by: Maritoni S. Noleal

At the end of the report, the students are expected to:
a. Identify trends in crafting research and extension proposal
b. Craft research and extension proposal
c. To value the significance of crafting research and extension proposal
A research proposal is a document written by a researcher that provides a detailed description of the proposed program. It is an outline of the research process that gives a reader a summary of the information discussed in a project.
Proposal writing is its own genre, and just like you wouldn’t write a short story and wait to introduce the main character until the end, there is an expected order that you should follow in a research proposal:
1. Introduction
A good, sharp introduction arouses his/her interest in the project and sets the reader’s mood. Students should avoid adding too much information in the introduction to maintain focus and relevance.
It usually a narrative written in one to three paragraphs that succinctly answers the following four questions:
• What is the main research problem?
• What is the topic of study related to that problem?
• What methods should be used to analyze the research problem?
• Why is this important research, what is its importance, and why should someone be reading the proposal care about the outcomes of the proposed study?

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2. Background
This is where you explain the context of your proposal and describe in detail why it’s important since the reader has no idea what is your research all about.
To that end, while there are no hard and fast rules, you should attempt to address some or all of the following key points:
• State the research problem and give a more detailed explanation about the purpose of the study than what you stated in the introduction.
• Show the rationale of your proposed study and clearly indicate why it is worth doing. Answer the “So What? question i.e., why anyone should care.
• Identify the major problems or issues to be addressed by your research. Always note how your proposed study builds on previous assumptions about the research problem.
• Explain how you plan to go about conducting your research. Clearly identify the key sources you intend to use and explain how they will contribute to your analysis of the topic.
• Set the boundaries of your proposed research in order to provide a clear focus also state not only what you will study, but what is excluded from the study.
• If necessary, provide definitions of key concepts or terms.

3. Literature Review
Literature review should be connected to the background and significance of your study is a section of your proposal devoted to a more deliberate review and synthesis of prior studies related to the research problem under investigation.
The five C’s of writing a literature review may be help you to create RRL.
• Cite, to keep the focus on the literature pertinent to your research study.
• Compare the various arguments, theories, methodologies, and findings expressed in the literature: what do the authors agree on? Who applies similar approaches to analyzing the research problem?
• Contrast the various themes, methods, strategies, arguments, approaches and controversies expressed in the literature: what are the major areas of disagreement, controversy, or debate?
• Critique the literature: Which arguments are more persuasive, and why? Which approaches, findings, methodologies seem most reliable, valid, or appropriate, and why? Pay attention to the verbs you use to describe what an author says/does e.g., asserts, demonstrates, argues, etc..
• Connect the literature to your own area of research and investigation: how does your own work draw upon, depart from, synthesize, or add a new perspective to what has been said in the literature?

4. Research Design and Methods
Research Designs and Methods section must be well-written and logically organized because you are not actually doing the research, yet, your reader has to have confidence that it is worth pursuing.
When doing the methods, you will use the following:
• Specify the research operations you will undertake and the way you will interpret the results of these operations in relation to the research problem.
• Keep in mind that a methodology is not just a list of tasks; it is an argument as to why these tasks add up to the best way to investigate the research problem.
• Anticipate and acknowledge any potential barriers and pitfalls in carrying out your research design and explain how you plan to address them.

5. Conclusion
This part is one of the importance or significance of in your proposal because provides a summary of the entire study.
Someone reading this section should come away with an understanding of:
• Why the study should be done,
• The specific purpose of the study and the research questions it attempts to answer,
• Why the researcher come up with these designs and methods that were used
• The potential implications emerging from your proposed study of the research problem, and
• A sense of how your study fits within the broader scholarship about the research problem

6. Citations
You must cite the sources you used in composing your proposal. This section can take two forms, so consult with your professor about which one is preferred.
• References — lists only the literature that you actually used or cited in your proposal.
• Bibliography — lists everything you used or cited in your proposal, with additional citations to any key sources relevant to understanding the research problem.


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