supply because of the increase in energy demand, which should be expected from a developing country. Incomprehensibly, the country happens to be blessed with renewable energy sources. Nigeria is also fortunate with fossil fuel sources such as crude oil, natural gas, lignite, and coal (Okafor ECN, et al , 2010). Majority of Nigerians consume energy from biofuels: such as firewood. This is depicted in Figure 7.
Nigeria’s energy consumption can be divided into different categories: industrial, transport, business, agriculture, and residential (Energy Commission of Nigeria (ECN), 2003) The residential sectors represent the biggest segment of energy usage in the country – around 86%. As shown in Figure 8. This number is high due to the low development of the other segments
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 7 – Total energy consumption from sources in Nigeria (Oyedepo S, 2014)933450000
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 8 – Major energy consumption statistics of Nigeria by sector (Oyedepo S, 2014)The major energy consumption in residential homes include cooking, lighting, and the use of electrical equipment or electronic devices. Cooking represents a stunning 91% of residential energy use, lighting around 6%, and the rest of the 3% can be credited to the utilization of essential electrical machines or devices. The most popular energy resource for domestic and business utilizes in Nigeria are firewood, charcoal, kerosene, cooking gas and electricity . In Nigeria, among the urban inhabitants, kerosene and gas are the significant cooking resources. Most of the general population depend on kerosene stoves and wood for local cooking, while very few use gas and electric cookers
Nigeria is mostly made up of rural areas and the individuals, whose requirements are frequently essential, in this way depends to a vast degree on firewood as their source of fuel or energy. It has been evaluated that 86% of rustic family units in Nigeria depend on fuel wood as their main source of energy . A fuel wood supply/request awkwardness in a few sections of the nation is currently a genuine danger to the vitality security of the rustic networks . The lack of energy in these areas is simply down to the fact that the country produces less than the normal amount of electricity to satisfy the nation and fuel products such as, kerosene, petrol and diesel are too expensive for the average Nigerian. (Oyedepo S, 2014)
2.5Current Electricity Situation In NigeriaPower/Electricity is an essential instrument that drives industrialization, advancement in technology, engineering transformation and economic growth all over the world. The current situation of Nigeria’s power control segment is one that has opposed basically every exertion made to revive it from its condition of flimsiness. A major concern is “if there will be any stable and cost-effective electricity in the country”. Most people socially and technologically aware are positive that it could be possible to achieve stable and cost-effective electricity, provided that other forms of electricity energy resources are put in place to support or replace the conventional sources of electricity which is currently the main stay. A transition from the conventional sources of electricity to renewable energy is important for the development of the country, even though recent developments indicate that the Nigerian government is backsliding in adopting renewable energy technologies to improve the economy and well-being of the citizens. It cannot be stressed enough how electricity plays a major role in today’s society. Electricity has been in use for more than 100 years. Electricity has made it possible to cook, wash, power homes, industries etc. it is also used to power electronic devices which Is used in everyday activities such as transportation and communication. Today the access to electricity strongly decides the standard of living, this is because development hinges on technology which needs electricity. Irrespective of the obvious benefits of electricity in 2017 an estimate of 1.8 billion people still have no access to electricity. From Figure 9 it can be seen that about 90% of electricity is generated by fossil fuels. Therefore, contributing largely to greenhouse effects. Solar energy the lowest at 3% despite it being the most sustainable source.
