Cubing is a strategy whose application was inspired by the shape of a cube which has six sides or faces. It requires someone to see a topic from six different perspectives. Consequently, this strategy is a way of approaching and treating a topic, or combining methods of understanding. To apply cubing is to answer according to the six stages or sides. Cahyono, 2012
Teachers use actual cubes with various questions or activities written on each side or face of the cube. Each lesson should have more than one cube. It can be differentiated by readiness, learning profile or interest of the students, thus, each side of the cube should have a different command. Gayle Gregory and Carolyn Chapman (2013) said that cubing is a technique for seeing a topic from six points of view. Cubes can be created with activities in a particular area of the multiple intelligences for example verbal/linguistic, bodily/kinesthetic, or intrapersonal intelligence.
In an article in Adventures in Guided Math, Cubing was defined as a differentiation strategy where students roll a cube that has different activities or tasks printed on each face of the cube. Students does the activity that appears on the face of the cube he/she rolled. When using cubes with low graders, if desired, they are allowed to roll a second time. For slow learners, it is important to allow students to simply select a task of choice from the cube without rolling. It would depend on their preferences. The number of times students roll the cube will depend on the setting and time allotted and the number of activities or tasks to complete. Depending on the desired outcome, students can work independently, with partners, or in small groups.
How are cubes designed?
First, design each cube to encompass activities or tasks at varying levels of thinking (Blooms Taxonomy, Webb’s Depth of Knowledge, etc.). Second, create more than one cube. Each cube designed according to student readiness, interest and or learning profile. According to C.Tomlinson, readiness defines as a student’s entry point in relationship to a particular skill or concept. Interest refers to a student’s preference for a particular skill or concept. Learning profile shows how a student learns best. Decide on the number of cubes. Begin by creating cubes. Make a list of 6 questions or activities for the students to answer or do, as related to the concept and skill. The first question started at a low level and each advanced to higher levels. The number of questions or tasks created at each level depends on the students. Masters, 2015
In a book, Effective Content Reading Strategies to Develop Mathematical and Scientific Literacy, cubing assists students in understanding key topics or concepts from several perspectives. The cube delivers a guide for students to consider mathematical concepts and ideas from different vantage points. It reinforces students’ critical analysis of text. Each side or faces of the cube has a different perspective written on it. Students explore a topic from each of the six perspectives.
Implementing the strategy.
1. Students working in small groups will toss the cube.
2. Students explore the topic using the perspective that comes up on top of the tossed cube. It is imperative for the group to record their ideas. The teacher may tell the groups when to start their discussion and when to toss the cube again.
3. The cube is tossed again. It follows the discussion of a new perspective. The cube will be tossed again, if a perspective that has already been discussed comes up.
4. The process continues until all six different perspectives are discussed in the groups.
5. Whole class discussion can be made to combine key ideas from each of the six perspectives. This is important in encompassing students’ ideas. All the fundamental information from the lesson is discussed and developed.
Zebua (2016) defined Cubing Strategy as an interactional strategy that required the students to consider a concept from a variety of perspective. On his thesis entitled ” The Effect of Cubing Strategy on the Students’ Ability in Writing Skill at the Eight Grade”, the researcher treated Cubing Strategy to the experimental group and Conventional Strategy to the control group. Then, the researcher gave the post-test to both of the groups to get the result of the treatment. He used parametric statistic in examining the hypothesis. Based on the result of the data computation, it implies that the mean value of experimental group was higher than the mean of the control group. Thus, the researcher encouraged to apply Cubing Strategy to increase the students’ ability in writing skill.
Ellerbrock (2011) explained Cubing as another strategy used with differentiated instruction. It contains tasks, ideas, or concepts presented in six different ways. Cubes can be differentiated by readiness, interest, or learning profiles. Students roll the cube a number of times and are required to do the tasks on the top face of the cube. This makes a range of learning tasks or activities throughout a lesson. Cubing is used to produce more interesting activities for the students that is engaging and motivating.
On the research entitled ” The Effect of Cubing Strategy in the Achievement of the Basic Seventh Grade Students in Mathematics and their Attitudes Towards it’s Learning”, based on the study findings, the researcher mentions benefiting from the advantages that the cubing strategy presents in remodeling teaching instruction. There is a significant difference between students’ achievement and attitude towards Mathematics in the experimental (Cubing Strategy) and Control Group (Traditional Method), hence the results were in favor of the experimental group. Shawahany, 2016
In a research paper conducted by Linasari (2016), by using cubing strategy students can be more creative. He agreed to Alteri (2010) that cubing can be considered to help students look at a topic from different perspective. The purpose of the tasks is to help students discuss each of the six perspective (describing, associating, comprising, applying, analyzing and arguing).