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 9 – Nigerian energy consumption source IN 2017 (Oyedepo S, 2014)There are issues confronting the further advancement of creating techniques in view of any of the conventional sources. The increase in utilization of oil and gas in places not favoured with indigenous reserves is especially suspicious on the grounds that provisions are costly, quickly lessening, and politically directed (Rai GD, 2004 ) Hydro-electric power generation is limited to land reasonable zones where reserves of coal, oil and gas exist. These energy sources albeit directly abundant are limited and not renewable. The production of electricity in Nigeria has varied over the last 40 years from coal, gas, oil to hydro-electric power stations. Among these energy sources, the advancement of hydro-electric power and gas systems/plants have outweighed every other method of generating electricity in Nigeria. This, in any case, is a result of how easy they can be harnessed and operated at minimal cost. However, the electricity generation and utilisation pattern in the country has been on the downhill for the past 40 years (Council for Renewable Energy, Nigeria (CREN), 2009)
Customary and sufficient Electricity supply is the sign of an established economy. Whichever country lacks in Energy supply risks the danger of missing out om potential investment (Rai GD, 2004). Electricity is the crucial instrument that drives the financial advancement of each nation and any country that aspires to advance and disregards the power segment to is doomed to fail. It is the key origin of our progress.
Nigeria produces around 2.5 million barrels of oil every day, yet a large number of its residents live without power/electricity. Nigeria is the most populated country in Africa with an estimated 190 million people. However, just around 40% of the general population have access to the electric grid. The general population who really have control, encounter troubles around 80% of the time (Council for Renewable Energy, Nigeria (CREN), 2009). One of the greatest challenges in Nigeria currently is the issue of the delivery of stable, satisfactory, affordable and productive electric supply by the government or private organisations to residential, commercial, institutional and industrial customers in the nation. Nigeria is confronting an issue of insufficient supply of power from the general population utilities which has led to a situation where the country is floundering in darkness and the economy is immature irrespective of the vast natural energy sources. In this way, the whole residents of the nation have been put into what could be designated “Power Confine” (Rai GD, 2004 ) and only the people, foundations, companies, ventures; organisations and so on who have the budgetary means or muscle have freed themselves from the enclosure by producing power (mostly by the use of fuel generators) to address their issues. Nigerians spend nearly $5 billion a year on fuel to produce their own Electricity, this by itself keeps numerous people in an endless loop of poverty.
According to (International Energy Agency (IEA, 2009), approximately only 50.6% of the populace have access to electricity from table 5. About 10% of the rural populace have access to electricity services as shown in table 5 below.
Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 5 – Indicator of Nigerian electricity access (National bureau of statistics, 2016)Indicator North Central North East North West South East South South South West
2017 population(million)* 28 27 47 23 28 38
Population density(000/km2) 0.7 0.4 1.3 2.9 1.8 3.9
Average poverty rate(%) 66 76 75 57 53 50
Literacy rate (%) 58 51 56 81 82 85
Electricity Access(%) 44 23 36 68 80 73
Contrasting the per capita power production with that of different nations, Nigeria has the lowest among the nations, as appeared in Table 6, while the USA has the most elevated per capita electricity generation. Despite the commitment of electricity to the aggregate total GDP, it is apparent that Nigeria is facing a few issues. The insufficiency of the electric subsector to productively take care of the demand for electricity in Nigeria has been affected by various issues, which has proven detrimental to economic development.
The electricity system in Nigeria centres on Power Holding Company of Nigeria (PHCN), which represents around 98% of the total electricity production (Energy Commission of Nigeria (ECN), 2003). However, in the last few years, PHCN has been privatised into several distribution, transmission and generation companies,
Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 6 –electricity generation and per capita consumption of few countries (International Energy Agency (IEA), 2009)Country Population (millions) Generation capacity (MW) Per capita consumption (kW)
USA 326 813,00 3.2
Cuba 25 4,000 0.38
UK 64 76,000 1.1
Iraq 38 10,000 0.42
South Korea 50 52,000 1.10
Nigeria 187 ;4,000 0.03
Egypt 94 18,000 0.27
South Africa 54 45,000 1.02
Electricity generation by numerous organizations, for example, the Nigerian Electricity Supply Corporation relies on thermal power for generation of electricity not at all like former PHCN, which depends on both hydroelectric and thermal power. However, electricity is additionally a consumer of fuel and energy, for example, fuel oil, flammable gas, and diesel oil. The significance of these energy sources and fuel for creating electricity has been diminishing as of late. Be that as it may, hydropower which is generally less expensive than other conventional sources have become more critical. (National bureau of statistics, 2016). However, recently, the Power Authority has created electricity by a variety of means example: combining both thermal and hydro energy. All the electricity, distribution, and stations are distinctively linked by a transmission sector prevalently known as the national matrix. The total power generated across the nation is pooled into the National Control Center, Osogbo, from where power is transmitted to all parts of Nigeria.
The national electric grid comprises of 14 power stations (3 hydro and 11 thermal) with an total production of around 8,039 MW. The inefficiency and in addition the lacking facilities to support power supply additionally have been significant reasons for the expanding bridge between the demand and the supply of electricity. Out of the approximated 8,039 MW of introduced limit in Nigeria, not in excess of 4,500 MW is ever delivered (Oyedepo S, 2014). This is because of poor upkeep, change in water levels driving the hydro plants, and the loss of power in transmission. Aside from serving as important factor in job creation in Nigeria, electricity is likewise the core of operations and in this way the motor of development for all divisions of the economy (Odularu GO, et al 2009). It has been indirectly re-reverberated that electricity utilization is emphatically identified with economic. This implies electricity utilization diversely affects a scope of financial exercises and importantly the expectations for everyday comforts of Nigerians. Despite the above pitfalls that had rendered public power supply in Nigeria inefficient and unreliable, the pattern of its usage has increased significantly over the previous years. Electricity usage by the modern segment has been genuinely static on account of the inconsistent nature of the general electricity supply system in the nation. Accordingly, numerous organizations have made plans to produce their own electricity by means of fuel/diesel generators, prompting enormous exchange costs on their products and services.
Studies and encounters have demonstrated that electricity generation in the nation has been troubling and unfit to compare with that of smaller African nations. Makers Association of Nigeria (MAN) gave the accompanying execution pointers in Table 4 for Nigeria’s power segment contrasted and those of some different nations (Fagbenle RO, et al 2006).
The information for some Southern Africa Development Community (SADC) nations, for example, Botswana and South Africa are tantamount to those of the USA and France. The execution of the Nigerian power segment on the International Best Practices similar rating is despicable. Maybe, no other segment feels it as much as the industrial, residential and business division where some eminent universal organisations and associations are on self-produced power 24 hours a day for the 365 long periods of every year (UNIDO (United Nations Industrial Development Organization), 2001 ). The study demonstrated that, producers created around 72% of the aggregate power required to run their production lines. Nigerians currently rely on the use of conventional sources such as diesel, petrol, coal and kerosene for daily use. Diesel and petrol mostly used to power generators for electricity. This make Nigerians overly dependent on fuel. The side effect of using fuel generators is the noise and Air pollution it emits during use. More advanced countries such as UK, China, Russia and USA have successfully implanted the use of off and on the grid solar PV energy.
This chapter discusses the method and procedure used in the study for …. It consists of the research design, the area of study, the population of the study, sampling technique, validity and reliability of the questionnaire, administration and method of data analysis.
3.1 Research design
The study was a descriptive survey which investigated the awareness of solar energy, comparing it in terms of price to the conventional method of electricity generation. The survey is considered suitable, since it investigates things as they are. The questionnaires for this project was constructed using Google Forms mainly to enable easy access for participants
3.2Area of study.
The area of study is Nigeria, consisting of 36 states, it is the most populous country in Africa. One of the greatest challenge is electricity, more than half the population do not have access to electricity. This study was designed for residential individuals and it is not restricted to urban or rural settlements.
3.3Selection of Participants
The questionnaires were distributed to random individuals that utilize electricity from the national grid and by any other means. The questionnaires were sent via twitter and email. 40 responses were targeted for this project. However, a total of 60 responses were gotten during the time frame.
3.4Instrument for Data collectionThe instrument used for the study is a researcher developed questionnaire of 18 items titled adoption of solar energy. The questionnaire is shown in Appendix A.
3.5 Validity and Reliability of the instrument.The instrument was subjected to the scrutiny of the researcher’s Supervisor for content validation. His comments were incorporated in the final draft of the questionnaire. This was considered adequate for the study.
3.6Questionnaire Development and Administration
The questionnaire was administered to the individuals in Nigeria by email and twitter to post the questionnaires and receive the responses, Table 7 presents the questions and reasons behind the deployment of such questions.
Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 7: questions and reasons behind themQuestions Rationale/reason
1 How would you describe your property? Profile of customers
2 How many people currently live in your household? Profile of customers
3 how do you get Electricity? To find out how individuals obtain electricity
4 Are you aware of solar energy and technology? To measure the awareness of solar energy
5 what is your estimated daily supply from PHCN (hours) To measure how long people get electricity daily
6 Do you pay electric bills 7 How much is your estimated monthly electric bill? (Naira) Figure amount
8 how often do you use generators daily? To know how long generators are used daily
9 when do you use Generators at home To know when generators are being used, to figure out when individuals consume the most electricity in a day
10 What is your Estimated weekly expense on fuel for Generators (Naira) To find out on an average how much is spent on fuel for generators
11 what is your estimated monthly income (Naira) 12 How much are you willing to spend on solar electricity monthly ?(Naira) To have a rough estimate of how much people are willing to pay for solar energy
13 For your price how long do you expect electricity on a daily basis (hours ) ? Considering how much people make, this is to find ut how long they expect electricity for the price they want to pay
14 what are the factors that would make you consider the adoption of solar energy ?To find out the factors that would want to make people use solar pv energy
15 What are the factors that could hinder your adoption to solar energy ?To find out the factors that could hinder the adoption of solar pv energy by individuals
16 Would you make solar energy your primary source of energy ?To know if people would want to use solar energy as their main energy source
17 Would you recommend it to others ?18 Choice between cheaper or consistent power without interruption To find out which is more important to people
The questionnaire would be analysed with a bar and pie chart depending on the type of question and each response. Correlation analysis would be conducted on few questions to find out the relationship between them. This correlation analysis makes it possible to identify the and strength of relationship.
1 indicates a strong positive relationship.
-1 indicates a strong negative relationship.
A result of zero indicates no relationship at all.
The latter indicates a negative relationship while the other a positive relationship. The formula used for the Pearson correlation is shown below
r=n?xy-(?x)(?y)n(?x2-?x2-n(?y2-?y2 Equation SEQ Equation * ARABIC 1
4RESULTS AND ANALYSISThis chapter presents the result of study and data analysis. This is carried out in the order of the research questions formulated. The questionnaires were deployed in Nigeria with a target of 40 responses and 60 responses were received. After carefully analysing and comparing each response, the analysis can be described in term of a bar chart or pie chart and each graph can reflect the perspective of the respondents.
Question 1. How would you describe your property ?87630014160500
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 10 – Result of Question 1This question identifies the type of houses the customers stay in. majority of the responders stay in flats/apartments. 24 out of 60 (40%) respondents reside in Flats/Apartments. 10 reside in bungalows and the lowest count are both duplex and detached house which makes up from 12% and 11% respectively.
Question 2.How many people live in your household?
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 11 – result of Question 2
This graph identifies the number of people living with each respondent. The highest number per house hold is 13 and the least is none. This means electricity consumption increase as the number of people per house increase.
Question 3. How do you get electricity?
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 12 – results of question 3This result explains how electricity is supplied or generated in homes, 57 out of 60 get their electricity from the national grid. Amongst them, 38 people also make use of personal generators and only few (7) make use of renewable energy sources. This means that more than 75% of respondents own generators for private production of energy. Also customers have little interest in renewable energy sources as only 7 out of 60 utilize renewable energy.
Question 4. Are you aware of solar energy?
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 13 – RESULTS OF QUESTION 4This result is self-explanatory, majority of the respondents (87 %) are very aware of solar energy and just 1 % is slightly unaware. Using a liker scale from (1 – 5) where
1= very aware
2= slightly aware
4= slightly unaware
5= very unaware
1 is generally positive and 5 is generally negative depending on the response.in this case this is a positive chart. Meaning customers are very aware of solar energy.
Question 5. What is your daily estimated supply from PHCN (hourly) ?
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 14 – result of question 5
This shows the estimated daily supply of electricity from the national grid (PHCN). Majority of the respondents (42%) have access to less than 5 hours daily and only 3% have access to about 20 – 23 hours electricity. Amongst all responses none actually have 24 hours of electricity daily. This means that despite the combination of self-produced electricity and that of PHCN consumers are not satisfied with the current situation.
Question 7. What is your estimated monthly Electric bill ?
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 15 – result of Question 7
This response shows that majority of the correspondents(52%) spend between 10,000 to 30,000 naira on a monthly basis for electricity supplied from the national grid.
Question 8. How often do you utilize generators daily (hourly)?
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 16 – result of Question 8
The results explains that customers mostly use generators for about less than 9 hours which accounts for 70 % of the respondents. 5% make use of generators 24 hours a day. This result supports question 5 as it proves that customers are not getting sufficient electricity.
Question 9. When do you use generators at home?
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 17– result Question 9
Most of the correspondents make use of generators at night. The second most utilize it for 24 hours daily. This means that electricity is not supplied consistently at night by the PHCN.
Question 10. What is your Estimated weekly expense on fuel for Generators (Naira) ?
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 18 – result of Question 10This result means Half of the correspondents spend less than 10,000 naira per week on fuel, the second highest spends between 10,000 and 30,000 naira on a weekly basis. This is quite a lot compared to the monthly expense on electricity from the national grid. This means that individuals are not satisfied with the electricity from the national grid which in turn leads them to spend double the amount on fuel, thus contributing to a difficult economy and inflation of fuel prices.
Question 11. How much are you willing to pay for monthly solar electricity
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 19 – RESULTS OF Question 11This result suggests a rough idea of how much customers would be willing to pay for solar electricity on a monthly basis. Majority of the correspondents opted for between 10,000 to 30,000 naira. This is around the same amount spent on electricity monthly.
Question 12. What is your estimated monthly income ?
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 20 – result of Question 12
This result identifies the range of the estimated monthly income of the customers. With the majority earning above 110,000 naira.
Question 13. For your price per month for solar electricity, how long do you expect power(hours)?
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 21– result of Question 13For the amount proposed to utilize solar energy, one would expect the overall answer to be 24 hours however, just 55% of the correspondents chose 24 hours, while 43% chose between 12-23 hours. This means that customers are restricted because of financial capability.
Question 14. what are the factors that would make you consider the adoption of solar energy?
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 22 – result of question 14this graph suggests that the most important factor for adoption is cost, followed by the environmental benefits. This means that people are concerned about the environment and they would be willing to adopt different measures as far as it is cost effective, environmentally friendly and has good return upon the investment of their money.
Question 15. what are the factors that could hinder your adoption of solar energy ?
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 23 – result of Question 15This graph suggest that cost and efficiency of the product are the main factors that the customers chose to be the hindrance to the adoption of solar energy.
Question 16. Which is more important?
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 24 – results Question 16This chart represents the choice between cheaper power and consistent power without interruption, majority of the respondents opted for consistent power (90%) as supposed to cheaper power.
Question 17. Would you make Solar Energy your Primary source of Electricity?
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 25 – result of Question 17
This chart represents the number of people willing to make solar energy the primary source of electricity, with 58% opting for solar and 32 % indecisive. This means that upon the introduction of solar energy customers would be willing to adopt and make it the primary source of electricity as long as it effective and cost efficient.
Question 18. Would you recommend Solar Energy to others?
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 26 – results Question 18
This chart represents the number of people willing to recommend solar energy. With 78% choosing ‘yes’, 20 % indecisive and just 2% opting for ‘no.’ This also means the customers would adopt and recommend solar energy if it meet their requirements. are in favour of solar energy.
The correlation analysis was undertaken to show the relationship between the following findings of the questions:
5 and 8
7 and 10
11 and 12
12 and 10 (estimated per month)
12 and 7
Correlation between the estimated supply from PHCN(A) and how long Generators are used(B)
Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 8 – Pearson correlation (1)Estimated supply from PHCN (A) How long Generators are used (B)
This is a positive relationship between A and B, it also means that an increase in A would likely result to a decrease in B because, if more electricity is provided more residents would use less generators.
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 27 – scatter plot of question 12 and 7Correlation between estimated monthly cost of electricity from the grid and estimated monthly cost of fuel for generators
Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 9 – Pearson correlation (2)Estimated monthly cost of fuel for generators (A) Estimated monthly cost of electricity from the grid (B)
This is a negative relationship between A and B, this means. That the money spent on fuel for generators monthly is much more than what is spent on electricity from PHCN. Figure 28 below shows the scattered plot of A and B. also means that the use of generators is more reliable than the supply of electricity from the national grid PHCN.
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 28 – Scatter plot of question 7 and 10
Correlation between how much respondents are willing to spend on solar PV electricity(A) and estimated monthly income (B).
Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 10 – Pearson correlation (3)Estimated expense for solar energy (A) Estimated monthly income(B).
This is a negative relationship between A and B, this means that compared to their income only few people are willing to spend more on solar electricity. This is a very conflicting find with the response from question 17, as the majority of the respondent’s opted for consistent power without interruption as opposed to cheaper power. This can be seen from Figure 24. Figure 29 below shows the scattered plot of A and B.
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 29 – scatter plot of question 11 and 12
Correlation between estimated income(A) and estimated monthly expense on fuel for generators (B)
Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 11 – pearson Correlation (4)Estimated income (A) Estimated monthly expense on fuel (B)
This is a positive relationship. This means that due to the shortage of other electricity sources respondents consume fuel for generators irrespective of the high expenses compared to the monthly expenses from PHCN. This proves that most customers can only afford what they can in terms on expenses on fuel. Consumers only purchases the necessary amount of fuel that can last for their personal satisfaction.
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 30 – scatter plot of question 12 and 10Correlation between Estimated monthly income(A) and estimated monthly bill for electricity from national grid (B)
Table SEQ Table * ARABIC 12 – pearson correlation (5)Estimated monthly income(A) Estimated monthly bill from PHCN (B)
This is a negative relationship, as many of the respondents rarely get enough electricity from the grid to influence their monthly income. This means that customers spend much money on fuel for generators compared to their monthly electricity bill.
Figure SEQ Figure * ARABIC 31 – Scatter plot for question 12 and 7Discussion
The above results shed some light on how consumers view solar energy in regard to the current conventional method of electricity generation.
Why they are important, how they correlate with literature, reasons behind results
Consumers are very aware of solar energy in Nigeria. However, the little development and application of solar energy technology coupled with the current state of electricity pollution has caused the consumers to overly depend on fuel. According to this study, consumers spend much more money on fuel for personal electricity production compared to the amount spent paying bills on a monthly basis. This is because the daily supply from the National grid is barely sufficient to fulfil the need of every member of a household. Consumers are also willing to pay more money for solar electricity provided that it is efficient and sufficient enough to meet their energy needs. This study also identifies the reasons behind the customers possible adoption of solar energy; The cost of installation, environmental friendliness and a good return on investment. Consumers also consider power without interruption to be more important than cheaper power, this means provided there is an environmental friendly method of producing power, consumers are willing to pay for the required amount of electricity needed.
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